As-salamu `alaykum wa Rahmatullah
قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالًاالَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا
“Say: Shall We tell you the greatest losers in respect of (their) deeds? Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds!” [al-Kahf: 103-104]
This is a thought-provoking verse that should get us to really reflect and contemplate. To get the best out of the Qur’an, one should read it as if it were a personal letter from their Lord. Ponder over every verse and see the various ways that it can apply to you. Does it offer guidance that you can follow? Does it contain a warning that you can pay heed to? Does it offer a new way of thinking that can expand your horizon? Any way we can apply a verse to our own selves, let’s apply it. That is when the Qur’an will create a dramatic change within us.
Subhan’Allah, one of the worst things that can happen to a person is for them to come on the Day of Judgement with deeds upon deeds, only to then realise that those deeds have mounted to nothing. Or that the reward has been diminished greatly. This can happen due to us failing in sincerity or intention…
The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “People will be resurrected upon their intentions.” 
Sincerity is an act of the heart and one of its most important… Acts of the heart are generally more crucial than outward acts of the limbs (prayer, fasting, Hajj etc) because the heart needs to submit to Allah before the body can submit.
Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Whoever contemplates over the Shari’ah, its source and ways, will come to know how the acts of the limbs are tied to the acts of the heart and that they do not benefit without them. He will also come to know that the acts of the heart are more obligatory upon the slave than the acts of the limbs. Is the believer distinguished from the hypocrite except by virtue of what is in the heart of each of them when it comes to deeds? Worship of the heart is greater than the worship of the limbs and it is more abundant and lasting, hence it’s mandatory at all times.” 
Interestingly, the salaf used to teach intentions and sincerity just like they taught other acts of worship.
Sufyan al-Thawri said, “They used to learn about intentions just like they used to learn about deeds.” 
We also ought to teach how to have a good intention, how to rid oneself of riya’, how to be sincere and how to recognize the corrupting factors which lead to bankruptcy on the Day of Accounting.
Tustari: “Intention is sincerity. Just as the outer reality (of a person) is made steadfast by good deeds, the inner reality is made steadfast by intentions. Whoever does not know his intention, does not know his Deen (religion). And whoever neglects his intention will fall into a state of confusion.”
Yahya ibn Abi Kathir: “Learn about intentions because they travel further than deeds.” 
Yusuf ibn Asbat said to Bashar, “Learn how to differentiate between a good deed and a bad deed. Indeed, it took me 22 years to learn the difference.” 
Sulayman al-Dariani: “Glad tidings to the one who proves sincere in one step which he takes desiring only Allah, the Most High.”
Abu Talib al-Makki: “A righteous intention is one’s first good deed; it is the first gift of Allah (to His slave) and it is the first point of reward. A slave will only get the reward of a deed according to what Allah has gifted him with of intentions, and perhaps a single deed will gather numerous intentions according to the slave’s capacity and his knowledge, so for every intention he receives a reward and each is multiplied tenfold because they (intentions) are deeds which have been gathered within a deed.” 
Ibn al-Qayyim: “Ikhlas (sincerity) is that which no Angel knows of such that he can write it down, and no enemy is aware of such that he can corrupt it, and the individual is not amazed at it such that he renders it invalid.” 
Al-Susi: “Sincerity means to lose sight of your sincerity, for indeed the one who bears witness to his sincerity, then his sincerity is in need of sincerity!”
May Allah grant us sincerity and protect us from everything that will corrupt us, ameen.
1] Reported by Ahmad, declared Sahih by al-Albani in Sahih al-Jami’
2] Bada’i al-Fawa’id, by Ibn al-Qayyim
3] Qut al-Qulub, by Abu Talib al-Makki
4] Hilyat al-Awliya’, by Abu Nu’aym
5] See above source
6] Qut al-Qulub, by Abu Talib al-Makki7] al-Fawa’id by Ibn al-Qayyim
7] al-Fawa’id by Ibn al-Qayyim
Unlike other bonds (nationalistic, patriotic, etc.) which are superficial, animalistic, reactive, emotional, and completely devoid of a real solution for life’s affairs, the intellectuality of the ideological bond of Islam unites man irrespective of their race, nationality, and other factors which are irrelevant when it comes to bonding on an ideological creed.
