When will your heedlessness end?

heedlessness

All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of all the worlds. May His peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, his household and companions.

Fellow Muslims! Fear Allaah as he should be feared, for the best provision is piety:

“And fear a day when you will be returned to Allaah. Then every soul will be compensated for what it earned and they will not be wronged (i.e. treated unjustly).” (Al-Baqarah: 291).

Brothers in faith! Mans happiness and success lies in his repentance to his Lord and his steadfastness upon the law of Allaah and His religion for the entire duration of his life. It does not lie in being distracted from working towards his eternal future by the urge to acquire the beauties of this world. This is the way of the righteous and pious people whom Allaah describes as that which translates as:

“Men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts them from the remembrance of Allaah and performance of prayer and giving of zakaah. They fear a Day in which the hearts and eyes will (fearfully) turn about.” (An-Noor: 37).

Righteous people, despite their business and worldly engagements, do not allow that to stand between them and remembrance of Allaah’s greatness; a remembrance that makes them constantly fear Him and worship Him as He should be worshipped.

This is how the true believer should be. They should spend their days in performing righteous deeds and seek the abode of the Hereafter with whatever Allaah gives them. This is because they know that this life is only a means to achieve the everlasting life and perpetual prosperity. They know this world is not an end in itself but only a finite place in which both the pious and sinful have their daily bread. They know that, however long one may live, they will eventually grow old and die. They also understand this world’s insignificance and know that it is worthless in the sight of Allaah and that it is only a bridge which people cross over to reach Paradise or Hell. Allaah says that which translates as:

“Know that the life of this world is but amusement and diversion and adornment and boasting to one another and competition in increase of wealth and children – like the example of a rain whose (resulting) plant growth pleases the tillers; then it dries and you see it turned yellow; then it becomes (scattered) debris. And in the Hereafter is severe punishment and forgiveness from Allaah and approval. And what is the worldly life except the enjoyment of delusion?” (Al-Hadeed:  20).

The Messenger  of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“The life of this world is sweet and green (i.e. as tempting as fruits) and Allaah makes you  succeed one another in it, so that He may observe what type of deeds you will do therein. Beware of this life and beware of (the temptation of) women.” (Muslim). He also said:“If this world was worth a mosquito’s wing in the sight of Allaah, He would not have given a disbeliever a single gulp of water.” (Al-Tirmidhi).

There are in these Qur’aanic verses and Ahadeeth the clearest picture of the worthlessness of this world and an exhortation to mankind to fulfil their objectives here. They are meant to worship Allaah, reform their souls, be pious, abstain from lusts and base desires and not become deceived with the beauties of this life. It is however, pathetic that many are in the state of forgetfulness and delusion so much so that the aspiration of acquiring the beauties of this world has overpowered them and sins and evil deeds have covered their hearts. They live as if there is no other life except that of this world. When the love of this life conquers one’s heart, it makes one forget the remembrance of their Lord and if that happens then they become deserving of the wrath of Allaah.

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, while explaining the evil of the love of this world and its danger to one’s religion said:

 “Two hungry wolves sent into the midst of a flock of sheep are less destructive to the sheep than man’s covetousness for money and fame are to his religion”.

It is said that, “Love of this world is the mother of all sins”. When Imaam Hasan  Al-Basri observed the greediness of the people of his time for the wealth of this world, he exclaimed: “Do these people believe in the Day of Reckoning? No, I swear by the Master of the Day of Judgment!”

A sign of the domination of love of this world over the hearts is when one does not have concern for anything other than the search for prestige and fame, even if that is to be at the expense of one’s religion. Some have concerns only for amassing wealth even if they have to get it from dubious or forbidden means.

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam warned against this when he said:

“I swear by Him in whose Hand is Muhammad’s soul! A man may swallow a morsel of food from a haraam source the consequence of which will be that no good deed will be accepted from him for forty days”.

He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam also said:

“The fire of hell is entitled to any piece of flesh that has been nurtured by ill-gotten food”.

Brothers in faith! There are many Muslims amongst those who have been overwhelmed by the love of this life, who so yielded to their whims, desires and evil inclinations that they drank alcohol, took drugs, committed adultery, fornication and other evil acts. They are encouraged to perpetrate these evil acts by the modern mass media. This makes these malevolent things fair-seeming to them. It allures them with temptation and incites them to revolt against good moral values until many Muslims, especially the youth, begin to imitate their enemies in all aspects of their life. The following refers to them:

“Then, there came after them successors (i.e. later generations) who neglected prayer and pursued desires; So they face ghayy (a valley in hell).”(Maryam: 59) 

So, it is their excessive passion for this life that will be the cause of them being thrown into hell.

Fellow Muslims! It is the unrestrained love for this life and preferring it to the Hereafter that weakened the Muslim Ummah in contemporary times and made disgrace, dissension and hypocrisy her lot. It is this predicament that gave her enemies the power to dictate many of her affairs, seize her wealth, conquer her lands and severely persecute the Muslims. A vivid example of this is what happens presently in Palestine where Jewish usurpers carry out criminal acts of aggression against our brothers and desecrate lives, properties and mosques. This is an actualisation of what the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam prophesied when he said:

“When you trade by ‘Eenah[1]’ (a form of ribaa), get yourselves occupied with cattle and become pleased with cultivation  – and abandon Jihaad; Allaah will impose an ignominy on you which he will  not remove until you go back to your religion”.

Imaam Ahmad and Abu Daawood also reported that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

‘Beware the nations all over the world shall join forces against you as diners gather around their bowl of food’. The companions asked: ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Is that because we will be few in number then?’ He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: ‘No, rather you will rather be many, but you will only be as (voluminous and as worthless as) the scum after a flood. The fear of you shall be removed from the hearts of your enemies and weakness will be put into your hearts’. The companions asked: What is the weakness? he answered: “To love this life and detest death”.

Therefore, let all of us desist from heedlessness and preferring this life to the Hereafter. Allaah has condemned the heedless and praised the pious when He said that which translates as: 

“So as for he who transgressed. And preferred the life of this world, Then indeed, Hellfire will be (his) refuge. But as for he who feared the position of his Lord and prevented the soul from (unlawful) inclination, Then indeed, Paradise will be (his) abode”. (An-Naaziaat: 37-41).

Brothers in Islaam! Fear Allaah

“And let not the worldly life delude you and be not deceived about Allaah by the chief deceiver (Satan). Indeed Satan is an enemy to you; so take him as an enemy. He only invites his party to be among the companions of the Blaze.” (Faatir: 5-6).

Brothers in faith! Fear Allaah as he should be feared and die not except as Muslims. Do not be among those who have been overpowered by negligence and overwhelmed by Satan thereby making them forget the remembrance of Allaah and the abode of the Hereafter. They are so deceived by false hopes that they do not think of anything other than the pleasure of this world regardless of the source from which that pleasure may come.

“They know what is apparent of the worldly life, but they, of the Hereafter, are unaware”. (Ar-Room: 7).

 Why can you not reflect, O slaves of Allaah, and learn lessons from the misfortunes and calamities that Allaah has inflicted on people throughout history? Can you not ponder over the fate of the dead who are escorted to their burial places daily? These people who are our fathers, our mothers, our children, kings, paupers, believers, disbelievers, righteous and sinful? These people are all buried in graves and will all be resurrected on the Day of Judgment,

“The Day they will emerge from the graves rapidly as if they were, toward an erected idol, hastening. Their eyes humbled, humiliation will cover them. That is the Day which they had been promised!” (Al-Ma`aarij: 43-44).

 Fellow Muslims! Fear Allaah and be dutiful to Him and remember that you will one day leave this world for your everlasting abode which will be either Paradise or Hell. Get yourselves prepared for that day:

“So he who is drawn away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise has attained (his desire). And what is the life of this world except the enjoyment of delusion?” (Aal-‘Imraan: 185). 


[1] An Example of ‘Eenah is where a person requires, for example, $100. In order to get this from a lender, he does not take the conventional interest route of simply borrowing $100 at a set interest rate. Rather, he will arbitrarily purchase an item from the lender for, say, $150 and not pay its price but  IMMEDIATELY re-sell the item, back to the lender for, say, $100 and take that $100 in cash. Therefore he has the $100 that he originally sought and will pay back the outstanding $150 at a later date. This of course is exactly the same as ribaa but in addition, it involves attempting to circumvent the prohibition of ribaa and therefore it is actually worse.        

Islam and Human Rights

shariah-human-rights-vs-west

I. Human Rights, the West and Islam

Before I discuss the human rights in Islam I would like to explain a few points about two major approaches to the question of human rights: the Western and Islamic. This will enable us to study the issue in its proper perspective and avoid some of the confusion which normally befogs such a discussion.

The Western Approach:

The people in the West have the habit of attributing every good thing to themselves and try to prove that it is because of them that the world got this blessing, otherwise the world was steeped in ignorance and completely unaware of all these benefits. Now let us look at the question of human rights. It is very loudly and vociferously claimed that the world got the concept of basic human rights from the Magna Carta of Britain; though the Magna Carta itself came into existence six hundred years after the advent of Islam. But the truth of the matter is that until the seventeenth century no one even knew that the Magna Carta contained the principles of Trial by Jury; Habeas Corpus, and the Control of Parliament on the Right of Taxation. If the people who had drafted the Magna Carta were living today they would have been greatly surprised if they were told that their document also contained all these ideals and principles. They had no such intention, nor were they conscious of all these concepts which are now being attributed to them. As far as my knowledge goes the Westerners had no concept of human rights and civic rights before the seventeenth century. Even after the seventeenth century the philosophers and the thinkers on jurisprudence though presented these ideas, the practical proof and demonstration of these concepts can only be found at the end of the eighteenth century in the proclamations and constitutions of America and France. After this there appeared a reference to the basic human rights in the constitutions of different countries. But more often the rights which were given on paper were not actually given to the people in real life. In the middle of the present century, the United Nations, which can now be more aptly and truly described as the Divided Nations, made a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and passed a resolution against genocide and framed regulations to check it. But as you all know there is not a single resolution or regulation of the United Nations which can be enforced. They are just an expression of a pious hope. They have no sanctions behind them, no force, physical or moral to enforce them. Despite all the high-sounding ambitious resolutions of the United Nations, human rights have been violated and trampled upon at different places, and the United Nations has been a helpless spectator. She is not in a position to exercise an effective check on the violation of human rights. Even the heinous crime of genocide is being perpetrated despite all proclamations of the United Nations. Right in the neighbouring country of Pakistan, genocide of the Muslims has been taking place for the last twenty- eight years, but the United Nations does not have the power and strength to take any steps against India. No action has even been taken against any country guilty of this most serious and revolting crime.

The Islamic Approach:

The second point which I would like to clarify at the very outset is that when we speak of human rights in Islam we really mean that these rights have been granted by God; they have not been granted by any king or by any legislative assembly. The rights granted by the kings or the legislative assemblies, can also be withdrawn in the same manner in which they are conferred. The same is the case with the rights accepted and recognized by the dictators. They can confer them when they please and withdraw them when they wish; and they can openly violate them when they like. But since in Islam human rights have been conferred by God, no legislative assembly in the world, or any government on earth has the right or authority to make any amendment or change in the rights conferred by God. No one has the right to abrogate them or withdraw them. Nor are they the basic human rights which are conferred on paper for the sake of show and exhibition and denied in actual life when the show is over. Nor are they like philosophical concepts which have no sanctions behind them.

The charter and the proclamations and the resolutions of the United Nations cannot be compared with the rights sanctioned by God; because the former is not applicable to anybody while the latter is applicable to every believer. They are a part and parcel of the Islamic Faith. Every Muslim or administrators who claim themselves to be Muslims will have to accept, recognize and enforce them. If they fail to enforce them, and start denying the rights that have been guaranteed by God or make amendments and changes in them, or practically violate them while paying lip-service to them, the verdict of the Holy Quran for such governments is clear and unequivocal:

Those who do not judge by what God has sent down are the dis Believers (kafirun). 5:44 The following verse also proclaims: “They are the wrong-doers (zalimun)” (5:45), while a third verse in the same chapter says: “They are the evil-livers (fasiqun)” (5:47). In other words this means that if the temporal authorities regard their own words and decisions to be right and those given by God as wrong they are disbelievers. If on the other hand they regard God’s commands as right but wittingly reject them and enforce their own decisions against God’s, then they are the mischief-makers and the wrong-doers. Fasiq, the law-breaker, is the one who disregards the bond of allegiance, and zalim is he who works against the truth. Thus all those temporal authorities who claim to be Muslims and yet violate the rights sanctioned by God belong to one of these two categories, either they are the disbelievers or are the wrong- doers and mischief-makers. The rights which have been sanctioned by God are permanent, perpetual and eternal. They are not subject to any alterations or modifications, and there is no scope for any change or abrogation.

II. Basic Human Rights

The first thing that we find in Islam in this connection is that it lays down some rights for man as a human being. In other words it means that every man whether he belongs to this country or that, whether he is a believer or unbeliever, whether he lives in some forest or is found in some desert, whatever be the case, he has some basic human rights simply because he is a human being, which should be recognized by every Muslim. In fact it will be his duty to fulfil these obligations.

1. The Right to Life

The first and the foremost basic right is the right to live and respect human life. The Holy Quran lays down:

Whosoever kills a human being without (any reason like) man slaughter, or corruption on earth, it is as though he had killed all mankind … (5:32)

As far as the question of taking life in retaliation for murder or the question of punishment for spreading corruption on this earth is concerned, it can be decided only by a proper and competent court of law. If there is any war with any nation or country, it can be decided only by a properly established government. In any case, no human being has any right by himself to take human life in retaliation or for causing mischief on this earth. Therefore it is incumbent on every human being that under no circumstances should he be guilty of taking a human life. If anyone has murdered a human being, it is as if he has slain the entire human race. These instructions have been repeated in the Holy Quran in another place saying:

Do not kill a soul which Allah has made sacred except through the due process of law … (6:151)

Here also homicide has been distinguished from destruction of life carried out in pursuit of justice. Only a proper and competent court will be able to decide whether or not an individual has forfeited his right to life by disregarding the right to life and peace of other human beings. The Prophet, may God’s blessings be on him, has declared homicide as the greatest sin only next to polytheism. The Tradition of the Prophet reads: “The greatest sins are to associate something with God and to kill human beings.” In all these verses of the Quran and the Traditions of the Prophet the word ‘soul’ (nafs) has been used in general terms without any distinction or particularization which might have lent itself to the elucidation that the persons belonging to one’s nation, the citizens of one’s country, the people of a particular race or religion should not be killed. The injunction applies to all human beings and the destruction of human life in itself has been prohibited.

‘The Right to Life’ has been given to man only by Islam. You will observe that the people who talk about human rights if they have ever mentioned them in their Constitutions or Declarations, then it is clearly implied in them that these rights are applicable only to their citizens or they have been framed for the white race alone. This can clearly be gleaned by the fact that human beings were hunted down like animals in Australia and the land was cleared of the aborigines for the white man. Similarly the aboriginal population of America was systematically destroyed and the Red Indians who somehow survived this genocide were confined to specified areas called Reservations. They also penetrated into Africa and hunted down human beings like wild animals. All these instances go to prove that they have no respect for human life as such and if they have, it is only on the basis of their nationality, colour or race. Contrary to this, Islam recognizes this right for all human beings. If a man belongs to a primitive or savage tribe, even then Islam regards him as a human being.

2. The Right to the Safety of Life

Immediately after the verse of the Holy Quran which has been mentioned in connection with the right to life, God has said: “And whoever saves a life it is as though he had saved the lives of all mankind” (5:32). There can be several forms of saving man from death. A man may be ill or wounded, irrespective of his nationality, race or colour. If you know that he is in need of your help, then it is your duty that you should arrange for his treatment for disease or wound. If he is dying of starvation, then it is your duty to feed him so that he can ward off death. If he is drowning or his life is at stake, then it is your duty to save him. You will be surprised to hear that the Talmud, the religious book of the Jews, contains a verse of similar nature, but records it in altogether different form. It says: “Whoever destroyed a life of the Israelite, in the eyes of the Scripture, it is as if he destroyed the whole world. And whoever protected and saved one life of the Israelite, in the light of the Scripture, it is as if he saved the whole world.” Talmud also contains the view that if a non-Israelite is drowning and you tried to save him then you are a sinner. Can it be given a name other than racialism? We regard it as our duty to save every human life, because it is thus that we have been enjoined in the Holy Quran. On the other hand, if they regard it necessary to save the life of a human being at all, it should be the life of an Israelite. As far as other people are concerned, according to this view, they do not seem to be human enough to deserve protection of their persons. In their literature the concept of ‘Goyim’ for which the English word ‘Gentile’ and the Arabic word ummi (illiterate) is used, is that they enjoy no human rights; human rights are reserved only for the children of Israel. The Quran has mentioned this belief of the Israelites and quotes the Jews saying: “There is no blame on us (for anything we may do) with regard to the unlettered folk (i.e. the ummi)” (3:75).

3. Respect for the Chastity of Women

The third important thing that we find in the Charter of Human Rights granted by Islam is that a woman’s chastity has to be respected and protected under all circumstances, whether she belongs to our own nation or to the nation of an enemy, whether we find her in the wild forest or in a conquered city; whether she is our co-religionist or belongs to some other religion or has no religion at all. A Muslim cannot outrage her under any circumstances. All promiscuous relation- ship has been forbidden to him, irrespective of the status or position of the woman, whether the woman is a willing or an unwilling partner to the act. The words of the Holy Quran in this respect are: “Do not approach (the bounds of) adultery” (17:32). Heavy punishment has been prescribed for this crime, and the order has not been qualified by any conditions. Since the violation of chastity of a woman is forbidden in Islam, a Muslim who perpetrates this crime cannot escape punishment whether he receives it in this world or in the Hereafter. This concept of sanctity of chastity and protection of women can be found nowhere else except in Islam. The armies of the Western powers need the daughters of their nation to satisfy their carnal appetites even in their own countries, and if they happen to occupy another country, the fate of its women folk can better be imagined than described. But the history of the Muslims, apart from a few lapses of the individuals here or there, has been free from this crime against womanhood. It has never happened that after the conquest of a foreign country the Muslim army has gone about raping the women of the conquered people, or in their own country, the government has arranged to provide prostitutes for them. This is also a great blessing which the human race has received through Islam.

4. The Right to a Basic Standard of Life

Speaking about the economic rights the Holy Quran enjoins upon its followers:

And in their wealth there is acknowledged right for the needy and destitute. (51:19)

The words of this injunction show that it is a categorical and un- qualified order. Furthermore this injunction was given in Makkah where there was no Muslim society in existence and where generally the Muslims had to come in contact with the population of the disbelievers. Therefore the clear meaning of this verse is that anyone who asks for help and anyone who is suffering from deprivation has a right in the property and wealth of the Muslims; irrespective of the fact whether he belongs to this nation or to that nation, to this country or to that country, to this race or to that race. If you are in a position to help and a needy person asks you for help or if you come to know that he is in need, then it is your duty to help him. God has established his right over you, which you have to honour as a Muslim.

5. Individual’s Right to Freedom

Islam has clearly and categorically forbidden the primitive practice of capturing a free man, to make him a slave or to sell him into slavery. On this point the clear and unequivocal words of the Prophet (S) are as follows: “There are three categories of people against whom I shall myself be a plaintiff on the Day of Judgement. Of these three, one is he who enslaves a free man, then sells him and eats this money” (al-Bukhari and Ibn Majjah). The words of this Tradition of the Prophet are also general, they have not been qualified or made applicable to a particular nation, race, country or followers of a particular religion. The Europeans take great pride in claiming that they abolished slavery from the world, though they had the decency to do so only in the middle of the last century. Before this, these Western powers had been raiding Africa on a very large scale, capturing their free men, putting them in bondage and transporting them to their new colonies. The treatment which they have meted out to these unfortunate people has been worse than the treatment given to animals. The books written by the Western people themselves bear testimony to this fact.

The Slave Trade of Western Nations:

After the occupation of America and the West Indies, for three hundred and fifty years, traffic in slave trade continued. The African coasts where the black-skinned captured Africans were brought from the interior of Africa and put on the ships sailing out from those ports, came to be known as the Slave Coast. During only one century (from 1680 to 1786) the total number of free people who were captured and enslaved only for British Colonies amounts, according to the estimate of British authors, to 20 million human beings. Over the period of only one year (1790) we are told that 75,000 human beings were captured and sent for slave labour in the Colonies. The ships which were used for transporting the slaves were small and dirty. These unfortunate Africans were thrust into the holds of these ships like cattle right up to the top and many of them were chained to the wooden shelves on which they could hardly move because these were only eighteen inches apart, kept one on top of the other. They were not provided with suitable food, and if they fell ill or were injured, no attempt was made to provide them with medical treatment. The Western writers themselves state that at least 20% of the total number of people who were captured for slavery and forced labour perished during their transportation from the African coast to America. It has also been estimated that the total number of people who were captured for slavery by the various European nations during the heyday of the slave trade comes to at least one hundred million. This is the record of the people who denounce Muslims day and night for recognizing the institution of slavery. It is as if a criminal is holding his finger of blame towards an innocent man.

The Position of Slavery in Islam:

Briefly I would like to tell you about the position and nature of slavery in Islam. Islam tried to solve the problem of the slaves that were in Arabia by encouraging the people in different ways to set their slaves free. The Muslims were ordered that in expiation of some of their sins they should set their slaves free. Freeing a slave by one’s own free will was declared to be an act of great merit, so much so that it was said that every limb of the man who manumits a slave will be protected from hell-fire in lieu of the limb of the slave freed by him. The result of this policy was that by the time the period of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs was reached, all the old slaves of Arabia were liberated. The Prophet alone liberated as many as 63 slaves. The number of slaves freed by ‘Aishah was 67, ‘Abbas liberated 70, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar liberated one thousand, and ‘Abd al-Rahman purchased thirty thousand and set them free. Similarly other Companions of the Prophet liberated a large number of slaves, the details of which are given in the Traditions and books of history of that period.

Thus the problem of the slaves of Arabia was solved in a short period of thirty or forty years. After this the only form of slavery which was left in Islamic society was the prisoners of war, who were captured on the battlefield. These prisoners of war were retained by the Muslim Government until their government agreed to receive them back in exchange for Muslim soldiers captured by them, or arranged the payment of ransom on their behalf. If the soldiers they captured were not exchanged with Muslim prisoners of war, or their people did not pay their ransom money to purchase their liberty, then the Muslim Government used to distribute them among the soldiers of the army which had captured them. This was a more humane and proper way of disposing of them than retaining them like cattle in concentration camps and taking forced labour from them and, if their women folk were also captured, setting them aside for prostitution. In place of such a cruel and outrageous way of disposing of the prisoners of war, Islam preferred to spread them in the population and thus brought them in contact with individual human beings. Over and above, their guardians were ordered to treat them well. The result of this humane policy was that most of the men who were captured on foreign battlefields and brought to the Muslim countries as slaves embraced Islam and their descendants produced great scholars, imams, jurists, commentators, statesmen and generals of the army. So much so that later on they became the rulers of the Muslim world. The solution of this problem which has been proposed in the present age is that after the cessation of hostilities the prisoners of war of the combatant countries should be exchanged. Whereas Muslims have been practising it from the very beginning and whenever the adversary accepted the exchange of prisoners of war from both sides, it was implemented without the least hesitation or delay. In modern warfare we also find that if one government is completely routed leaving her in no position of bargaining for the prisoners of war and the winning party gets its prisoners easily, then experience has shown that the prisoners of war of the vanquished army are kept in conditions which are much worse than the conditions of slaves. Can anyone tell us what has been the fate of the thousands of prisoners of war captured by Russia from the defeated armies of Germany and Japan in the Second World War? No one has given their account so far. No one knows how many thousands of them are still alive and how many thousands of them have perished due to the hardship of the Russian concentration and labour camps. The forced labour which has been taken from them is much worse than the service one can exact from slaves. Even perhaps in the times of ancient Pharaohs of Egypt such harsh labour might not have been exacted from the slaves in building the pyramids of Egypt, as has been exacted from the prisoners of war in Russia in developing Siberia and other backward areas of Russia, or working in coal and other mines in below zero temperatures, ill-clad, ill-fed and brutally treated by their supervisors.

6. The Right to Justice

This is a very important and valuable right which Islam has given to man as a human being. The Holy Quran has laid down: “Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression” (5:2). “And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is nearest to heedfulness” (5:8). Stressing this point the Quran again says: “You who believe stand steadfast before God as witness for (truth and) fairplay” (4:135). This makes the point clear that Muslims have to be just not only with ordinary human beings but even with their enemies. In other words, the justice to which Islam invites her followers is not limited only to the citizens of their own country, or the people of their own tribe, nation or race, or the Muslim community as a whole, but it is meant for all the human beings of the world. Muslims therefore, cannot be unjust to anyone. Their permanent habit and character should be such that no man should ever fear injustice at their hands, and they should treat every human being everywhere with justice and fairness.

7. Equality of Human Beings

Islam not only recognizes absolute equality between men irrespective of any distinction of colour, race or nationality, but makes it an important and significant principle, a reality. The Almighty God has laid down in the Holy Quran: “O mankind, we have created you from a male and female.” In other words all human beings are brothers to one another. They all are the descendants from one father and one mother. “And we set you up as nations and tribes so that you may be able to recognize each other” (49:13). This means that the division of human beings into nations, races, groups and tribes is for the sake of distinction, so that people of one race or tribe may meet and be acquainted with the people belonging to another race or tribe and cooperate with one another. This division of the human race is neither meant for one nation to take pride in its superiority over others nor is it meant for one nation to treat another with contempt or disgrace, or regard them as a mean and degraded race and usurp their rights. “Indeed, the noblest among you before God are the most heedful of you” (49:13). In other words the superiority of one man over another is only on the basis of God-consciousness, purity of character and high morals, and not on the basis of colour, race, language or nationality, and even this superiority based on piety and pure conduct does not justify that such people should play lord or assume airs of superiority over other human beings. Assuming airs of superiority is in itself a reprehensible vice which no God-fearing and pious man can ever dream of perpetrating. Nor does the righteous have more privileged rights over others, because this runs counter to human equality, which has been laid down in the beginning of this verse as a general principle. From the moral point of view, goodness and virtue is in all cases better than vice and evil.

This has been exemplified by the Prophet in one of his sayings thus: “No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay” (al-Bayhaqi and al-Bazzaz). In this manner Islam established equality for the entire human race and struck at the very root of all distinctions based on colour, race, language or nationality. According to Islam,God has given man this right of equality as a birthright. Therefore no man should be discriminated against on the ground of the colour of his skin, his place of birth, the race or the nation in which he was born. Malcolm X, the famous leader of African Negroes in America, who had launched a bitter struggle against the white people of America in order to win civil rights for his black compatriots, when he went to perform the pilgrimage, and saw how the Muslims of Asia, Africa, Europe, America and those of different races, languages and colours of skin, were wearing one dress and were hurrying towards God’s House-the Ka’bah and offering prayers standing in one row and there was no distinction of any kind between them, then he realized that this was the solution to the problem of colour and race, and not what he had been trying to seek or achieve in America so far. Today, a number of non- Muslim thinkers, who are free from blind prejudice, openly admit that no other religion or way of life has solved this problem with the same degree of success with which Islam has done so.

8. The Right to Co-operate and Not to Co-operate

Islam has prescribed a general principle of paramount importance and universal application saying: “Co-operate with one another for virtue and heedfulness and do not co-operate with one another for the purpose of vice and aggression” (5:2). This means that the man who undertakes a noble and righteous work, irrespective of the fact whether he is living at the North Pole or the South Pole, has the right to expect support and active co-operation from the Muslims. On the contrary he who perpetrates deeds of vice and aggression, even if he is our closest relation or neighbour, does not have the right to win our support and help in the name of race, country, language or nationality, nor should he have the expectation that Muslims will co-operate with him or support him. Nor is it permissible for Muslims to co-operate with him. The wicked and vicious person may be our own brother, but he is not of us, and he can have no help or support from us as long as he does not repent and reform his ways. On the other hand the man who is doing deeds of virtue and righteousness may have no kinship with Muslims, but Muslims will be his companions and supporters or at least his well- wishers.

III. Rights of Citizens in an Islamic State

We have discussed the human rights in general. Now we would like to take up the question of rights of the citizens in an Islamic State. As these rights are more extensive than the general human rights which have been described earlier, they need separate treatment.

1. The Security of Life and Property

In the address which the Prophet delivered on the occasion of the Farewell Hajj, he said: “Your lives and properties are forbidden to one another till you meet your Lord on the Day of Resurrection.” God Almighty has laid down in the Holy Quran: “Anyone who kills a believer deliberately will receive as his reward (a sentence) to live in Hell for ever. God will be angry with him and curse him, and prepare dreadful torment for him” (4:93). The Prophet has also said about the dhimmis (the non-Muslim citizens of the Muslim State): “One who kills a man under covenant (i.e. a dhimmi) will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise” (al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud). Islam prohibits homicide but allows only one exception, that the killing is done in the due process of law which the Quran refers to as bi al-haqq (with the truth). Therefore a man can be killed only when the law demands it, and it is obvious that only a court of law can decide whether the execution is being carried out with justice or without justification. In case of war or insurrection a just and righteous government alone, which follows the Shari’ah or the Islamic Law, can decide whether a war is just or unjust, whether taking of a life is justified or not; and whether a person is a rebel or not and who can be sentenced to death as a punishment. These weighty decisions cannot be left in the hands of a court which has become heedless to God and is under the influence of the administration. A judiciary like this may miscarry justice. Nor can the crimes of state be justified on the authority of the Holy Quran or Traditions (hadith) when the state murders its citizens openly and secretly without any hesitation or on the slightest pretext, because they are opposed to its unjust policies and actions or criticize it for its misdeed, and also provides protection to its hired assassins who have been guilty of the heinous crime of murder of an innocent person resulting in the fact, that neither the police take any action against such criminals nor can any proof or witnesses against these criminals be produced in the courts of law. The very existence of such a government is a crime and none of the killings carried out by them can be called “execution for the sake of justice” in the phraseology of the Holy Quran.

Along with security of life, Islam has with equal clarity and definiteness conferred the right of security of ownership of property, as mentioned earlier with reference to the address of the Farewell Hajj. On the other hand, the Holy Quran goes so far as to declare that the taking of people’s possessions or property is completely prohibited unless they are acquired by lawful means as permitted in the Laws of God. The Law of God categorically declares “Do not devour one another’s wealth by false and illegal means” (2:188).

2. The Protection of Honour

The second important right is the right of the citizens to the protection of their honour. In the address delivered on the occasion of the Farewell Hajj, to which I have referred earlier, the Prophet did not only prohibit the life and property of the Muslims to one another, but also any encroachment upon their honour, respect and chastity were forbidden to one another. The Holy Quran clearly lays down:

(a) “You who believe, do not let one (set of) people make fun of another set. (b) Do not defame one another. (c) Do not insult by using nicknames. (d) And do not backbite or speak ill of one another” (49:11-12).

This is the law of Islam for the protection of honour which is indeed much superior to and better than the Western Law of Defamation. According to the Islamic Law if it is proved that someone has attacked the honour of another person, then irrespective of the fact whether or not the victim is able to prove himself a respectable and honourable person the culprit will in any case get his due punishment. But the interesting fact about the Western Law of Defamation is that the person who files suit for defamation has first to prove that he is a man of honour and public esteem and during the interrogation he is subjected to the scurrilous attacks, accusations and innuendoes of the defence council to such an extent that he earns more disgrace than the attack on his reputation against which he had knocked the door of the court of law. On top of it he has also to produce such witnesses as would testify in the court that due to the defamatory accusations of the culprit, the accused stands disgraced in their eyes. Good Gracious! what a subtle point of law, and what an adherence to the spirit of Law! How can this unfair and unjust law be compared to the Divine law? Islam declared blasphemy as a crime irrespective of the fact whether the accused is a man of honour or not, and whether the words used for blasphemy have actually disgraced the victim and harmed his reputation in the eyes of the public or not. According to the Islamic Law the mere proof of the fact that the accused said things which according to common sense could have damaged the reputation and honour of the plaintiff, is enough for the accused to be declared guilty of defamation.

3. The Sanctity and Security of Private Life

Islam recognizes the right of every citizen of its state that there should be no undue interference or encroachment on the privacy of his life. The Holy Quran has laid down the injunction: “Do not spy on one another” (49:12). “Do not enter any houses except your own homes unless you are sure of their occupants’ consent” (24:27). The Prophet has gone to the extent of instructing his followers that a man should not enter even his own house suddenly or surreptitiously. He should somehow or other inform or indicate to the dwellers of the house that he is entering the house, so that he may not see his mother, sister or daughter in a condition in which they would not like to be seen, nor would he himself like to see them in that condition. Peering into the houses of other people has also been strictly prohibited, so much so that there is the saying of the Prophet that if a man finds another person secretly peering into his house, and he blinds his eye or eyes as a punishment then he cannot be called to question nor will he be liable to prosecution. The Prophet has even prohibited people from reading the letters of others, so much so that if a man is reading his letter and another man casts sidelong glances at it and tries to read it, his conduct becomes reprehensible. This is the sanctity of privacy that Islam grants to individuals. On the other hand in the modern civilized world we find that not only the letters of other people are read and their correspondence censored, but even their photostat copies are retained for future use or blackmail. Even bugging devices are secretly fixed in the houses of the people so that one can hear and tape from a distance the conversation taking place behind closed doors. In other words it means that there is no such thing as privacy and to all practical purposes the private life of an individual does not exist.

This espionage on the life of the individual cannot be justified on moral grounds by the government saying that it is necessary to know the secrets of the dangerous persons. Though, to all intents and purposes, the basis of this policy is the fear and suspicion with which modern governments look at their citizens who are intelligent and dissatisfied with the official policies of the government. This is exactly what Islam has called as the root cause of mischief in politics. The injunction of the Prophet is: “When the ruler begins to search for the causes of dissatisfaction amongst his people, he spoils them” (Abu Dawud). The Amir Mu’awiyah has said that he himself heard the Prophet saying: “If you try to find out the secrets of the people, then you will definitely spoil them or at least you will bring them to the verge of ruin.” The meaning of the phrase ‘spoil them’ is that when spies (C.I.D. or F.B.I.agents) are spread all around the country to find out the affairs of men, then the people begin to look at one another with suspicion, so much so that people are afraid of talking freely in their houses lest some word should escape from the lips of their wives and children which may put them in embarrassing situations. In this manner it becomes difficult for a common citizen to speak freely, even in his own house and society begins to suffer from a state of general distrust and suspicion.