“The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin the ma`roof (all of Islam), and forbid the munkar (all that is evil; kufr): they observe regular prayers, pay Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.” (The Holy Qur’an, 9:71)
Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) indicated in several Ahadith on unity and brotherhood as we can see in his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) Farewell Sermon (Khutbat ul-wadaa`):
“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood.”
Other Ahadith further elaborate on the concept of unity and brotherhood:
“A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. He does not oppress him, nor does he leave him at the mercy of others.” (Sahih Muslim Book 032, Number 6219)
The Prophet said, “None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 2, Number 12)
Unity is strength. The Islamic concept of Towhid is the other name of the unity of humankind. The corner stone in Islam is the unity of God. Allah’s unity teaches us the message that we should not divide humans into sections and sects. Almighty Allah in the Quran says that the division of people in the races and clans is only for their introduction.
“And we have sent you (Muhammad) not except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all of mankind…” (The Holy Qur’an Sûrah Saba’, 34:28)
The racial discrimination has been strictly prohibited in Islam.In the last sermon from the Mount of Arafat the Holy Prophet had clearly announced that no Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab; or the white over the black. This is the reason that in Muslim countries we do not find racial discriminations. Islam gives clear injunctions for the respect, safety, security and prosperity of the non-Muslims as well. Unity teaches peace, equality and paternity. The absence of unity brings and breeds disruption, devastation and disputes. Islam ordains protection of non-Muslims simply to show the respect for the Canons of divinity and humanity. God is not only of the Muslims. God is the God of all human beings. The unity of all humans is the ultimate aim of the teachings of Islam.
Another hadith reports that
“Beware! Whoever is cruel and hard on a non-Muslim minority, or curtails their rights, or burdens them with more than they can bear, or takes anything from them against their free will; I (Prophet Muhammad) will complain against the person on the Day of Judgment.” (Abu Dawud)
The Quran discusses the concept of unity on three levels. Foremost is the unity of humanity. The Quran in Sura Al-Hujurat (The Inner Apartments) says:
“O, Mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another.Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is the one who has piety.” (49:13).
The Quran no where addresses the Muslims. Either it addresses the believers (momineen) or the people (An-nas). The Quran on second level refers to the unity of the people of the Books: the Jews, the Christians and the Muslims- In Sura Al-e-Imran the Quran says:
“O, people of the Book! Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with him, and that none of us will take others as lords besides Allah. Then if they turn away, say; Bear witness that we are Muslims” (3:64).
In Sura Al-e-Imran the Quran says;
“And hold fast, all of you together to the rope of Allah, and be not divided among yourselves.” (3:103).
The Quran again in Sura Al-e-Imran says:
“O ye who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared and die not except in a state of Islam.”
In Mishqat Sharif there is a tradition of the Holy Prophet which says;
“The Muslims are like a body; if one limb aches, the whole body aches.”
Then the Messenger of Allah says;
“Whoever does not care about the affairs of the Muslims is not one of them.”
The Islamic Brotherhood is not based on economic interests, race, or color. It is based on something infinitely superior: Rejection of falsehood and acceptance of the Truth as revealed by the One True God. Islam was started by Prophet Noah and Abraham and was completed by Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم). All Muslims are brothers and equal with each other in the sight of God.
“The Believers are but a single Brotherhood.” [Al-Hujurat 49:10]
As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no part in them in the least: their affair is with God. He will in the end, tell them the truth of all that they did. [Quran 6-159].
Islam is a deen (complete way of life). Muslims have chosen various Imam’s to follow. For example, Sonni’s are either Shafi, Hanbali or Wahabi, etc. Sheas are either Emami or Emami, etc.All are acceptable and equal , different sects are just different flavors of the same principle. Not only is this Brotherhood based on faith, it is also a part of that faith. Even a casual reader of Qur’an would note that it almost always addresses the Believers and not the Believer. All acts of worship that are declared pillars of Islam have a collective form. The daily prayers are best performed in congregation, that being twenty-seven times more valuable than the individual prayer. The special Friday prayer cannot be offered individually at all. Zakat is obviously aimed at making the rich of the community take care of the needs of its poor. Fasting, an essentially individual act, has been given a collective form through unity in time. Hajj enforces unity in both time and place, bringing the believers together in the plains of Arafat in their remembrance of Allah.
Those who join in the worship of Allah produce a Brotherhood that embodies the best moral values of the faith: Mercy, compassion, fear of Allah, piety, and justice. It is a Solid Cemented Structure [As-Saff, 61:4]
We can imagine the sensitivity of the Shariah about it by reflecting on its teachings regarding the relations between believers. The books of hadith are full of such teachings.
It is forbidden, for example, for two Muslims to start a whispering conversation in the presence of the third.
It is not permissible for a Muslim to sever relations with his brother for more than three days.
It is sufficient evil for a Muslim that he should look down upon his brother.
But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad SAW) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission (4:65)
This Brotherhood has to be a force for the downtrodden and oppressed everywhere.
The U.N. remains an organization of unequal powers, designed to perpetuate that inequality. Its purpose was to establish hegemony of the Western alliance over the rest of the world— not for any higher moral purpose but solely for economic exploitation. Its very structure (with real decision making in the hands of a few in the Security Council ) guaranteed the disenfranchisement of the weak, and the entire Muslim world found itself in that category at the end of official colonialism.While the U.N. has failed miserably in its declared goals, it has been tremendously successful in the real ones. While it promised peace and justice, it has delivered death and destruction, exploitation and oppression. It provided legal cover for the first U.S.- Iraq war in 1991. It facilitated the carnage in Bosnia by tying the hands of the victims. It has perpetuated genocide in Iraq through the imposition of the most brutal economic sanctions in the history of the world, resulting in death of a million people through starvation and disease. But we have allowed ourselves to be deceived by the legal camouflage provided by the U.N. And witness how low we have fallen with our own accord.
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ
When asked to desist from spreading corruption in the land they say: “Why, we are reformers (Qur’an 2:11).”
“Those who are infidels aid one another. Unless you do the same there will be discord in the land and anarchy (Qur’an 8:73).”IT IS TIME TO UNITE, PLEDGE AND STRIVE FOR THE☪ UNITED NATIONS OF ISLAMSay: “O Lord, forgive us and our brothers who came to faith before us, and do not put a grudge in our hearts against those who believe. O Lord, You are compassionate and kind (Qur’an 59:10).”
Muslims are not allowed to kill the women and children of their enemies even in war. How could we support the killing of our own women and children? A Muslim is not really a believer if he eats his full while ignoring the plight of a hungry neighbor. How could a believer then participate in economic sanctions designed to starve his own people to death?
We must free the Brotherhood from the servitude to the ideology of nation-states and the unjust international organizations so we can stop killing ourselves.
Allah gave us the right to form political parties, as long as the parties are in accordance to Islam and the party is participating in an Islamic system in an Islamic state. Allah says in the Qur’an:
“Let there be among you a group that invites to the good, orders what is right and forbids what is evil, and they are those who are successful.” (Qur’an, 3:104)
Islam does not believe in being dominated but in being implemented as the only legitimate ideology the Creator allowed for mankind. Islam does not believe that man has the right to be legislator for other men, because Islam believes that only Allah has the right to legislate laws for His Creation including mankind:
“The ‘Hukm’ (rule, decision) belongs only to Allaah.” (Al-Qur’aan, 12:67)
Islam forbids ruling by other than what Allah has revealed:
“And rule between them by that which Allaah has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware that they may turn you away from some of what Allaah has revealed.” (Al-Qur’aan, 5:49)
Allah describes those who do not rule by what He has revealed:
“And whosoever does not rule by what Allaah has revealed they are Kaafiroon.” (Al-Qur’aan, 5:44)
“And whosoever does not rule by what Allaah has revealed they are Dhaalimoon.” (Al-Qur’aan, 5:45)
“And whosoever does not rule by what Allaah has revealed they are Faasiqoon.” (Al-Qur’aan, 5:47)
Remember that when Allah said in the ayah that who does not rule by what Allah has revealed are “Kuffar” (Quran, 5:44), Allah is talking about those who do not believe in Islam. When Allah mentions the word “Dhaalimun” in 5:45 it refers to both the Muslim and non-Muslim who do not rule by what Allah has revealed. Finally, when Allah says the word “Faasiqun,” it refers to the sinful, rebellious person (specifically a Muslim) who does not rule by what Allah has revealed.
Be patient if you are an anvil.
Be swift if you are a hammer.