4. The Security of Personal Freedom

Islam has also laid down the principle that no citizen can be imprisoned unless his guilt has been proved in an open court. To arrest a man only on the basis of suspicion and to throw him into a prison without proper court proceedings and without providing him a reason- able opportunity to produce his defence is not permissible in Islam. It is related in the hadith that once the Prophet was delivering a lecture in the mosque, when a man rose during the lecture and said: “O Prophet of God, for what crime have my neighbours been arrested?” The Prophet heard the question and continued his speech. The man rose once again and repeated the same question. The Prophet again did not answer and continued his speech. The man rose for a third time and repeated the same question. Then the Prophet ordered that the man’s neighbours be released. The reason why the Prophet had kept quiet when the question was repeated twice earlier was that the police officer was present in the mosque and if there were proper reasons for the arrest of the neighbours of this man, he would have got up to explain his position. Since the police officer gave no reasons for these arrests the Prophet ordered that the arrested persons should be released. The police officer was aware of the Islamic law and therefore he did not get up to say: “the administration is aware of the charges against the arrested men, but they cannot be disclosed in public. If the Prophet would inquire about their guilt in camera I would enlighten him.” If the police officer had made such a statement, he would have been dis- missed then and there. The fact that the police officer did not give any reasons for the arrests in the open court was sufficient reason for the Prophet to give immediate orders for the release of the arrested men. The injunction of the Holy Quran is very clear on this point. “When- ever you judge between people, you should judge with (a sense of) justice” (4:58). And the Prophet has also been asked by God: “I have been ordered to dispense justice between you.” This was the reason why the Caliph ‘Umar said: “In Islam no one can be imprisoned except in pursuance of justice.” The words used here clearly indicate that justice means due process of law. What has been prohibited and condemned is that a man be arrested and imprisoned without proof of his guilt in an open court and without providing him an opportunity to defend himself against those charges. If the Government suspects that a particular individual has committed a crime or he is likely to commit an offence in the near future then they should give reasons for their suspicion before a court of law and the culprit or the suspect should be allowed to produce his defence in an open court, so that the court may decide whether the suspicion against him is based on sound grounds or not and if there is good reason for suspicion, then he should be informed of how long he will be in preventive detention. This decision should be taken under all circumstances in an open court, so that the public may hear the charges brought by the government, as well as the defence made by the accused and see that the due process of law is being applied to him and he is not being victimized.

The correct method of dealing with such cases in Islam is exemplified in the famous decision of the Prophet which took place before the conquest of Makkah. The Prophet was making preparations for the attack on Makkah, when one of his Companions, Hatib ibn Abi Balta’ah sent a letter through a woman to the authorities in Makkah informing them about the impending attack. The Prophet came to know of this through a Divine inspiration. He ordered ‘Ali and Zubayr: “Go quickly on the route to Makkah, at such and such a place, you will find a woman carrying a letter. Recover the letter from her and bring it to me.” So they went and found the woman exactly where the Prophet had said. They recovered the letter from her and brought it to the Prophet. This was indeed a clear case of treachery. To inform the enemy about a secret of an army and that too at the time of a war is a very serious offence tantamount to treachery. In fact one cannot think of a more serious crime during war than giving out a military secret to one’s enemy. What could have been a more suitable case for a secret hearing; a military secret had been betrayed and common sense demanded that he should be tried in camera. But the Prophet summoned Hatib to the open court of the Mosque of the Prophet and in the presence of hundreds of people asked him to explain his position with regard to his letter addressed to the leaders of Quraysh which had been intercepted on its way. The accused said: “O God’s Messenger (may God’s blessings be on you) I have not revolted against Islam, nor have I done this with the intention of betraying a military secret. The truth of the matter is that my wife and children are living in Makkah and I do not have my tribe to protect them there. I had written this letter so that the leaders of Quraysh may be indebted to me and may protect my wife and children out of gratitude.” ‘Umar rose and respect- fully submitted: “O Prophet, please permit me to put this traitor to the sword.” The Prophet replied: “He is one of those people who had participated in the Battle of Badr, and the explanation he has advanced in his defence would seem to be correct.”

Let us look at this decision of the Prophet in perspective. It was a clear case of treachery and betrayal of military secrets. But the Prophet acquitted Hatib on two counts. Firstly, that his past records were very clean and showed that he could not have betrayed the cause of Islam, since on the occasion of the Battle of Badr when there were heavy odds against the Muslims, he had risked his life for them. Secondly, his family was in fact in danger at Makkah. Therefore, if he had shown some human weakness for his children and written this letter, then this punishment was quite sufficient for him that his secret offence was divulged in public and he had been disgraced and humiliated in the eyes of the believers. God has referred to this offence of Hatib in the Holy Quran but did not propose any punishment for him except rebuke and admonition.

The attitude and activities of the Kharijis in the days of the Caliph ‘Ali are well-known to the students of Muslim history. They used to abuse the Caliph openly, and threaten him with murder. But whenever they were arrested for these offences, ‘Ali would set them free and tell his officers “As long as they do not actually perpetrate offences against the State, the mere use of abusive language or the threat of use of force are not such offences for which they can be imprisoned.” The imam Abu Hanifah has recorded the following saying of the Caliph ‘Ali (A): “As long as they do not set out on armed rebellion, the Caliph of the Faithful will not interfere with them.” On another occasion ‘Ali was delivering a lecture in the mosque when the Kharijis raised their special slogan there. ‘Ali said: “We will not deny you the right to come to the mosques to worship God, nor will we stop to give your share from the wealth of the State, as long as you are with us (and support us in our wars with the unbelievers) and we shall never take military action against you as long as you do not fight with us.” One can visualize the opposition which ‘Ali was facing; more violent and vituperative opposition cannot even be imagined in a present-day democratic State; but the freedom that he had allowed to the opposition was such that no government has ever been able to give to its opposition. He did not arrest even those who threatened him with murder nor did he imprison them.

5. The Right to Protest Against Tyranny

Amongst the rights that Islam has conferred on human beings is the right to protest against government’s tyranny. Referring to it the Quran says: “God does not love evil talk in public unless it is by some- one who has been injured thereby” (4:148). This means that God strongly disapproves of abusive language or strong words of condemnation, but the person who has been the victim of injustice or tyranny, God gives him the right to openly protest against the injury that has been done to him. This right is not limited only to individuals. The words of the verse are general. Therefore if an individual or a group of people or a party usurps power, and after assuming the reins of authority begins to tyrannize individuals or groups of men or the entire population of the country, then to raise the voice of protest against it openly is the God-given right of man and no one has the authority to usurp or deny this right. If anyone tries to usurp this right of citizens then he rebels against God. The talisman of Section 1444 may protect such a tyrant in this world, but it cannot save him from the hell-fire in the Hereafter.

6. Freedom of Expression

Islam gives the right of freedom of thought and expression to all citizens of the Islamic State on the condition that it should be used for the propagation of virtue and truth and not for spreading evil and wickedness. This Islamic concept of freedom of expression is much superior to the concept prevalent in the West. Under no circumstances would Islam allow evil and wickedness to be propagated. It also does not give anybody the right to use abusive or offensive language in the name of criticism. The right to freedom of expression for the sake of propagating virtue and righteousness is not only a right in Islam but an obligation. One who tries to deny this right to his people is openly at war with God, the All-Powerful. And the same thing applies to the attempt to stop people from evil. Whether this evil is perpetrated by an individual or by a group of people or the government of one’s own country, or the government of some other country; it is the right of a Muslim and it is also his obligation that he should warn and reprimand the evil-doer and try to stop him from doing it. Over and above, he should openly and publicly condemn it and show the course of righteousness which that individual, nation or government should adopt.

The Holy Quran has described this quality of the Faithful in the following words: “They enjoin what is proper and forbid what is improper” (9:71). In contrast, describing the qualities of a hypocrite, the Quran mentions: “They bid what is improper and forbid what is proper” (9:67). The main purpose of an Islamic Government has been defined by God in the Quran as follows: “If we give authority to these men on earth they will keep up prayers, and offer poor-due, bid what is proper and forbid what is improper” (22:41). The Prophet has said: “If any one of you comes across an evil, he should try to stop it with his hand (using force), if he is not in a position to stop it with his hand then he should try to stop it by means of his tongue (meaning he should speak against it). If he is not even able to use his tongue then he should at least condemn it in his heart. This is the weakest degree of faith” (Muslim). This obligation of inviting people to righteousness and forbidding them to adopt the paths of evil is incumbent on all true Muslims. If any government deprives its citizens of this right, and prevents them from performing this duty, then it is in direct conflict with the injunction of God. The government is not in conflict with its people, but is in conflict with God. In this way it is at war with God and is trying to usurp that right of its people which God has conferred not only as a right but as an obligation. As far as the government which itself propagates evil, wickedness and obscenity and interferes with those who are inviting people to virtue and righteousness is concerned, according to the Holy Quran it is the government of the hypocrites.

7. Freedom of Association

Islam has also given people the right to freedom of association and formation of parties or organizations. This right is also subject to certain general rules. It should be exercised for propagating virtue and righteousness and should never be used for spreading evil and mischief. We have not only been given this right for spreading righteousness and virtue, but have been ordered to exercise this right. Addressing the Muslims, the Holy Quran declares:

You are the best community which has been brought forth for mankind. You command what is proper and forbid what is improper and you believe in God … (3:110)

This means that it is the obligation and duty of the entire Muslim community that it should invite and enjoin people to righteousness and virtue and forbid them from doing evil. If the entire Muslim community is not able to perform this duty then “let there be a community among you who will invite (people) to (do) good, command what is proper and forbid what is improper, those will be prosperous” (3:104). This clearly indicates that if the entire Muslim nation collectively begins to neglect its obligation to invite people to goodness and forbid them from doing evil then it is absolutely essential that it should contain at least a group of people which may perform this obligation. As has been said before this is not only a right but an obligation and on the fulfilment of which depends success and prosperity here as well as in the Hereafter. It is an irony with the religion of God that in a Muslim country the assembly and association that is formed for the purposes of spreading evil and mischief should have the right to rule over the country and the association and party which has been formed for propagating righteousness and virtue should live in perpetual fear of harassment and of being declared illegal. Conditions here are just the reverse of what has been prescribed by God. The claim is that we are Muslims and this is an Islamic State but the work that is being done is directed to spreading evil, to corrupt and morally degrade and debase the people while there is an active and effective check on the work being carried out for reforming society and inviting people to righteousness. Moreover the life of those who are engaged in spreading righteousness and checking the spread of evil and wickedness is made intolerable and hard to bear.

8. Freedom of Conscience and Conviction

Islam also gives the right to freedom of conscience and conviction to its citizens in an Islamic State. The Holy Quran has laid down the injunction: “There should be no coercion in the matter of faith” (2:256). Though there is no truth and virtue greater than the religion of Truth-Islam, and Muslims are enjoined to invite people to embrace Islam and advance arguments in favour of it, they are not asked to enforce this faith on them. No force will be applied in order to compel them to accept Islam. Whoever accepts it he does so by his own choice. Muslims will welcome such a convert to Islam with open arms and admit him to their community with equal rights and privileges. But if somebody does not accept Islam, Muslims will have to recognize and respect his decision, and no moral, social or political pressure will be put on him to change his mind.

9. Protection of Religious Sentiments

Along with the freedom of conviction and freedom of conscience, Islam has given the right to the individual that his religious sentiments will be given due respect and nothing will be said or done which may encroach upon this right. It has been ordained by God in the Holy Quran: “Do not abuse those they appeal to instead of God” (6:108). These instructions are not only limited to idols and deities, but they also apply to the leaders or national heroes of the people. If a group of people holds a conviction which according to you is wrong, and holds certain persons in high esteem which according to you is not deserved by them, then it will not be justified in Islam that you use abusive language for them and thus injure their feelings. Islam does not prohibit people from holding debate and discussion on religious matters, but it wants that these discussions should be conducted in decency. “Do not argue with the people of the Book unless it is in the politest manner” (29:46)-says the Quran. This order is not merely limited to the people of the Scriptures, but applies with equal force to those following other faiths.

10. Protection from Arbitrary Imprisonment

Islam also recognizes the right of the individual that he will not be arrested or imprisoned for the offences of others. The Holy Quran has laid down this principle clearly: “No bearer of burdens shall be made to bear the burden of another” (6:164). Islam believes in personal responsibility. We ourselves are responsible for our acts, and the consequence of our actions cannot be transferred to someone else. In other words this means that every man is responsible for his actions. If another man has not shared this action then he cannot be held responsible for it, nor can he be arrested. It is a matter of great regret and shame that we are seeing this just and equitable principle which has not been framed by any human being, but by the Creator and Nourisher of the entire universe, being flouted and violated before our eyes. So much so that a man is guilty of a crime or he is a suspect, but his wife being arrested for his crime. Things have gone so far that innocent people are being punished for the crimes of others. To give a recent example, in Karachi (Pakistan), a man was suspected of being involved in a bomb throwing incident. In the course of police investigation he was subjected to horrible torture in order to extract a confession from him. When he insisted on his innocence, then the police arrested his mother, his wife, daughter and sister and brought them to the police station. They were all stripped naked in his presence and he was stripped naked of all his clothes before their eyes so that a confession of the crime could be extracted from him. It appears as if for the sake of investigation of crime it has become proper and legal in our country to strip the innocent women folk of the household in order to bring pressure on the suspect. This is indeed very outrageous and shameful. This is the height of meanness and depravity. This is not a mere hearsay which I am repeating here, but I have full information about this case and can prove my allegations in any court of law. I would here like to ask what right such tyrants who perpetrate these crimes against mankind have to tell us that they are Muslims or that they are conduct- ing the affairs of the state according to the teachings of Islam and their state is an Islamic State. They are breaching and flouting a clear law of the Holy Quran. They are stripping men and women naked which is strictly forbidden in Islam. They disgrace and humiliate humanity and then they claim that they are Muslims.

11. The Right to Basic Necessities of Life

Islam has recognized the right of the needy people that help and assistance will be provided for them. “And in their wealth there is acknowledged right for the needy and the destitute” (51:19). In this verse, the Quran has not only conferred a right on every man who asks for assistance in the wealth of the Muslims, but has also laid down that if a Muslim comes to know that a certain man is without the basic necessities of life, then irrespective of the fact whether he asks for assistance or not, it is his duty to reach him and give all the help that he can extend. For this purpose Islam has not depended only on the help and charity that is given voluntarily, but has made compulsory charity, zakat as the third pillar of Islam, next only to profession of faith and worship of God through holding regular prayers. The Prophet has clearly instructed in this respect that: “It will be taken from their rich and given to those in the community in need” (al-Bukhari and Muslim). In addition to this, it has also been declared that the Islamic State should support those who have nobody to support them. The Prophet has said: “The Head of state is the guardian of him, who has nobody to support him” (Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi). The word wali which has been used by the Prophet is a very comprehensive word and has a wide range of meanings. If there is an orphan or an aged man, if there is a crippled or unemployed person, if one is invalid or poor and has no one else to support him or help him, then it is the duty and the responsibility of the state to support and assist him. If a dead man has no guardian or heir, then it is the duty of the state to arrange for his proper burial. In short the state has been entrusted with the duty and responsibility of looking after all those who need help and assistance. A truly Islamic State is therefore a truly welfare state which will be the guardian and protector of all those in need.

12. Equality Before Law

Islam gives its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality in the eyes of the law. As far as the Muslims are concerned, there are clear instructions in the Holy Quran and hadith that in their rights and obligations they are all equal: “The believers are brothers (to each other)” (49:10). “If they (disbelievers) repent and keep up prayer and pay the Ipoor-due, they are your brothers in faith” (9:11). The Prophet has said that: “The life and blood of Muslims are equally precious” (Abu Dawud; Ibn Majjah). In another hadith he has said: “The protection given by all Muslims is equal. Even an ordinary man of them can grant protection to any man” (al-Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud). In another more detailed Tradition of the Prophet, it has been said that those who accept the Oneness of God, believe in the Prophet- hood of His Messenger, give up primitive prejudices and join the Muslim community and brotherhood, “then they have the same rights and obligations as other Muslims have” (al-Bukhari; al-Nisa’i). Thus there is absolute equality between the new converts to Islam and the old followers of the Faith.

This religious brotherhood and the uniformity of their rights and obligations is the foundation of equality in Islamic society, in which the rights and obligations of any person are neither greater nor lesser in any way than the rights and obligations of other people. As far as the non- Muslim citizens of the Islamic State are concerned, the rule of Islamic Shari’ah (law) about them has been very well expressed by the Caliph ‘Ali in these words: “They have accepted our protection only because their lives may be like our lives and their properties like our properties” (Abu Dawud). In other words, their (of the dhimmis) lives and properties are as sacred as the lives and properties of the Muslims. Discrimination of people into different classes was one of the greatest crimes that, according to the Quran, Pharaoh used to indulge in: “He had divided his people into different classes,” … “And he suppressed one group of them (at the cost of others)” (28:4).