Muslims had sunk to the lowest depths of decline since the destruction of the Caliphate. Muslims are divided into over 50 countries, they are waging wars against each other, placing and observing embargoes on fellow Muslims. Despite the disastrous effects of accepting kufr over Islam, many Muslims insist on promoting such evil that did nothing but betray the Ummah and put us through unbelievable suffering and grief. In several articles the techniques and methods of dealing with the Muslims are discussed. In an article in the Baltimore Sun (7/7/92), “Time to Paint U.S.-Islamic Relations on a Brand New Canvas” offers some of the following strategies in dealing with the Muslims:
Their attempts in creating a twisted version of “Islam” to making Muslims view their deen as just a religion that can accept the rule of kufr over them is very sinister indeed and is intended to make the return of the implementation of Islam something that will never happen. And as we all know the enemies of Islam do not want to see the Laws of Allah ruling the earth.The Ummah is in sin by not implementing the Laws of Allah. We cannot abandon the blessed, perfect, just system of Islam for the corrupt, evil, treacherous system of kufr that has the Muslims and the rest of the world in a big mess. We cannot be slaves of the West nor can the Kuffar be our masters. We cannot accept their systems and beliefs in which Allah did not reveal but something that Allah has cursed. We must return to obeying our Creator fulfilling our duty to Him and lifting the humiliation that Allah put on us for disobeying Him.
Crusaders in the 13th and 14th century were attacking Muslims and wanted to conquer Jerusalem. Their clothing was made of armor with a big cross over their chest. Later on, the cross became smaller and slowly changed to a white shirt and cravatt (neck tie). This resembles the cross and has become the symbol of western civilization, western domination, and capitalism. We must incrementally go forward to gain our religious identity and start wearing Sunnah and promoting it to our youth so they will be proud of their Islamic identity. We cannot expect our women to wear Hejab when we do not wear aba and instead, wear a cross (neck tie) around our neck.
Neighbourhood connections are very important in Islam, to the extent that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said,
“Jibreel kept on telling me to take care of my neighbors and strengthen my relationship with them until I thought that they would inherit me.”
The importance of uterine relationships (Silat Al-Arham) and family ties are constantly referred to in the Quran, and they form a small-scale level of domestic unity. How often do you get together? If you live away from them, how often do you call? Is your family really still united? You know, that was our last level of unity we just lost.O Muslims, what then do you expect??? We did not obey the Divine Law! We lost every single level of unity and therefore there was no escape from the result, a terrible decline in all aspects of society. We need to build those bridges once again. We have to unite again on every of these levels! Enough selfishness because its killing us! Wake Up Muslims! We Are ONE Body! ONE Ummah! We Love Each Other!!
The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,
“And whom of you who dies without pledging his oath to a Khalifah will have died the death of a non-believer.”
All Islamic rituals help maintain and develop unity amongst Muslims. We pray five times a day, preferably in congregation so that everyone living on the same street, working in the same place, or studying at the same school could get together in a straight line and pray to their Lord. Then there is a weekly gathering for the whole neighborhood during the Friday Prayer (Jumuah), this helps maintain the neighborhood’s unity. Another larger scale of unity maintenance and development is during the month of Ramadan. All Muslims around the world spend the same month fasting. In a single city they cease from eating and start eating at the same time. This is another form of unity. And of course, there is the Pilgrimage (Hajj), the manifestation of Muslim unity. Muslims from all around the globe come to same place, wearing the same clothes, worshiping the same God, repeating the same sentence, walking in the same direction at the same time, having the same goal, and getting the same reward. It’s unity at its highest levels. See how Islam helps us maintain and develop our unity? And see how separated we are today?
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has said in the Holy Qur’an in Sûrah At-Tawbah, 9:33 that:
“It is He who has sent His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) with guidance and the Deen of truth (Islam), to make it superior and prevail over all other deens, even though the Mushrikûn hate it.”