13. Rulers Not Above the Law

Islam clearly insists and demands that all officials of the Islamic State, whether he be the head or an ordinary employee, are equal in the eyes of the law. None of them is above the law or can claim immunity. Even an ordinary citizen in Islam has the right to put forward a claim or file a legal complaint against the highest executive of the country. The Caliph ‘Umar said, “I have myself seen the Prophet, may God’s blessings be on him, taking revenge against himself (penalizing himself for some shortcoming or failing).” On the occasion of the Battle of Badr, when the Prophet was straightening the rows of the Muslim army he hit the belly of a soldier in an attempt to push him back in line. The soldier complained “O Prophet, you have hurt me with your stick.” The Prophet immediately bared his belly and said: “I am very sorry, you can revenge by doing the same to me.” The soldier came forward and kissed the abdomen of the Prophet and said that this was all that he wanted.

A woman belonging to a high and noble family was arrested in connection with a theft. The case was brought to the Prophet, and it was recommended that she may be spared the punishment of theft. The Prophet replied: “The nations that lived before you were destroyed by God because they punished the common men for their offences and let their dignitaries go unpunished for their crimes; I swear by Him (God) who holds my life in His hand that even if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, has committed this crime then I would have amputated her hand.” During the caliphate of ‘Umar, Muhammad the son of ‘Amr ibn al-‘As the Governor of Egypt, whipped an Egyptian. The Egyptian went to Medina and lodged his complaint with the Righteous Caliph, who immediately summoned the Governor and his son to Medina. When they appeared before him in Medina, the Caliph handed a whip to the Egyptian complainant and asked him to whip the son of the Governor in his presence. After taking his revenge when the Egyptian was about to hand over the whip to ‘Umar, he said to the Egyptian: “Give one stroke of the whip to the Honourable Governor as well. His son would certainly have not beaten you were it not for the false pride that he had in his father’s high office.” The plaintiff submitted: “The person who had beaten me, I have already avenged myself on him.” ‘Umar said: “By God, if you had beaten him (the Governor) I would not have checked you from doing so. You have spared him of your own free will.” Then he (‘Umar) angrily turned to ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and said: “O ‘Amr, when did you start to enslave the people, though they were born free of their mothers?” When the Islamic State was flourishing in its pristine glory and splendour, the common people could equally lodge complaints against the caliph of the time in the court and the caliph had to appear before the qadi to answer the charges. And if the caliph had any complaint against any citizen, he could not use his administrative powers and authority to set the matter right, but had to refer the case to the court of law for proper adjudication.

14. The Right to Avoid Sin

Islam also confers this right on every citizen that he will not be ordered to commit a sin, a crime or an offence; and if any govern- ment, or the administrator, or the head of department orders an individual to do a wrong, then he has the right to refuse to comply with the order. His refusal to carry out such crime or unjust instructions would not be regarded as an offence in the eyes of the Islamic law. On the contrary giving orders to one’s subordinates to commit a sin or do a wrong is itself an offence and such a serious offence that the officer who gives this sinful order whatever his rank and position may be, is liable to be summarily dismissed. These clear instructions of the Prophet are summarized in the following hadith: “It is not permissible to disobey God in obedience to the orders of any human being” (Musnad of Ibn Hanbal). In other words, no one has the right to order his subordinates to do anything against the laws of God. If such an order is given, the subordinate has the right to ignore it or openly refuse to carry out such instructions. According to this rule no offender will be able to prove his innocence or escape punishment by saying that this offence was committed on the orders of the government or superior officers. If such a situation arises then the person who commits the offence and the person who orders that such an offence be committed, will both be liable to face criminal proceedings against them. And if an officer takes any improper and unjust measures against a subordinate who refuses to carry out illegal orders, then the subordinate has the right to go to the court of law for the protection of his rights, and he can demand that the officer be punished for his wrong or unjust orders.

15. The Right to Participate in the Affairs of State

According to Islam, governments in this world are actually representatives (khulafa’) of the Creator of the universe, and this responsibility is not entrusted to any individual or family or a particular class or group of people but to the entire Muslim nation. The Holy Quran says: “God has promised to appoint those of you who believe and do good deeds as (His) representatives on earth” (24:55). This clearly indicates that khilafah is a collective gift of God in which the right of every individual Muslim is neither more nor less than the right of any other person. The correct method recommended by the Holy Quran for running the affairs of the state is as follows: “And their business is (conducted) through consultation among themselves” (42:38). According to this principle it is the right of every Muslim that either he should have a direct say in the affairs of the state or a representative chosen by him and other Muslims should participate in the consultation of the state. Islam, under no circumstance, permits or tolerates that an individual or a group or party of individuals may deprive the common Muslims of their rights, and usurp powers of the state. Similarly, Islam does not regard it right and proper that an individual may put up a false show of setting up a legislative assembly and by means of underhand tactics such as fraud, persecution, bribery, etc., gets himself and men of his choice elected in the assembly. This is not only a treachery against the people whose rights are usurped by illegal and unfair means, but against the Creator Who has entrusted the Muslims to rule on this earth on His behalf, and has prescribed the procedure of an assembly for exercising these powers. The shura or the legislative assembly has no other meaning except that:

a. The executive head of the government and the members of the assembly should be elected by free and independent choice of the people.

b.The people and their representatives should have the right to criticize and freely express their opinions.

c. The real conditions of the country should be brought before the people without suppressing any fact so that they may be able to form their opinion about whether the government is working properly or not.

d. There should be adequate guarantee that only those people who have the support of the masses should rule over the country and those who fail to win this support should be removed from their position of authority.

IV. Rights of Enemies at War

After dealing with the rights of the citizens of an Islamic State, I would like to briefly discuss the rights which Islam has conferred on its enemies. In the days when Islam came into focus the world was completely unaware of the concept of humane and decent rules of war. The West became conscious of this concept for the first time through the works of the seventeenth century thinker, Grotius. But the actual codification of the ‘international law’ in war began in the middle of the nineteenth century. Prior to this no concept of civilized behaviour in war was found in the West. All forms of barbarity and savagery were perpetrated in war, and the rights of those at war were not even recognized, let alone respected. The laws which were framed in this field during the nineteenth century or over the following period up to the present day, cannot be called ‘laws’ in the real sense of the word. They are only in the nature of conventions and agreements and calling them ‘international law’ is actually a kind of misnomer, because no nation regards them binding when they are at war, unless, of course, when the adversaries also agree to abide by them. In other words, these civilized laws imply that if our enemies respect them then we shall also abide by them, and if they ignore these human conventions and take recourse to barbaric and cruel ways of waging war, then we shall also adopt the same or similar techniques. It is obvious that such a course which depends on mutual acceptance and agreement cannot be called ‘law’. And this is the reason why the provisions of this so-called ‘inter- national law’ have been flouted and ignored in every way, and every time they have been revised, additions or deletions have been made in them. Law of War and Peace in Islam:

The rules which have been framed by Islam to make war civilized and humane, are in the nature of law, because they are the injunctions of God and His Prophet which are followed by Muslims in all circum- stances, irrespective of the behaviour of the enemy. It is now for the scholars to find out how far the West has availed of the laws of war given by Islam thirteen hundred years ago; and even after the adaptation of some of the laws of Islam how far the West attained those heights of civilized and humane methods of warfare which Muslims reached through the blessings of Islam. Western writers have often asserted that the Prophet had borrowed everything in his teachings from the Jews and the Christians. Instead of saying anything in its refutation I will only recommend the reader to refer to the Bible6 so that he can see which methods of war are recommended by the sacred Book of these Western claimants to civilization and culture.

We have examined in some detail the basic human rights that Islam has conferred on man. Let us now find out what rights and obligations Islam recognizes for an enemy.

The Rights of the Non-Combatants:

Islam has first drawn a clear line of distinction between the combatants and the non-combatants of the enemy country. As far as the non-combatant population is concerned such as women, children, the old and the infirm, etc., the instructions of the Prophet are as follows: “Do not kill any old person, any child or any woman” (Abu Dawud). “Do not kill the monks in monasteries” or “Do not kill the people who are sitting in places of worship” (Musnad of Ibn Hanbal).

During a war, the Prophet saw the corpse of a woman lying on the ground and observed: “She was not fighting. How then she came to be killed?” From this statement of the Prophet the exegetists and jurists have drawn the principle that those who are non-combatants should not be killed during or after the war.

The Rights of the Combatants:

Now let us see what rights Islam has conferred on the combatants.

a. Torture with Fire

In the hadith there is a saying of the Prophet that: “Punishment by fire does not behove anyone except the Master of the Fire” (Abu Dawud). The injunction deduced from this saying is that the adversary should not be burnt alive.

b. Protection of the Wounded

“Do not attack a wounded person”-thus said the Prophet. This means that the wounded soldiers who are not fit to fight, nor actually fighting, should not be attacked.

c. The Prisoner of War Should not be Slain

“No prisoner should be put to the sword”-a very clear and unequivocal instruction given by the Prophet (S).

d. No one Should be Tied to be Killed

“The Prophet has prohibited the killing of anyone who is tied or is in captivity.”

e. No Looting and Destruction in the Enemy’s Country

Muslims have also been instructed by the Prophet that if they should enter the enemy’s territory, they should not indulge in pillage or plunder nor destroy the residential areas, nor touch the property of anyone except those who are fighting with them. It has been narrated in the hadith: “The Prophet has prohibited the believers from loot and plunder” (al-Bukhari; Abu Dawud). His injunction is: “The loot is no more lawful than the carrion” (Abu Dawud). Abu Bakr al-Siddiq used to instruct the soldiers while sending them to war, “Do not destroy the villages and towns, do not spoil the cultivated fields and gardens, and do not slaughter the cattle.” The booty of war which is acquired from the battleground is altogether different from this. It consists of the wealth, provisions and equipment captured only from the camps and military headquarters of the combatant armies.

f. Sanctity of Property

The Muslims have also been prohibited from taking anything from the general public of a conquered country without paying for it. If in a war the Muslim army occupies an area of the enemy country, and is encamped there, it does not have the right to use the things belonging to the people without their consent. If they need anything, they should purchase it from the local population or should obtain permission from the owners. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, while instructing the Muslim armies being despatched to the battlefront would go to the extent of saying that Muslim soldiers should not even use the milk of the milch cattle without the permission of their owners.

g. Sanctity of a Dead Body

Islam has categorically prohibited its followers from disgracing or mutilating the corpses of their enemies as was practised in Arabia before the advent of Islam. It has been said in the hadith: “The Prophet has prohibited us from mutilating the corpses of the enemies” (al- Bukhari; Abu Dawud). The occasion on which this order was given is highly instructive. In the Battle of Uhud the disbelievers mutilated the bodies of the Muslims, who had fallen on the battlefield and sacrificed their lives for the sake of Islam, by cutting off their ears and noses, and threading them together to put round their necks as trophies of war. The abdomen of Hamzah, the uncle of the Prophet, was ripped open by Quraysh, his liver was taken out and chewed by Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Meccan army. The Muslims were naturally enraged by this horrible sight. But the Prophet asked his followers not to mete out similar treatment to the dead bodies of the enemies. This great example of forbearance and restraint is sufficient to convince any reasonable man who is not blinded by prejudice or bias, that Islam is really the religion sent down by the Creator of the universe, and that if human emotions had any admission in Islam, then this horrible sight on the battlefield of Uhud would have provoked the Prophet to order his followers to mutilate the bodies of their enemy in the same manner.

h. Return of Corpses of the Enemy

In the Battle of Ahzab a very renowned and redoubtable warrior of the enemy was killed and his body fell down in the trench which the Muslims had dug for the defence of Medina. The unbelievers presented ten thousand dinars to the Prophet and requested that the dead body of their fallen warrior may be handed over to them. The Prophet replied “I do not sell dead bodies. You can take away the corpse of your fallen comrade.”

i. Prohibition of Breach of Treaties

Islam has strictly prohibited treachery. One of the instructions that the Prophet used to give to the Muslim warriors while sending them to the battlefront was: “Do not be guilty of breach of faith.” This order has been repeated in the Holy Quran and the hadith again and again, that if the enemy acts treacherously let him do so, you should never go back on your promise. There is a famous incident in the peace treaty of Hudaybiyyah, when after the settlement of the terms of the treaty, Abu Jandal, the son of the emissary of the unbelievers who had negotiated this treaty with the Muslims, came, fettered and blood-stained, rushing to the Muslim camp and crying for help. The Prophet told him “Since the terms of the treaty have been settled, we are not in a position to help you out. You should go back with your father. God will provide you with some other opportunity to escape this persecution.” The entire Muslim army was deeply touched and grieved at the sad plight of Abu Jandal and many of them were moved to tears. But when the Prophet declared that “We cannot break the agreement”, not even a single person came forward to help the unfortunate prisoner, so the unbelievers forcibly dragged him back to Makkah. This is an unparalleled example of the observance of the terms of agreement by the Muslims, and Islamic history can show many examples of a similar nature.

j. Rules About Declaration of War

It has been laid down in the Holy Quran: “If you apprehend breach of treaty from a people, then openly throw the treaty at their faces” (8:58). In this verse, Muslims have been prohibited from opening hostilities against their enemies without properly declaring war against them, unless of course, the adversary has already started aggression against them. Otherwise the Quran has clearly given the injunction to Muslims that they should intimate to their enemies that no treaty exists between them, and they are at war with them. The present day ‘inter- national law’ has also laid down that hostilities should not be started without declaration of war, but since it is a man-made rule, they are free to violate it whenever it is convenient. On the other hand, the laws for Muslims have been framed by God, hence they cannot be violated.

Conclusion:

This is a brief sketch of those rights which fourteen hundred years ago Islam gave to man, to those who were at war with each other and to the citizens of its state, which every believer regards as sacred as law. On the one hand, it refreshes and strengthens our faith in Islam when we realize that even in this modern age which makes such loud claims of progress and enlightenment, the world has not been able to produce juster and more equitable laws than those given 1400 years ago. On the other hand it hurts one’s feelings that Muslims are in possession of such a splendid and comprehensive system of law and yet they look forward for guidance to those leaders of the West who could not have dreamed of attaining those heights of truth and justice which was achieved a long time ago. Even more painful than this is the realization that throughout the world the rulers who claim to be Muslims have made disobedience to their God and the Prophet as the basis and foundation of their government. May God have mercy on them and give them the true guidance.

Beard in Islam

benefits-of-beard

Definition

The beard (Arabic: liyah) is defined as the hair which grows on the cheeks and the jaws. It includes the hair of the temples, the growth underneath the lower lip, the hair of the chin, and the hair that grows on the lower side of the jaws.

The Islamic Ruling Concerning Beards

Growing the beard is a wajib (mandatory) for all males who are capable of doing so. This has ample evidence in the Sunnah (as will be shown below) and is the unanimous opinion of the ulamaa of Islam. One should not be misled by the neglect to this sunnah by a few contemporary shaykhs, and by their providing shaky fatwas to support their action. By doing that they make people follow them into the wrong way, when the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

  He who starts a good sunnah (way) will be rewarded for it, in addition to receiving rewards equal to the rewards of those who follow him into it. Whereas he who starts a bad sunnah will be burdened with it, in addition to receiving burdens equal to the burdens of those who follow him into it. [Muslim]

And he said:

  Allah does not pull the knowledge abruptly from the hearts of people, but he takes away the knowledge by taking [the lives of] the `ulamaa (true scholars). When no `ulamaa are left, people will take ignorant persons for leaders. Those will give them fatwa (religious verdicts) without knowledge. By doing this, they will stray and lead others astray as well. [Al-Bukhari]

A List of Violations

Shaving the beard results in a series of Islamic violations, as is obvious from Allah’s Book and His Messenger’s Sunnah. The following is a list (not necessarily comprehensive) of such violations:

  1. A Disobedience to Allah (سبحانهوتعالى)

Shaving the beard is a disobedience to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). The ruler of Yemen, appointed by the Persian emperor Kisraa, sent two envoys to the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to summon him. When they came into his presence, he noticed that they had shaved their beards and grew their moustaches. He hated to look at them (because of their odd appearance) and he said: Woe be to you, who told you to do so? They replied: “Our lord! (referring to Kisraa.)” The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) then said:

  But my Lord, may He be exalted and glorified, has commanded me to leave alone my beard and to trim my moustache. [Recorded by Ibn Jar r a-abar , and judged to be Hasan (good) by al-Albani.]
  1. A Disobedience To the Messenger (صلىاللهعليه وسلم)

Shaving the beard is a disobedience to the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم). In many hadiths, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) commanded men to leave alone their beards. These different hadiths have a similar meaning:

  Trim the moustache and save the beard. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Obeying the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in that is equivalent to obeying Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) who said (what means):

  He who obeys the Messenger has indeed obeyed Allah. [An-Nisaa 4:80]  
  1. A Deviation from the Appearance and Guidance of the Messenger (صلىاللهعليه وسلم)

Shaving the beard is a deviation from the appearance and guidance of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم). The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to have a large beard [Muslim]. One should strive to imitate him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in his practices, as Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said (what means):In the Messenger of Allah is a good example for you to follow. [Al-Ahzab 33:21] And the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: Verily, the best guidance is Muhammad’s guidance. [Muslim]

  1. A Deviation from the Way of Believers

Shaving the beard is a deviation from the way of believers. All the prophets (صلى الله عليه وسلم), the sahbah (Prophet’s companions), the great `ulamaa, and the righteous early Muslims of this Ummah (Nation) grew their beards. There is no report of a single one of them ever shaving his beard. Thus, this is their way, and Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says (in the meaning):

  Whoever disobeys the Messenger after guidance has been clarified to him, and follows other than the path of the believers, We shall give to him what he deserves and broil him in hell, which is the worst abode. [An-Nisaa 4:115]  
  1. An Imitation of the Disbelievers

Shaving the beard is an imitation of the disbelievers. This has been emphasized in several hadiths of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). For example:

  Cut the moustaches and grow your beards. Be different from the Magians (followers of a religion that dominated in Persia). [Muslim]

Cut your moustaches and leave your beards alone. Be different from the people of the scripture. [Muslim]

Be different from the Mushrikin (those who worship other than Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)); trim your moustaches and save your beards. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

We have been commanded to be different and distinct from the disbelievers, as in surat ul-Fatihah. Also, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said (what means):

  Follow not the whims of those who have no knowledge (of Islam). [Al-Jathiyah 45:18]  

And His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

  Whoever imitates a people is but one of them. [Recorded by Abu Dawud, and judged to be authentic by al-Albani]
  1. Changing Allah’s Creation without Permission

The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) declared that the women who change what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has created (such as removing the hair from their faces or filing their teeth or tattooing their bodies) seeking by that to improve their appearance, are accursed by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The hadith mentioned women in particular because they normally seek to beautify themselves more than men. But the warning surely applies to both sexes, because the condition for the curse is declared, and thus the curse applies to anyone who satisfies such condition.

Shaving the beard falls under this warning, as it is much worse than the Nam (removal of facial hair) practiced by some women. It involves obeying Satan who said:

  And I shall tempt them until they change what Allah has created. [An-Nisaa 4:119]  
  1. An Imitation of Women

The beard is a major distinction between men and women. Shaving it removes this distinction, and is thus a means of imitating women. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

  Allah curses those men who imitate the women, and He curses those women who imitate the men. [Al-Bukhari]
  1. Shaving the Beard Contradicts the Pure Fitrah (Nature)

Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) mentioned ten qualities as indicative of a good, clean nature [Muslim]. Two of these qualities are to trim the moustaches and to grow the beard.

The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also tells that every child is born with a clean, pure fitrah, which later may get deformed by the influence of the environment and the up-bringing. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

In the footsteps of the disbelievers, many Muslims’ fitrah is now, unfortunately, so much deformed that they seem to find a clean-shaven man more handsome and masculine than one with a beard – exactly the opposite of what the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) declared in the above hadith.

This fitrah never changes with time: Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said (what means):

  The pure nature according to which Allah has created people. There is no change in Allah’s creation. [Ar-Room 30:30]  

For shaving their beards, some men give the strange excuse that their wives prefer them without one! As if their purpose in this life is to follow the deformed inclinations of their wives instead of the clear-cut commands of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم)!

Others claim that growing their beards results in an irritability and scratching. This cannot result from abiding by the pure fitrah, but would result (if true) from neglect of the proper cleaning and washing with wudu as instructed in the Sunnah.

What the `Ulamaa and Imams Say

All the `ulamaa of as-Salaf u- li, including the Four Imams, agreed that shaving the beard is haram (prohibited). They considered shaving it an impermissible mutilation, as has been reported about Umar bin Abdil-Aziz. They used to consider the person who shaved his beard effeminate. Many of them would not accept his witness or allow him to lead the prayers.

May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) guide us to abide by His Deen, and to adhere to His Messenger’s Sunnah, and to be among those whom he blessed in both lives.

See also

Islamic, Spiritual and Scientific reasons for wearing a Beard

Qur’an and Hadith on Hijab

muslim-women-hijab-parda-girls-islam-quran-hadith-fatwa-ruling

Praise be to Allaah. Verses that have to do with hijab:

1 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, headcover, apron), and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers or their brother’s sons, or their sister’s sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of feminine sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allaah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful” [al-Noor 24:31] 

2 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allaah is All‑Hearer, All‑Knower” [al-Noor 24:60] 

“Women past childbearing” are those who no longer menstruate, so they can no longer get pregnant or bear children. We shall see below the words of Hafsah bint Sireen and the way in which she interpreted this verse.

3 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” [al-Ahzaab 33:59] 

4 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allaah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allaah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allaah that shall be an enormity” [al-Ahzaab 33:53] 

With regard to the Ahaadeeth: 

1 – It was narrated from Safiyyah bint Shaybah that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) used to say: When these words were revealed–

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)

– they took their izaars (a kind of garment) and tore them from the edges and covered their faces with them. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4481. The following version was narrated by Abu Dawood (4102): May Allaah have mercy on the Muhaajir women. When Allaah revealed the words

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)”,

they tore the thickest of their aprons (a kind of garment) and covered their faces with them. Shaykh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This hadeeth clearly states that what the Sahaabi women mentioned here understood from this verse –

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)

– was that they were to cover their faces, and that they tore their garments and covered their faces with them, in obedience to the command of Allaah in the verse where He said

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)

which meant covering their faces. Thus the fair-minded person will understand that woman’s observing hijab and covering her face in front of men is established in the saheeh Sunnah that explains the Book of Allaah. ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) praised those women for hastening to follow the command of Allaah given in His Book. It is known that their understanding of the words

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)

as meaning covering the face came from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because he was there and they asked him about everything that they did not understand about their religion. And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad) the Dhikr [reminder and the advice (i.e. the Qur’aan)], that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought” [al-Nahl 16:44]

Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari: There is a report of Ibn Abi Haatim via ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Uthmaan ibn Khaytham from Safiyyah that explains that. This report says: We mentioned the women of Quraysh and their virtues in the presence of ‘Aa’ishah and she said: “The women of Quraysh are good, but by Allaah I have never seen any better than the women of the Ansaar, or any who believed the Book of Allaah more strongly or had more faith in the Revelation. When Soorat al-Noor was revealed –

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)

– their menfolk came to them and recited to them what had been revealed, and there was not one woman among them who did not go to her apron, and the following morning they prayed wrapped up as if there were crows on their heads. It was also narrated clearly in the report of al-Bukhaari narrated above, where we see ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), who was so knowledgeable and pious, praising them in this manner and stating that she had never seen any women who believed the Book of Allaah more strongly or had more faith in the Revelation. This clearly indicates that they understood from this verse –

and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)

– that it was obligatory to cover their faces and that this stemmed from their belief in the Book of Allaah and their faith in the Revelation. It also indicates that women’s observing hijab in front of men and covering their faces is an act of belief in the Book of Allaah and faith in the Revelation. It is very strange indeed that some of those who claim to have knowledge say that there is nothing in the Qur’aan or Sunnah that says that women have to cover their faces in front of non-mahram men, even though the Sahaabi women did that in obedience to the command of Allaah in His Book, out of faith in the Revelation, and that this meaning is also firmly entrenched in the Sunnah, as in the report from al-Bukhaari quoted above. This is among the strongest evidence that all Muslim women are obliged to observe hijab. Adwa’ al-Bayaan, 6/594-595.

2 – It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to go out at night to al-Manaasi’ (well known places in the direction of al-Baqee’) to relieve themselves and ‘Umar used to say to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him),

“Let your wives be veiled.”

But the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not do that. Then one night Sawdah bint Zam’ah, the wife of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), went out at ‘Isha’ time and she was a tall woman. ‘Umar called out to her: “We have recognized you, O Sawdah!” hoping that hijab would be revealed, then Allaah revealed the verse of hijab. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 146; Muslim, 2170. 

3 – It was narrated from Ibn Shihaab that Anas said: I am the most knowledgeable of people about hijab. Ubayy ibn Ka’b used to ask me about it. When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married Zaynab bint Jahsh, whom he married in Madeenah, he invited the people to a meal after the sun had risen. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sat down and some men sat around him after the people had left, until the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up and walked a while, and I walked with him, until he reached the door of ‘Aa’ishah’s apartment. Then he thought that they had left so he went back and I went back with him, and they were still sitting there. He went back again, and I went with him, until he reached the door of ‘Aa’ishah’s apartment, then he came back and I came back with him, and they had left. Then he drew a curtain between me and him, and the verse of hijab was revealed. Al-Bukhaari, 5149; Muslim, 1428. 

4 – It was narrated from ‘Urwah that ‘Aa’ishah said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pray Fajr and the believing women would attend (the prayer) with him, wrapped in their aprons, then they would go back to their houses and no one would recognize them.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 365; Muslim, 645. 

5 – It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said:

“The riders used to pass by us when we were with the Messenger of Allaah (S) in ihraam, and when they drew near to us we would lower our jilbabs from our heads over our faces, then when they had passed we would uncover them again.” 

Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1833; Ibn Maajah, 2935; classed as saheeh by Ibn Khuzaymah (4,203) and by al-Albaani in Kitaab Jilbaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah.

6 – It was narrated that Asma’ bint Abi Bakr said:

We used to cover our faces in front of men.

Narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah, 4/203; al-Haakim, 1/624. He classed it as saheeh and al-Dhahabi agreed with him. It was also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Jilbaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah.

7 – It was narrated that ‘Aasim al-Ahwaal said: We used to enter upon Hafsah bint Sireen who had put her jilbab thus and covered her face with it, and we would say to her: May Allaah have mercy on you. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment” [al-Noor 24:60].

And she would say to us: What comes after that? We would say: “But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them”. And she would say: That is confirming the idea of hijab. Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 7/93.

Correct Hijaab   Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The conditions of hijaab:

Firstly:   (It should cover all the body apart from whatever has been exempted). Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):  

“O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

  This aayah clearly states that it is obligatory to cover all of a woman’s beauty and adornments and not to display any part of that before non-mahram men (“strangers”) except for whatever appears unintentionally, in which case there will be no sin on them if they hasten to cover it up. Al-Haafiz ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer:

This means that they should not display any part of their adornment to non-mahrams, apart from that which it is impossible to conceal. Ibn Mas’ood said: such as the cloak and robe, i.e., what the women of the Arabs used to wear, an outer garment which covered whatever the woman was wearing, except for whatever appeared from beneath the outer garment. There is no sin on a woman with regard to this because it is impossible to conceal it.

Secondly   (it should not be an adornment in and of itself). Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):  

“… and not to show off their adornment…” [al-Noor 24:31].

The general meaning of this phrase includes the outer garment, because if it is decorated it will attract men’s attention to her. This is supported by the aayah in Soorat al-Ahzaab (interpretation of the meaning):

“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance” [al-Ahzaab 33:33].

It is also supported by the hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“There are three, do not ask me about them: a man who leaves the jamaa’ah, disobeys his leader and dies disobedient; a female or male slave who runs away then dies; and a woman whose husband is absent and left her with everything she needs, and after he left she made a wanton display of herself. Do not ask about them.”

(Narrated by al-Haakim, 1/119; Ahmad, 6/19; from the hadeeth of Faddaalah bint ‘Ubayd. Its isnaad is saheeh and it is in al-Adab al-Mufrad).

Thirdly: (It should be thick and not transparent or “see-thru”) – because it cannot cover properly otherwise. Transparent or see-thru clothing makes a woman more tempting and beautiful. Concerning this the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“During the last days of my ummah there will be women who are clothed but naked, with something on their heads like the humps of camels. Curse them, for they are cursed.”

Another hadeeth adds:

“They will not enter Paradise or even smell its fragrance, although its fragrance can be detected from such and such a distance.”

(Narrated by Muslim from the report of Abu Hurayrah).

Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) meant was women who wear clothes made of light fabric which describes and does not cover. They are clothed in name but naked in reality. Transmitted by al-Suyooti in Tanweer al-Hawaalik, 3/103.

Fourthly:   (It should be loose, not tight so that it describes any part of the body).

The purpose of clothing is to prevent fitnah (temptation), and this can only be achieved if clothes are wide and loose. Tight clothes, even if they conceal the colour of the skin, still describe the size and shape of the body or part of it, and create a vivid image in the minds of men. The corruption or invitation to corruption that is inherent in that is quite obvious. So the clothes must be wide. Usaamah ibn Zayd said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave me a thick Egyptian garment that was one of the gifts given to him by Duhyat al-Kalbi, and I gave it to my wife to wear. He said, ‘Why do I not see you wearing that Egyptian garment?’ I said, ‘I gave it to my wife to wear.’ He said, ‘Tell her to wear a gown underneath it, for I am afraid that it may describe the size of her bones.’” (Narrated by al-Diyaa’ al-Maqdisi in al-Ahaadeeth al-Mukhtaarah, 1/442, and by Ahmad and al-Bayhaqi, with a hasan isnaad).

Fifthly:   (It should not be perfumed with bakhoor or fragrance)

There are many ahaadeeth which forbid women to wear perfume when they go out of their houses. We will quote here some of those which have saheeh isnaads: Abu Moosa al-Ash’ari said: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Any woman who puts on perfume then passes by people so that they can smell her fragrance, is an adulteress.”

Zaynab al-Thaqafiyyah reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“If any one of you (women) goes out to the mosque, let her not touch any perfume.”

Abu Hurayrah said: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Any woman who has scented herself with bakhoor (incense), let her not attend ‘Ishaa’ prayers with us.”

Moosa ibn Yassaar said that a woman passed by Abu Hurayrah and her scent was overpowering. He said, “O female slave of al-Jabbaar, are you going to the mosque?” She said, “Yes,” He said, “And have you put on perfume because of that?” She said, “Yes.” He said, “Go back and wash yourself, for I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say:

‘If a woman comes out to the mosque and her fragrance is overpowering, Allaah will not accept any prayer from her until she goes home and washes herself.’”

These ahaadeeth are general in implication. Just as the prohibition covers perfume applied to the body, it also covers perfume applied to the clothes, especially in the third hadeeth, where bakhoor (incense) is mentioned, because incense is used specifically to perfume the clothes.

The reason for this prohibition is quite clear, which is that women’s fragrance may cause undue provocation of desires. The scholars also included other things under this heading of things to be avoided by women who want to go to the mosque, such as beautiful clothes, jewellery that can be seen, excessive adornments and mingling with men. See Fath al-Baari, 2/279.

Ibn Daqeeq al-‘Eed said: This indicates that it is forbidden for a woman who wants to go to the mosque to wear perfume, because this causes provocation of men’s desires. This was reported by al-Manaawi in Fayd al-Qadeer, in the commentary on the first hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah quoted above.

Sixthly:   (It should not resemble the clothing of men) It was reported in the saheeh ahaadeeth that a woman who imitates men in dress or in other ways is cursed. There follow some of the ahaadeeth that we know: Abu Hurayrah said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed the man who wears women’s clothes, and the woman who wears men’s clothes.”

‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say:

‘They are not part of us, the women who imitate men and the men who imitate women.’”

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed effeminate men and masculine women. He said, ‘Throw them out of your houses.’” He said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) expelled So and so, and ‘Umar expelled So and so.” According to another version: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed men who imitate women and women who imitate men.” ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

‘There are three who will not enter Paradise and Allaah will not even look at them on the Day of Resurrection: one who disobeys his parents, a woman who imitates men, and the duyooth (cuckold, weak man who feels no jealousy over his womenfolk).”

Ibn Abi Maleekah – whose name was ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Ubayd-Allaah – said: “It was said to ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), ‘What if a woman wears (men’s) sandals?’ She said: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed women who act like men.’”

These ahaadeeth clearly indicate that it is forbidden for women to imitate men and vice versa, This usually includes dress and other matters, apart from the first hadeeth quoted above, which refers to dress only.

Abu Dawood said, in Masaa’il al-Imaam Ahmad (p. 261): “I heard Ahmad being asked about a man who dresses his slave woman in a tunic. He said, ‘Do not clothe her in men’s garments, do not make her look like a man.” Abu Dawood said: “I said to Ahmad, Can he give her bachelor sandals to wear? He said, No, unless she wears them to do wudoo’. I said, What about for beauty? He said, No. I said, Can he cut her hair short? He said, No.”

Seventhly:   (It should not resemble the dress of kaafir women).

It is stated in sharee’ah that Muslims, men and women alike, should not resemble or imitate the kuffaar with regard to worship, festivals or clothing that is specific to them. This is an important Islamic principle which nowadays, unfortunately, is neglected by many Muslims, even those who care about religion and calling others to Islam. This is due either to ignorance of their religion, or because they are following their own whims and desires, or because of deviation, combined with modern customs and imitation of kaafir Europe. This was one of the causes of the Muslims’ decline and weakness, which enabled the foreigners to overwhelm and colonize them.

“…Verily, Allaah will not change the condition of a people as long as they do not change their state themselves …” [al-Ra’d 13:11 – interpretation of the meaning].

If only they knew. It should be known that there is a great deal of saheeh evidence for these important rules in the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and that the evidence in the Qur’aan is elaborated upon in the Sunnah, as is always the case.

Eighthly:   (It should not be a garment of fame and vanity). Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

‘Whoever wears a garment of fame and vanity in this world, Allaah will clothe him in a garment of humiliation on the Day of Resurrection, then He will cause Fire to flame up around him.’”

(Hijaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah, p. 54-67).

And Allaah knows best.

We Must Follow the Prophet (ﷺ)

follow-prophet

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) addressing His prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), in surat Al-Emran, (verse 31), what can be translated as, “Say: “If you do love Allah, follow me, Allah will love you, and forgive your sins. For Allah is oft forgiving most merciful.” “

And also, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) addressing His believing servants, in surat Al-Ahzab, (verse21), what can be translated as, “You have indeed in the Apostle of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the final day, and who engaged much in the praise of Allah.”

Thus, the two aforementioned verses address two vital issues:

First, the way to love Allah is reached through adherence to the prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), which is fulfilled through the obedience and imitation of the prophet.

Second, the imitation of the prophet (ﷺ) is not achieved without anticipating Allah’s satisfaction and the final day, and without continually giving praise to Allah, and here are the details.

The anticipating of Allah’s satisfaction: A believer hopes not to satisfy except Allah and endeavors not but for His sake, and relives not but upon him. All that because Allah is the creator of all things, and every thing is in his hand. Let’s listen to what a believers has to say when his heart is attached to Allah alone, regarding this, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in surat Ash-Shu’ara’, (verse 79-82), what can be translated as, “Who gives me food and drink, and when I am ill, it is he who cures me; who will cause me to die, and then to live again, and who, I hope, will forgive me my faults on the Final Day.”

In addition, Muslims believes that Allah is the only sources of all substance. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said in surat Az-Zariat, (verse 58), what can be translated as, “For Allah is he who gives (all) substance, Lord of power, steadfast (for ever).

Muslim also believes, what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in surat Fatr, (verse 41), what can be translated as, “Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him…”

Muslims also, surely believe, that life and death are controlled by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) alone. This is from what Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says in surat Az-Zummar, (verse 42), what can be translated as, “It is Allah that takes the soul (of man) at death.”

This is the most fundamental thing in aqeedah of the Muslims, is the fact that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is the supreme commander and all things apart from Allah are merely causes created by Him.

Although the Muslim takes all precaution ordered by Allah, he does not rely on it, but upon Allah alone. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)says in surat Al-Ma’edah, (verse 23), what can be translated as, “But on Allah put your trust if you are truly believers.” Allah also said in surat At-Talaq, (verse 3), what can be translated as, “And if any one puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him.”

Thus, by understanding this reality of the aqeedah of the Muslim, we then understand the secret of the security and the steadfastness that the Muslims enjoyed in facing various hardships and horrors in their lives. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in surat Al-Ahzab, (verse 22), what can be translated as, “When the believers saw the confederate forces. They said: “this is what Allah and his apostle had promised us, and Allah and his apostle told us what was true. “And it only increased their faith and their zeal in abidance.”

In another occasion, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in surat Al-Emran, (verse 173 & 174), what can be translated as, “Men said to them: “A great army is gathering against you.” And frightened them. But it only increased their faith, they said: “For us Allah sufficeth, find he is the best disposer of affairs. “And they returned with Grace and bounty from Allah. No harm ever touched them. For they followed the good pleasure of Allah: and Allah is the Lord of bounties unbounded.”

On the other hand, once a Muslim’s belief weakens, relying and depending upon anything apart from Allah, then Allah will interest him to what he relied on and he will be given the taste of defeat and distraction. This is the pattern of Allah in His creation which did not cease in the past nor shall it cease from functioning in the present or the future. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)says in surat Al-Ahzab, (verse 62), what can be translated as, “That was the Sunnah (pattern-way) of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old, and you will not find any change in the Sunnah of Allah.”

Defeat had been the fruit of depending on other than Allah. In a generation which is the best generation among which the prophet (ﷺ) existed, when the Muslim armies where in great number and came to the battle of Hunan, some of the soldiers out of their big number thought they will never be defeated by the few. This features the non-reliance upon Allah while relying upon abundance for victory. The results: total defeat, and the verses of the Qur’an came to clarify this lesson that must not be forgotten by Muslims… Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in surat At-Tawbah, (verse25), what can be translated as, “And on the day of Hunain: Behold! Your great numbers Elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and you turned back in retreat.”

Today, in various parts of the world, Muslims have sustained many defeats in the various domains as a result of depending on other than Allah.

Resent years witnessed the declining of the Muslim ummah because of depending upon its enemies in encountering other enemies. Years in the laps of the east, or those of the west, but all that went in vain. Even worse, the consequence was more defeat and more loss.

As for the prevailing poverty issue throughout the Islamic world, the Muslims relied upon a set of conventional and imported systems some from the east and others west, which lead to the worsening, and deterioration of the status of the Muslims. All this goes on, while we are reciting and listening to the Qur’an, when Allah says in surat Al-Araf, (verse 96), what can be translated as, “If the people the towns had but believed and feared Allah, we should indeed have opened out to them (all kinds of) blessings from heaven and earth; but they rejected (the truth), and we brought them to look for their misdeeds.”

To resolve the issue of ignorance, they imported educational curricula were adopted which were based upon atheism and the defiance of the creator. They also important non-Islamic educational systems, that resulted in increasing the ignorance and illiteracy among the Muslims.

To resolve the issue of division, they imported different types of nationalism and patriotism, which also resulted in more division, to the point of Muslims fighting each other.

Nowadays, many problems exist in our Muslim Ummah, all which resulted from not depending only on Allah and not following his Book and His Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ). We should always remember that nothing would improve and benefit this Ummah today, except what benefited it in the past.

Forty Ahadith On The Islamic Personality

golden-rule-religion

Introduction

All praise and thanks are due to Allâh  . We praise and give thanks to Him. We seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek Allâh’s refuge from the evil of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whomsoever Allâh guides then none can misguide him, and whomsoever He misguides then none can guide him. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allâh  , alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad   is His slave and His Messenger – to proceed:

This is a concise book which contains forty authentic ahadîth (1) from the fine sayings of the Chosen Prophet  which have been gathered as a reminder for all. They contain guidance for cultivation of souls, purification of the hearts and refinement of character. It will not be unknown to any of the people that the noble Religion of Islâm has given great importance, and directed full attention in many of the texts of the Book and the Sunnah, to building the personality of the Muslim and directing it in accordance with the essential teachings of Islâm and its fundamentals and requirements.

A major incentive behind this work was the presence of dua’t (callers) to Islâm, who were far removed from the Islâmic personality in both essence and outward manner and appearance. We ask Allâh  to protect and grant us safety. Hence this treatise was compiled as a firm and strong nucleus for the Muslim to initiate his Islâmic life, to know the true way, follow it and call to it. Particularly since the Prophet  has indicated this reality with his saying: “For every action there is a period of enthusiasm / activity, and for every period of enthusiasm / activity there is a period of rest / inactivity. So he whose period of rest / inactivity is in accordance with my Sunnah then he is rightly guided, but he whose period of rest / inactivity accords with other than this, then he is destroyed.” (2)

So this book is presented for the enthusiastic Muslim youth who does not find, whilst swimming in the ocean of enthusiasm and excitement, the helping hand of one who knows the poison and is aware of the cure, one who can guide him to the correct way and correct thinking so that these youths can be with their minds and thoughts like the Companions of the Prophet  since they were also youths, but: “They were youths, yet mature youths, their eyes fresh and free of evil, their feet refrained from approaching falsehood and futility. They sacrificed and expended themselves in worship and in withholding themselves from sleep. They sold their souls which were to pass away for souls which would never die. Allâh  saw them in the latter part of the night, bending their backs, reciting the Qur’ân. Whenever one of them came to an Ayah mentioning Paradise, he would weep, longing for it. Whenever he came upon an Ayah mentioning the fire he would groan out of fear, as if the Hell-fire were directly in front of him. The earth devoured their knees their hands and their foreheads. They joined exhaustion in the night with exhaustion in the day. Their colour becoming yellowed and their bodies emaciated through standing long in prayer and frequent fasting – whilst they regarded their own actions to be negligible before Allâh  . They fulfilled their covenant with Allâh and attained Allâh’s promise.” (3)

So let us all hasten to be like them, and to resemble them since the affair is as it was said: “We are not in comparison to those who came before except like small herbs growing beside the trunks of tall palm trees.” (4) And as Ibn ul Mubarak said: “Do not mention us whilst mentioning them, the fit and healthy when he walks is not like the crippled.” (5) This offering attempts to gather those ahadith which are the most comprehensive, although Islâmic Personality will not be completed until the person follows and implements the Religion(Dîn) of Allâh the One free of all imperfections, and the Most High as He(SWT) has ordered: “O you who believe! Enter into Islâm perfectly (completely).” (6)

  1. Purity and Sincerity of Intention

From ‘Umar ibn al-Khattâb   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “Actions are but by intentions and there is for every person only that which he intended. So he whose migration was for Allâh   and His Messenger, then his migration was for Allâh  and His Messenger, and he whose migration was to attain some worldly goal or to take a woman in marriage, then his migration was for that which he migrated.” (7) So the pillar of actions is pure and sincere intention, and through purity of intention the hearts become upright and at rest, and through it the person comes to know the right way in his Religion, thus he does everything in the proper manner. Through purity of intention alone will he come to know of the obligations upon him and the rights due to him. Through it he will behave justly in all affairs and will give everything its due right, not going beyond bounds or falling short of the mark. So this hadîth is one of the ahadîth which are the pillars of correct understanding of our upright and true religion. (8) So when the Muslim servant clearly realises what he has preceded then it becomes obligatory upon him that he should, without any hesitation, surround his sincere intention with the protective barrier for the Islâmic personality which is:

  1. Distinctness

From Ibn ‘Umar (RAmaa) who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “I have been sent before the Hour so that Allâh  alone should be worshipped without any partner for Him, and my provision has been placed beneath the shade of my spear, and subservience and humiliation have been placed upon those who disobey my orders, and whoever imitates a people then he is one of them.” (9) The Muslim has a distinct personality with its own special nature and particular outlook and manner. It is distinct in its appearance, its nature, its creed (‘aqîdah), its orientation and direction faced in Prayer, and in all its affairs. By being distinct as Muslims we preserve our Islâm and our call in a clear and pure form, free from any adulteration and mistakes. However the Muslim whilst being distinct does not depart from:

  1. Justice and Being Justly Balanced

From Abû Hurayrah who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “Love the one whom you love to a certain degree (moderately), perhaps one day he will be someone for whom you have hatred, and hate the one for whom you have hatred to a certain degree (moderately), perhaps one day he will be one whom you love.” (10) The Muslim is justly balanced in his loving and his hating. He is just both when giving and when taking and is moderate in all of that. His being justly balanced is one of the signs of his Religion and the Sharî’ah. So he is not one who goes beyond the limits, nor one who falls short of what is required. Furthermore the Muslim does not derive this quality of being justly balanced from his intellect and desires, nor from his own opinion or other than this, rather he takes it from the Book of Allâh, the One free of all imperfections. “Thus we have made you a justly balanced nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger   be a witness over you.” (11) Being justly balanced is not an easy matter, indeed many of those who call out and declare it, desire only to water matters down and compromise. So for a person to be truly justly balanced as ordered by Allâh  is not, as I have said, easy, rather it requires:

  1. Striving Against One’s Desires

From al-‘Alâ ibn Ziyâd who said: “A man asked ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas, saying: Which of the Believers is best in his Islâm? He replied: “He from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe.” He asked: Then what is the best Jihâd? He replied: “He who strives against his own self and desires for Allâh .” He asked: Then which of those who migrates (performs hijrah) is best? He replied: “He who strives against his own self and desires for Allâh.” He asked: Is it something you have said O ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, or Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  ? He said: Rather Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said it.” (12) So striving against ones own self is one of the highest and most valuable means of increasing ones eemaan and causing the servant to draw closer to his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer), the One free of all imperfections. Concerning this He the Blessed and Most High says: “As for those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths (i.e. Allâh’s Religion).” (13) So a Muslim’s striving against his own self and his desires causes his spirit to rise higher, his îmân to increase and his soul to become purified. Furthermore this striving crowns the Muslim with a very great crown worn in his life, which is:

  1. Gentleness

From Abû Hurayrah  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “Indeed Allâh is gentle and loves gentleness, and gives due to gentleness that which He does not give to harshness.” (14) So through gentleness hearts become united in friendship and love, and good becomes widespread. Whereas through its opposite ill feelings and distrust prevails and people forsake one another. But gentleness facilitates:

  1. Returning to the Truth

From Ibn ‘Abbâs (RAmaa) who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “There is no believing servant except that he has a sin which he commits from time to time, or a sin in which he persists in and does not abandon until he leaves this world. Indeed the Believer was created as one who is frequently tried and tested, who often repents (then) forgets. When he is admonished he accepts the admonition.” (15) So it is as is said: Returning to the truth is a virtue whereas continuing in falsehood is despicable. Returning to the truth elevates a person and raises his rank, both with Allâh  and the people. Indeed it is only Satan who makes it appear to the people that returning to the truth is a defect and a slight to one’s honor. This is one of the deceptions and tricks employed by Iblees. A person returning to the truth and not being too proud to accept it places him in an ideal position to appreciate:

  1. Responsibility

From ‘Umar   who said that Allâh ‘s Messenger  said: “Each of you is a guardian and is responsible for those whom he is in charge of. So the ruler is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects; a man is the guardian of his family and is responsible for those under his care; a woman is a guardian of her husband’s home and is responsible for those under her care; a servant is the guardian of his master’s wealth and is responsible for that which he is entrusted with; and a man is the guardian of his father’s wealth and is responsible fore what is under his care. So each one of you is a guardian and is responsible for what he is entrusted with.” (16) So if everyone from this Ummah knew his own position and worth, and realized the responsibility upon him and did not seek to overstep it and take on the responsibilities of others and he carried out the obligations which this placed upon him, then that would be a comprehensive and universal good and a very great treasure through which safety and security would become widespread. Along with this something that is a feature of the Islâmic personality is:

  1. The Muslim Seeks to Make Excuses for Other Muslims

From Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “…and there is no one who loves to accept an excuse more than Allâh, and because of this he sent the bringers of good news and the warners….” (17) So a Muslim seeking to make an excuse for his brother and those whom he loves will cause good will to spread instead of antagonism, and will bring about ties of relationship instead of estrangement. Since if Allâh , He who is free of all imperfections, grants excuse, and He is the Creator and the Most Great, then how can you O servant of Allâh, a weak creation of his, not seek to make excuse for others? Rather as is said: Seek an excuse for your brother (18). Likewise there is the saying: the believers seek to make excuses for others, whereas the hypocrites hope for the downfall of others. So the fact that the Muslim seeks to excuse his brothers emphasizes that:

  1. The Muslim does not Harbor Envy

From Ibn Mas’ood (RAmaa) who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “There is to be no envy except with regard to two (19): A man whom Allâh has given wealth which he strives to spend righteously, and a man to whom Allâh   has given the Wisdom (i.e. the Qur’aan) and he acts according to it and teaches it to others.” (20) If he were to have envy of the people he would hope for their downfall in order to satisfy the pride that he has in himself, his vanity and the conceitedness of his mind. So he (the Muslim) knows that envy is a dangerous disease and a harmful evil and therefore keeps away from it. As for the envy which is accepted from that which is sinful, then it is envy which does not cause the person to be afflicted by the sickness of wishing for that blessing to leave the other person. Rather he supplicates to his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer), the One free of all imperfections, for his brother; that Allâh should protect him, and for himself; that Allâh should make him like him. As for that which is at variance with this, then it is blameworthy and to be condemned (21). So this emphasizes that fact that the Muslim is one who is:

  1. Following and Applying Divine Guidance

From Umm ud-Dardâ (radiyAllâhu ‘anhaa) who said: I said to Abû Dardâ  : Will you not seek for things to entertain your guests just as others seek for things for their guests? So he replied: I heard Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) say: “Ahead of you is a steep mountain which will not be surmounted by those who are overburdened.” So I wish to lighten my load for that ascent! (22) So the Muslim follows and applies divine guidance in all his affairs. This world to him is merely a passage to the hereafter and he has no attachment to it except for that which is essential in order to meet his needs and preserve himself. But as for this world diverting most of his attention and being the goal which he seeks after, thinking that what he is doing is good, then this is not from the character or characteristics of the Muslim. So how strange is the case of the people who waste the prime of their lives and expend their youth submerged in worldly actions, thinking they are doing good. This is indeed something from Satan, made alluring by him. So how are there people able to do this when it is the case that:

  1. The Muslim Has No Free Time

From Ibn ‘Abbaas (RAmaa) who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “There are two blessings which many people lose: health and free time.” (23) So how can one who has no free time preoccupy himself with this world? How can one whose time is filled experience free time? So consider, may Allâh  have Mercy upon you, what one of the scholars said about one of the Imaams: ‘I was a neighbour of his at the school in Cairo, my house was above his house. For twelve years, I did not awake on any night, at any hour of the night except that I noticed candle light in his house and he was occupied with knowledge. Even when he was eating, his books would be with him and he was occupied with them (24). From those things upon which the Muslim personality is built is:

  1. The Muslim’s Piety and Self Restraint

From an-Nu’maan ibn Basheer   who said that I heard Allâh ‘s Messenger  say: “That which is lawful is clear, and that which is forbidden is clear, and between them are doubtful matters about which many of the people have no knowledge. So whoever avoids doubtful matters saves his Religion and his honor, and whoever falls into doubtful matters falls into what is forbidden. Just like a shepherd who grazes (his sheep) near to a private pasture (of another), he will soon stray on to it. Indeed for every king there is a private preserve. Indeed the preserve of Allâh are those things which He has forbidden. Indeed there is a piece of flesh in the body which if it is good, then the whole body is good, but if it is corrupt then the whole body is corrupt. Indeed it is the heart.” (25) So the Muslim with regard to whatever situation arises in his life will have to face each of them with one of the following three stances:

  1. Completely refraining from it: That is with regards to that which is doubtful.
  2. Accepting without constraint: That is with regard to which is clearly permissible.
  3. To abstain from it: This is with regards to things which are not clearly permissible nor clearly forbidden.

If the last stance indicates something it is an indication of a Muslim’s piety and fear of falling into that which is forbidden and of entering into something evil. The Muslim therefore abstains from it, and distances himself from it in order to please Allâh and to ensure that His commands are followed. It is not to be said, as some people say: ‘That is not forbidden, so do it.’ No, since it is not permissible to do everything other than which has been forbidden. So those things which are doubtful matters are closer to that which is forbidden, as occurs in the hadîth itself: ‘Whoever falls into the doubtful matters falls into what is forbidden….’ So this fear and piety confirms that:

  1. The Muslim is Honest and Truthful in All His Affairs

From Abû Hurayrah  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Three things are the sign of the hypocrite: when he speaks he tells lies, when he promises he breaks it and when he is trusted he proves to be dishonest.” (26) So he is truthful and honest in his speech, faithful to his promise, trustworthy in carrying out that which he has been entrusted with. He does not deceive or defraud, he does not tell lies and is not guilty of hypocrisy. So truthfulness and honesty is one of the chief good qualities, whereas falsehood is the head of corruption and evil. So his honesty keeps him far away from evil and foul deeds and sickness of the heart. Therefore whatever action he does, he does it for Allâh  , the One free and far removed from all defects, not to attain some worldly position, fame or repute. So his motto is:

  1. Knowledge for Knowledge

From Jaabir  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) (salAllâhu ‘aliahi wa’sallam) said: “Do not acquire knowledge in order to compete with the scholars, nor to argue with the ignorant, nor to gain mastery over the gatherings. Since whoever does that, then: The Fire! The Fire!” (27) Consider, May Allâh  have mercy on you, the admonition and the lesson contained in what Ibn Abee Haatim ar-Raazee narrates, he said: I entered into Damascus upon the students of hadîth and I passed by the circle of Qaasim al-Joo’ee. I found a group sitting around him and he was speaking. Their appearance amazed me and I heard him saying: ‘Seize the benefit of five things from the people of your time: when you are present you are not known; when you are absent you are not missed; when you are seen your advice is not sought; when you say something your saying is not accepted; and when you have some knowledge you are not given anything for it. I also advise you with five things: when you are treated unjustly then do not behave unjustly; when you are praised then do not become happy; when you are criticized do not be upset; when you are not believed then do not become angry; and if they act deceitfully towards you do not act deceitfully towards them.’ Ibn Abee Haatim said: So I took that as my benefit from Damascus.So consider, May Allâh protect us and you from the evils of the soul, how sincere desire for knowledge and benefit led him to listen to one who certainly possessed less knowledge than himself in order to benefit his understanding and to acquire some knowledge. Another matter that must be mentioned here is that:

  1. The Believer is a Mirror for His Brother

From Abû Hurayrah  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “The believer is a mirror for the believer, and the believer is the brother of the believer. He safeguards his property for him and defends him from behind.” (28) So the description of his being a ‘mirror’ is very precise and profound showing the culmination of brotherhood and solidarity. So your brother, O servant of Allâh, is an image of you yourself. Sao if he behaves badly it is as if you are the one who has behaved badly, and if he makes a mistake, it is as if you have made a mistake. So he is a mirror for you and then an image of you yourself! So do not treat him except with mildness and gentleness. If you do not behave with your brother in this manner, then this will be something which weakens:

  1. The Muslim’s Struggle and his Devil

From Iyaad ibn Himaar al Mujaashi’ee  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “Indeed my Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) ordered me to teach you that which you do not know, from that which He taught me this day, (instructing me): ‘The wealth which I confer upon a servant is all lawful for him, and I created all My servants having natural inclination to the true way but the devils came to them and turned them away from their (true) Religion, and they forbade for them that which I made lawful for them, and they ordered them to associate in worship with Me that for which I sent down no authority.’ Allâh looked upon the people of the earth and hated them, the Arabs and the non-Arabs, except for some remnants of the People of the Book, and He said: ‘I sent you only to put you to the test and to tests others through you, and I sent down to you a Book which cannot be washed away by water, which you will retain and recite whilst asleep and whilst awake.’ Allâh ordered me to destroy the Quraysh so I said: ‘O my Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) they would break my head just as bread is broken.’ So He said: ‘Turn them out just as they turned you out, and fight them and We shall aid you, and spend and We shall provide for you. Send an army and We will send five more like it. Fight along with those who disobey you. The people of paradise are three: The ruler who is just, who spends in charity and is guided to do good; and a man who is merciful and kind hearted towards every relative and Muslim; and the chaste one who does not beg despite having a family to support. The people of the fire are five: The weak who does not have the will to avoid evil, those amongst you who are merely followers (of others), they do not seek after family or wealth; and the dishonest whose greed cannot be concealed even in the case of minor things; and a man who will betray you morning and evening with regard to your family and your wealth (He also mentioned miserliness or telling lies) and the person of evil manners and foul speech.’ ” (29)  So this is very ancient conflict, continuing since the time when Allâh, the One free and far removed from all defects, created Aadam, ‘alaihis-salaam, and what occurred between him and Satan is well known. This conflict will be intensified or diminished depending on the servant’s closeness to or distance away from his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer). Consider also his   saying: Satan has despaired that those who pray should worship him, but he seeks to provoke animosity between them. (30) So let this be a warning for us, and its opposite be glad tidings. We must not leave any way for Satan to enter upon our hearts through our actions, granting him neither full nor partial access. Indeed his deceptions are many and his traps abundant. (31) So beware of this, O servant of Allâh  , and do not let Satan trap you with his snares and his tricks, and your impregnable fortress against him is:

  1. Remembrance of Allâh

From Nu’maan ibn Basheer   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Supplication (ad-Du’aa) is worship, your Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) the Mighty and Majestic said: ‘Call upon Me – I will respond to your invocation.’ (32) ” (33) Supplication is the head of remembrance of Allâh. Indeed he   said: …and I order you to make mention to Allâh much, and the like of that is a man being chased by the enemy who are hastening after him until he comes to a protected fortress and so he protects himself in it. Likewise is the servant, for he does not protect himself from Satan except through remembrance of Allâh, the Mighty and Majestic. (34) So a Muslim remembering his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer), the One free and far removed from all defects, places him in a position of safety and protection which Satan is unable to overcome. So this prevents him from many sins and numerous negative traits pertaining to the tongue, the limbs and the heart. Therefore:

  1. The Muslim Does Not Fall Into Backbiting

From Ibn ‘Umar (RAmaa) who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Whoever intercedes and prevents one of the punishments prescribed by Allâh, the Mighty and Majestic, then he has opposed Allâh regarding His orders. Whoever dies with a debt due on him then it will not be repaid by deenaars and dirhams but rather by good and bad deeds. Whoever disputes for something which he knows is false then he remains in Allâh’s anger until he desists. Whoever accuses a believer of something that is untrue then Allâh will make him dwell in the pus flowing from the inhabitants of the Fire and he will not leaver until he retracts from what he said.” (35) So the lethal plague of backbiting destroys one’s good deeds, destroys brotherhood and destroys one’s reward. So the true Muslim does not backbite, nor does he allow backbiting to take place in his presence. So let those people fear Allâh, those whose bodies do not develop and those whose spirit is not fed except upon spreading rumors and inventing lies against the servants of Allâh  claiming that ‘this is for the benefit of da’wah!’ How strange! What benefit to the da’wah will be achieved through slandering, backbiting and mentioning bad manners to others? Do you think, O you who backbites the people, that you are far removed form defect? O you who can only see the deficiencies of others, do you think that you are free from any mistakes? ‘…rather you are full of deficiencies and the people have tongues!’ Also from those things which must be known is that:

  1. The Muslim Does Not Pry into the Matters that do not Concern Him

From Abû Hurayrah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “From the perfection of a person’s Islâm is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him.” (36) So he halts at his limits and does not exceed and pass beyond them. He knows that prying into that which does not concern him and asking about it is not fitting for him. Rather it is forbidden for him and something he has to avoid. So he complies with Allâh’s orders and keeps away from what he has forbidden, since:

  1. All of His Actions are for Allâh

From Abû Hurayrah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Whoever loves for Allâh  and hates for Allâh, gives for Allâh and withholds for Allâh, then he has completed eemaan.” (37,38) So this hadîth clearly shows the manner in which the believer conducts all his affairs and behaves in all his dealings, all of them are for Allâh and he does not give a share in any of them to other than Him, the One free and far removed from all imperfections. In all his affairs he distances himself from seeking after personal gain and enjoyment. In his loving and hating, giving and withholding he seeks only Allâh’s pleasure and His Paradise. He does not seek after the worldly positions, wealth or reputation! Then if he falls into the like of this he repents and turns back to his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer), so:

  1. The Muslim Repents and Turns Back to Allâh

From Abû Sa’îd al-Khudrî   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “The example of the believer with regards to eemaan is like the example of a horse with regards to its tethering stake; it roams around and then returns to its tethering stake, and the believer is negligent and then he turns to his eemaan. So feed the pious with your food and treat the believers well.” (39) So he does not persist upon sin, or treat it lightly. Rather like the rest of the children of Aadam he commits many sins. However he is frequent in turning back in repentance to his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer). So what has preceded will clearly show us:

  1. The Essential Characteristics of His Personality

From Abû Hurayrah  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “Two characteristics are not found together in a hypocrite: good manners and understanding of the Religion.” (40) So his manners are the manners of the righteous people, and his behavior that of the servants of the Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) of the worlds. He emulates the pious and follows in the footsteps of the sincere. His heart and his behavior agree, he is not like the weak who take pains to put on a good appearance whereas their hearts are empty! His knowledge and understanding of the Religion is deep and springs from a good and sensitive heart, and precise memory. However his good manners and knowledge and understanding of the Religion do not prevent him from:

  1. Honest Jesting

From Abû Hurayrah   who said: We said: O Messenger of Allâh! You jest with us? He said  : “Yes except that I do not say except what is true.” (41) So falsehood has no share of this, and lies cannot approach it. So his jesting is with words that are true. Nor does this mean that he is to expend all his time in lightheartedness and jesting. Rather in this and in all matters he follows the footsteps of the Companions, May Allâh  be pleased with them all, and their way in this regard was:

  1. A Time for This and a Time for That

From Hanzalah al-Usayyidee who said:”Abu Bakr met me and asked: How are you O Hanzalah? I Replied: Hanzalah is guilty of hypocrisy! He said: Free is Allâh  and far removed from all defects! What are you saying? I said: When we are with Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  and he reminds us of the Fire and Paradise it is as if we were seeing it with our own eyes. Then when we depart from Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   and attend our wives, our children and our business, then much of this slips from our mind. Abu Bakr said: By Allâh we also experience the same. So I went with Abu Bakr until we entered upon Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  I said: Hanzalah is guilty of hypocrisy O Messenger of Allâh.  So Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: And how is that? I said When we are with you, you remind us of the Fire and of Paradise and it is as if we are seeing it with our own eyes. Then when we depart from you and attend our wives, our children and our business then much of this slips from our minds. So Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: By Him in whose hand is my soul if you remained continually as you are when you are with me and in remembering (Allâh) then the angels would shake hands with you upon your beds and upon your roads. But O Hanzalah, (there is) a time for this and a time for that, (there is) a time for this and a time for that, (there is) a time for this and a time for that.” (42) So both of these times are regulated by the orders of Allâh  , as has preceded. His time for serious matters is regulated according to the Book and the Sunnah, and his jesting is kept free of anything forbidden and accompanied only by that which Allâh  has prescribed. So he does not, through negligence, allow his jesting to become a way in which he falls into sin. Indeed how could he do this when:

  1. He Does Not Take Sins Lightly

From Sahl ibn Sa’d   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Beware of sins which are treated as being minor, just like a people who encamp in the centre of a valley, so someone brings a stick of firewood and someone else brings a stick until they are therefore able to bake their bread. Likewise sins which are treated as being minor and for which the person is taken to account will destroy him.” (43) So it is just as the noble companion ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood said: The believer sees his sins as if he were sitting beneath a mountain which he feared was about to fall upon him, whereas the wicked sees his sins like a man who finds a fly settle upon his nose, so he does this (one of the narrators said: He brushes it away from his nose).44  The Muslim should realize the greatness of hid Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer), the One free and far from all imperfections, and His tremendous Power and Might, and he should not think of the sin as being great or small! Rather he should think of it with regard to the One he is disobeying. Those sins which are ignored by the weak hearted cause their destruction by removing eemaan and fear of Allâh  from their hearts. When a person regards sins and acts of disobedience as something slight the he is one who is oppressing his own soul, and that should never occur, since:

  1. The Muslim Does not Commit Oppression

From Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah    who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Beware of committing oppression for on the Day of Resurrection oppression will be darkness, and beware of avarice for avarice destroyed those who came before you, it led them into shedding blood and into making lawful that which was forbidden for them.” (45) Oppression is of two types: (i) A person oppressing his own soul and (ii) his oppressing others. Both of these have been forbidden by Allâh , the One free and far from all imperfections. So a person oppressing his own soul causes him to feel at home with his sins and to commit them, and causes him to abandon acts of obedience to Allâh . The true Muslim is far removed from all of this and furthermore:

  1. He is not a carrier of Malicious Reports

From Anas ibn Maalik   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: Do you know what calumny (al-‘Adh) is? They said: Allâh and his Messenger  know best. He said: “Conveying the words of some people to others in order to create mischief between them.” (46)Tale-carrying is a foul disease; when it enters the heart it corrupts it, and when the heart is corrupt the rest of the body becomes corrupt and ones actions are destroyed. The sickness of tale-carrying only finds a place in hearts which are filled with love of this world, the hearts of those who use the Religion for lowly and despicable ends, and we seek Allâh’s refuge from that! However, as for the sincere Muslim who strives to follow and apply the guidance sent by his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer), then:

  1. He is not Attached to This World

From Sahl ibn Aa’d  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Jibreel came to me and said: O Muhammad! Live as you will for you must certainly die; love whom you will since you must certainly leave him; act as you will since you shall certainly be given due reward for it; know that the believers eminence is his standing in prayer during the night, and his honor is having sufficiency without dependency upon the people.” (47) The person who lives attached to this world is poor with regard to his Religion and intellect, he does not realize that this worlds, for the one having no Religion is the road to degradation, the path to corruption and the key to evil and foul deeds. Whereas the Muslim who is sincere to his Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) and his own soul and with his brothers should be an excellent example to those who thirst after this world and the few dirhams and deenaars. He should be a lesson for them that there is no good in that, and that good lies only in taking this world as a means of increasing one’s rank with regard to the Religion and seeking to purify one’s heart. However these two will not be achieved except through:

  1. Disassociation from this World

From Aboo Umaamah Iyaas ibn Tha’labah who said: The Companions of Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   mentioned this world one day in his presence, so Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Will you not listen, will you not listen! Wearing old clothes is part if eemaan, wearing old clothes is part of eemaan!” (48) Zuhd (abstemiousness) is to have little regard for this world, to manifest ones poverty and need before Allâh, to treat the servants of Allâh kindly and gently, to avoid spending lavishly upon clothing, food and drink, and to avoid fame. Zuhd is not the rejection of the favours of Allâh, the One free and far removed from all defects, bestows upon some of His servants, rather it is as Shaykhul-Islâm Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullaah, said: Keep away from that which does not bring benefit, either because it contains no benefit at all, or because something other than it is more beneficial, so that by doing the first he would be missing greater benefit, or because it will produce something whose harm will grow to outweigh its benefit. But as regards things which are purely beneficial or predominantly, then avoidance of them is stupidity.49 Therefore there is to be no abstemiousness with regard to:

  1. Good Actions

From Abû Hurayrah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Charity (sadaqah) is due upon every joint of a person on every day that the sun rises. Administering justice between two people is an act of charity; and to help a man concerning his riding beast by helping him on to it or lifting his luggage on to it is an act of charity; a good word is charity; and every step which you take to prayer is charity; and removing that which is harmful from the road is charity.” (50) So if the servant is able to spend all his days and nights in obedience to Allâh , and in doing actions pleasing to Him, then let him do so! [Author’s text abridged hereafter] Even though abstemiousness is to be given special attention by the rich due to their ability to spend and their wealth, as opposed to the poor, then this will not prevent the Muslim, rich or poor, from having a contented and rich soul, since:

  1. The Muslim is Contented and Satisfied

From Abû Hurayrah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said:”Richness is not having many belongings, but richness is the richness of the soul (contentment).” (51) So the greatest of riches you can attain, O servant of Allâh, is contentment of ones soul, and having a contented heart and this will not be achieved except through humbling oneself before Allâh , the One free from and far removed from all defects, and calling upon Him in supplication and in placing reliance upon Him. So he whose soul is contented and rich will increase in his:

  1. Devotion to the Religion of Islâm

From Ka’b ibn Maalik al-Ansaaree   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “Two hungry wolves let loose amongst sheep will not cause more harm to them than a persons craving after wealth and status will do to his Religion.” (52) So flee, May Allâh have mercy upon you, from this mad craving after this world and its finery, and there is no salvation from that which has been destined for a person. [Author’s text abridged hereafter]  So he who wishes for salvation then let it be the case that his desire for his Religion is his foundation and guiding principle, if this is so then Allâh  will protect him and protect his religion. Then from the comprehensive matters that should be known is:

  1. How the Muslim Deals With People

From Aa’ishah  (radiyAllâhu ‘anhaa) who said that a man sought permission to enter upon the Prophet , so he said: “Give permission to him and what a bad son of his people (or: what a bad man of his people). Then when he entered he spoke politely to him. Aa’ishah  said: So I said: O Messenger of Allâh, you said about him what you said and then you spoke politely to him? He said: O Aa’ishah the worst people in station before Allâh on the Day of Resurrection are those whom the people desert, or abandon, in order to save themselves from their evil speech.” (54) [Author’s text abridged hereafter] It will also not be hidden that one of the best ways of cementing ties and improving relations is:

  1. Visiting Brothers

From Abû Hurayrah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “A man went out to visit a brother of his in a different village, so Allâh, the Most High, put an angel in wait for him in the road. So when the angel came to him he said: Where are you going? He said: I am going to visit a brother in this village. He said: Is it that you have done something for him for which you seek repayment? He said: No, it is just that I love him for Allâh’s sake. He said: Then I am one sent by Allâh to you (to inform you) that Allâh , the Mighty and Majestic, loves you, just as you have loved for His sake.” (55) [Author’s text abridged hereafter] (Paradise) cannot be attained unless the incentive for it is:

  1. The Muslim’s Character

From Abu Darda   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “There is nothing which is heavier upon the balance than the good character.” (56) So by his character the Muslim turns enemies into friends, opponents into companions, and harsh people into those who are mild. Character is a commodity which is almost something rare amongst the people today, except amongst those who sincerely worship Allâh alone, Who are honest and true in the worship of the Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) of the Worlds. So good character refines the soul and enables that:

  1. The Muslim Knows His Own Worth

From Abû Hurayrah  who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said: “There will come upon the people years of deceit in which the liar will be believed, the truthful disbelieved, the treacherous will be trusted and the trustworthy held to be treacherous, and the despicable (ar-Ruwaybidah) will speak out. It was said: Who are the despicable ones (ar-Ruwaybidah)? He said: The lowly, ignoble man who speaks out about the public affairs.” (57) [Author’s text abridged hereafter] So it is binding upon the obedient servant that he should:

  1. He Hopes for good for Himself and His Brothers

From Jundub   who said thatAllâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)    narrated: “That a man said: By Allâh, Allâh will not forgive so and so. Whereas Allâh, the Most High said: Who is it who swears by Me that I will not forgive so and so, for I have forgiven so and so, and have rendered your actions futile.” (59) The fear and hope that a Muslim has for his brothers does not prevent him from carrying out what Allâh  has established with regard to:

  1. Ordering Good and Forbidding Evil

From Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree    who said: “Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  stood amongst us to deliver an address, and from his address was that he said: Indeed it is about to occur that I will be called and will respond. Then after me will follow rulers over you who say what they have knowledge of, and act upon what they know. Obedience to them is obedience to me, and you remain like that for a time. Then there will follow rulers over you after them who say what they do not have knowledge of and act according to what they do not have knowledge of. So whoever is sincere to them and assists them, or strengthens them then they are destroyed and have caused destruction. Accompany them with your bodies and differ with them by your actions, and bear witness for the doer of good from them that he is a doer of good, and for the doer of evil that he is a doer of evil.” (63)  [Author’s text abridged hereafter]  In ordering good and forbidding evil, the Muslim is careful of:

  1. Being Cautious to Avoid Animosity and Dissention

From Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah   who said that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)   said: “Indeed Satan has despaired that those who pray should worship (him) in the Arabian peninsular, however (he seeks) to provoke animosity between them.” (65) So perhaps a word which one does not realize allows to escape from his tongue and it falls upon one of the servants of Allâh  , or a mistake he makes, perhaps this will cause a great fire to blaze in the hearts of the brothers. This is the most Satan desires and it causes him to be joyful and happy. So what we have indicated certainly occurs and is bound to occur and it leads to widespread evil and great danger, so since this is the case, then what is:

  1. The Means To Escape the Trial which Befalls the People

From Abdullah ibn Mas’ood  who said: “How will you be when you are covered by a trial in which the young grow up and the old become infirm. If anything of it is abandoned it is said: The Sunnah has been abandoned. It was said: When will that occur, O Aboo Abdur Rahman? He said: When your scholars pass away, and those ignorant amongst you become many; when those who recite amongst you are many, but those who have understanding of the religion are few; when your leaders are many, but those who are trustworthy are few; when this world is sought with actions of the Hereafter; and when knowledge is sought for other than the Religion.” (66 )So the means of escape is to follow the example provided for us! Indeed obeying and following Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  is the greatest escape from the trials which envelop us.

So for Allâh , for Allâh, O servants of Allâh, learn, and act, and fear Allâh   and obey Him that you may be shown mercy.

Epilogue

The Islâmic Personality is a clear and distinct personality. Its fabric is the Book of Allâh, and its thread is the Sunnah and these two are inseparable from it. It is a sincere and determined personality educated and refined upon precise methodology which does not contain even the slightest deficiency because it emanates from the source of all knowledge, Allah  .

We ask Allâh   to grant success to all of the Muslims, and that He establishes us upon the way and methodology of His Prophet  . He is the best One to ask and the greatest One who responds, and our final call is all praise is for Allâh, the Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) of all the worlds.

________________________________________

FOOTNOTES:

  1. There are some ahadîth reported about the excellence of gathering forty ahadîth, however all of them are considered unauthentic by the scholars of hadith
  2. It is the twentieth hadîth of Forty hadîth on the Call to Islâm and the Caller, its source and explanation are quoted there.
  3. Jamarah Khutabil ‘Arab (2/475) of Ahmad Zakiyy Safwat
  4. Al-Muwaddih li Awhaamil-Jam’ wat-Tafreeq (1/5) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee
  5. Ibn Rajab quotes it from him in Fadl ‘Ilmus Salaf’alal Khalaf (page 59 of the edition with my checking).
  6. Soorah al-Baqarah (2):208
  7. Reported by al-Bukhari (English Translation Volume 1 Page 1 No. 1) and Muslim (Eng. Trans. Vol. 3, page 1056, no. 4692)
  8. At-Taqyeed (2/6-7) of Ibn Nuqtah
  9. Reported by Ahmad (no. 5114) and others with hasan (good) isnaad (chain of narration). I have spoken about it in more detail in my footnotes to al-Hikamul Jadeerah bil Idhaa’ah (pg. 1-3) of Ibn Rajab
  10. Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 1997)
  11. Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 143
  12. Reported by Ibn Nasr al-Marwazee in Ta’zeem Qadris Salaat (no. 639)
  13. Soorah al-Ankaboot (29):69
  14. Reported by Ibn Majah (no. 3688) and Ibn Hibaan (no. 549)
  15. Reported by at-Tabaraanee in al-Mu’jamul Kabeer (no. 11,810) its chain of narration is hasan.
  16. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 9/189/no.252) and Muslim (Eng. Trans. 3/1017/no.4496)
  17. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 9/378/no.512) and Muslim (Eng. Trans. 2/782/no. 3572)
  18. Some people quote this as being a hadîth but it has no basis as such
  19. See Fath ul Bari (1/167)
  20. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 1/62/no.73)
  21. Refer to the treatise Dhammul Hasad wa Ahlihi of Ibn ul Qayyim with my footnotes and checking
  22. It is reported by al-Haakim (4/574), al-Baihaqee in Shu’abul Eemaan and others and its chain of narration is saheeh
  23. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 8/282/no.421)
  24. Bustaanul ‘Aarifeen (p.79) of an-Nawawee
  25. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 1/44/no.49) and Muslim (Eng. Trans. 3/840/no.3882)
  26. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 1/31/no.32) and Muslim (Eng. Trans. 1/40/no.112)
  27. Reported by Abu Dawood no. 3656
  28. Reported by al-Bukharee in al-Adabul Mufrad (no. 239), Aboo Dawood (Eng. Trans. 3/1370/no.4900) and others. Its chain of narration is hasan.
  29. Reported by Muslim (Eng. Trans. 4/1488/no.6853)
  30. See hadîth Number 39
  31. Refer to my book al-Muntaqan Nafees min Talbees Iblees and Mawridul Amaan min Masaayidish Shaitan and May Allâh through His grace and favour make easy its completion
  32. Soorah Ghaafir (40):60
  33. Saheeh – reported by Ahmad (4/267, 271, 276) and others
  34. hadîth 40 in Forty hadîth on the Call to Islâm and the Caller
  35. Reported by Ahmad (no. 5385) and others
  36. Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no.2318) and others
  37. Reported by Ahmad and Tabarni and classified as hasan
  38. Reported by Aboo Dawood (Eng. Trans. Vol.3/p.1312/no.3664) and others, with chain of narration being hasan
  39. Reported by Ahmad (3/38,55)
  40. Reported by At-Tirmidhee (no.2685)
  41. Reported by at-Tirmidhee in as-Sunan (no.1991)
  42. Reported by Muslim (Eng. Trans. Vol.4, p.1436, no.6223)
  43. Reported by Ahmad (5/331) and others
  44. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 8/214/no.320)
  45. Reported by Muslim (Eng. Trans. 4/1366/no.6248)
  46. Reported by al-Bukharee, al-Baihaqee and others
  47. Reported by al-Haakim (4/324) and others.
  48. Reported by Aboo Dawood (Eng. Trans. 3/1158/no.4149) and its chain of narration is hasan
  49. Majmoo’ul Fataawaa (10/615)
  50. Reported by al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans. 4/146/no.232)
  51. Reported by Muslim (Eng. Trans. 2/501/no.2287)
  52. Reported by Ahmad and others
  53. From Ibn Rajab’s explanation (sharh) of this hadîth
  54. Reported by al-Bukharee (8/50/80)
  55. Reported by Muslim (4/1362/no.6226)
  56. Reported by Ahmad (6/446 and 448)
  57. Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and others, with weak chain of narration.
  58. Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd in at-Ta’aalam wa Atharuhu ‘alal Fikr wwal Kitaab (p.7)
  59. Reported by Muslim (4/1381/no.6350)
  60. Sharul ‘Aqeedatit Tahaawiyyah (p.379)
  61. Soorah al-Israa (17):36
  62. Sharul ‘Aqeedatit Tahaawiyyah (p.325)
  63. Reported by al-Baihaqee in az-Zuhdul Kabeer (no.191)
  64. Reported by Ahmad and others. See hadîth 22 of 40 hadîth on the call to Islâm and the caller
  65. Muslim (Eng. Trans. 4/1471/no.6752)
  66. Reported by ad-Daarimee (1/64), al-Laalikaa’ee (no.123), al-Haakim(4/514) and others, with saheeh chain of narration

Hadith on virtues and importance of Duas

hadith-on-virtues-importance-of-duas

Quotes from Hadith

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ

«لَيْسَ شَيْءٌ أَكْرَمَ عَلَى اللَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ»

Abu Hurairah (R.A) narrated:  Allah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said, “Nothing is nobler in Allah’s sight than supplication.”

(Ibn Majah, Pg.271, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Ahmad, Hadith No.8756, Pg.288, Vol.2, Darul Fikr / Bazaar, Hadith No.9555, Pg.38, Vol.17, Maktaba Uloom Wal Hakam / Hakim, Hadith No.1837, Pg.50, Vol.2, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Tirmizi, Hadith No.3370, Pg.462, Vol.2, Altaf and Sons)

°°°°°°°°°

أبي هُرَيرة، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيه وَسَلَّم: لا ينفع حذر من قدر والدعاء ينفع مالمينزل القضاء، وَإن البلاء والدعاء ليلتقيان بين السماء والأرض فيعتلجان إلى يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ.

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated, that the Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said, “To fear the decree is of no help while supplication is beneficial against the trial that has descended. Indeed, when the trial descends, supplication encounters it (midway) and a fight ensues between them till the last day. Trial will try to come down and supplication would keep preventing it.”  (Bazaar Hadith No.8149, Pg.400, Vol.14, Maktaba Uloom Wal Hakam / Hakim, Hadith No.1849, Pg.53, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Kanzul  Ummal, Hadith No.627, Pg.133, Vol.1, Muassasah Ar Resalah)

°°°°°°°°°

The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

لَا يَرُدُّ القَضَاءَ إِلَّا الدُّعَاءُ، وَلَا يَزِيدُ فِي العُمْرِ إِلَّا البِرُّ

“Nothing but supplication averts decree and nothing but righteousness increases life.”

Tirmizi, Hadith No.2139, Pg.102, Vol.2, Altaf and Sons / Bazaar, Hadith No.2540, Pg.502, Vol.6, Maktaba Uloom Wal Hakam / Muajamul kabeer, Tibrani 6128 (From Salman [رضي الله عنه]) / Ibn Majah, Pg.10, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Ahmad, Hadith No.22449, Pg.324,Vol.8, Darul Fikr / Ibn Hibban, Hadith No.872, Pg.153, Vol.3, Al Reasalah Al Alamiah / / Hakim, Hadith No.1850, Pg.53, Vol.2, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Abi Shaybah, Hadith No.30487, Pg.409, Vol.15, Muhammad Awaamah (From Thawban [رضي الله عنه])

°°°°°°°°°

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:

«مَنْ فُتِحَ لَهُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ مِنْكُمْ فُتِحَتْ لَهُ أَبْوَابُ الْإِجَابَةِ»

Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) narrates that Allah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said, “He among you for whom supplication is opened, the doors of acceptance(positive response) are opend for him.” (Abi Shaybah, Hadith No.29778, Pg.89, Vol.15, Muhammad Awaamah / Kanzul Umal, Hadith No.3154, Pg.68, Vol.2, Muassasa Ar Resalah)

°°°°°°°°°

عَنِ النُّعْمَانِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «الدُّعَاءُ هُوَ الْعِبَادَةُ»، ثُمَّ تَلَا

 {…وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ}

Nu’man bin Basheer (رضي الله عنه) narrates that Allah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)
said,“Supplication is worship.” Then he recited “And your Lord says, call upon Me and I shall
answer you…”

(Abi Shaybah, Hadith No.29777, Pg.88, Vol.15, Muhammad Awaama/ Ibn Majah, Pg.271, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Abu Dawood, Hadith No.1479, Pg.218, Vol.2, Maktaba Rahmania / Ahmad, Hadith No.18380, Pg.373, Vol.6, Darul Fikr / Muajamul Kabeer, Tibrani, Hadith No.193, Pg.4962, Vol.14, Muassasah Rayan / Hakim, Hadith No.1838, Pg.602, Vol.2, Qadimi Kutub Khana / Tirmizi, Hadith No.2969, Pg.344, Vol.2, Altaf and Sons.)

The verse

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

“And your Lord says, call upon Me and I shall answer you. Surely those who are too arrogant to worship Me, they shall enter Hell, disgraced.”(Surah Al Mu’min, Verse 60)

In this Hadith, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) stressed the importance of dua, to the extent that he said that it was actually a form of worship (an act of Ibadah). He further recited the verse of the Holy Quraan to explain that Allah Himself orders the believers to call on Him and to supplicate to Him. When the believers do this, then Allah’s promise is that He will listen to their ‘calls’ and answer their supplications. This is indeed a glad tiding to all believers. Hence, they must make it a part of their daily routine to turn to Allah in dua.

°°°°°°°°°

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا تَعْجِزُوا فِي الدُّعَاءِ، فَإِنَّهُ لَنْ يَهْلِكَ مَعَ الدُّعَاءِ أَحَدٌ»

Hazrat Anas (R.A) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “Do not show laziness (inability) in making dua. For certainly no one is deprived (or destroyed) as long as he makes dua.

(Hakim, Hadith No.1854, Vol.2, Pg.54, Qademi Kutub Khana / Ibn Hibban Hadith No.871, Pg.152, Vol.3, Al Resalah Al Alamiah)

In this tradition, the Prophet (ﷺ) gave a beautiful advice, informing us that one should not show laziness in making dua (supplication) to Allah. One should not become tired of making dua repeatedly. One must also not think that one has made sufficient duas. Instead, one must be keen and anxious to always call on Allah and Supplicate to him.

The Prophet (ﷺ) tells us that as long one continues to make dua, Allah’s help, kindness and blessings will always come to him. The person will never be deprived of Allah’s blessings and no harm or destruction will come to him.

°°°°°°°°°