Finally, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sent envoys to the countries outside the Peninsula with the aim of establishing relations based on the spreading of Islam, by inviting them to embrace it.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“A single day under a just ruler is better than 60 years of ibadah” (Bayhaqi, Tabarani)
And finally, how the kufr nations, especially ideological ones like America, determine their foreign policy is based solely on interest. Whether it be economic, military, strategic or political, their motivation for the formulation of their foreign policy is interest and countless number of examples can be given in this regard when one looks into and assesses the actions of the kufr nations. Their motivation in not the spreading of Islam nor its complete implementation or enforcement. They do not things for “humanitarian reasons” unless doing so will help their interests. They subjugate other nations on the basis that subjugating them must be beneficial for their interest or else they would not even bother investing so much time and effort in dealing with a nation that will not reap them the economic, military, strategic or political benefits. This is in sharp contrast to how the Islamic State deals with nations when it comes to spreading the rule of Islam to other lands as Taqîyud-dîn an-Nabhânî so eloquently points out:
“That is why the Islamic State was never selective in the countries it conquered, it never made any difference to the Muslims how difficult or easy was their task. And although Egypt was relatively easy to conquer and its resources were considerable compared with the harsh Saharan climate of North Africa with its poverty, the Muslims never took those factors into consideration because their ultimate goal was to spread Islam. This necessitated the liberation of every country regardless of its poverty or wealth and regardless of the resistance put up by its people. Carrying Islam to other nations is not motivated based on wealth or the poverty factor, nor will the acceptance or refusal of the people stall the carrying of the Message. The main aim is simply the conveyance of Islam, to establish it as an intellectual leadership from which a way of life emanates. The Message should be carried to all mankind in all countries.”
إِنَّمَا الْإِمَامُ جُنَّةٌ يُقَاتَلُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِ وَيُتَّقَى بِهِ
“Indeed, the Imam (Khaleefah) is a shield, from behind whom you fight and by whom you are protected.” (Muslim)
We should call upon the Muslims to follow the example the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) who was the best example to follow as Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) made it clear in The Holy Qur’an in Surah Al-Ahzâb, 33:21
“Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) you have an excellent example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day, and remembers much.”
Concerning the time Muslims would follow the ways of the Kuffâr religiously, Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said in a Hadith narrated by Abu Said:
The Prophet said, “You will follow the wrong ways, of your predecessors so completely and literally that if they should go into the hole of a lizard, you too will go there.” We said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do you mean the Jews and the Christians?” He replied, “Whom else?” (Meaning, of course, the Jews and the Christians.) (Sahîh al-Bukhârî, Vol. 4, Book 56, Hadith No. 662)
We must keep in mind that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) revealed a completed and perfected Deen to all of mankind:
“This day I have perfected your deen for you, completed My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your deen” (The Holy Qur’an, Sûrah Mâ’idah, 5:3)
“Say: ‘Truly, my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), the Lord of the Âlamîn (mankind, jinns, and all that exist).’” (The Holy Qur’an, Sûrah Al-An`âm, 6:162)
‘I merely created Jinn and humans to worship Me.’ (The Holy Qur’an, Sûrah adh-Dhâriyât, 51:56)
‘Prayer keeps one away from Fahshâ’ (vice) and munkar.’ (The Holy Qur’an, Sûrah Al-`Ankabût, 29:45)
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) also said that He revealed to us the Sharî`ah and its methodology for its application and enforcement:
“…We have prescribed a law (the Sharî’ah) and a method (Minhâj, Tarîqah)…” (The Holy Qur’an, Sûrah Mâ’idah, 5:48)
So when it comes to the application and enforcement of Islam, it must be based on the Islam methodology that was revealed by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said in a Hadith narrated by `Â’ishah (رضي الله عنها):
Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever innovates in this affair of ours something that We have not commanded, that thing is rejected.” (Sahîh al-Bukhârî, Vol. 3, Book 49, Hadith No. 861)
Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as saying:
“The world is a prison for a believer and paradise for a non-believer.” (Sahîh Muslim, Book 42, Hadith No. 7058)
Thus, keeping away from the Fahshâ’ and munkar is a consequence which would occur as a result of praying. The âyah does not give the meaning of the `illah because it is the cause that makes the rule exist and not just a result or consequence of a rule. Whereas the Hikmah may or may not exist, the `illah will always exist with its corresponding Hukm (ruling), as in a cause-effect relationship.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“Whoever helps an oppressor in his oppression, comes on the day of judgement, written on his head ‘Despairing of the mercy of Allah’.”
[Narrated Anas bin Malik (Al-Firdos Bima’thoor il-Khitaab)]
It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn `Umar that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“Beware. Every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable with regard to his flock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned about his subjects (as to how he conducted their affairs).
A man is a guardian over the members of his family and shall be questioned about them (as to how he looked after their physical and moral well being).
A woman is a guardian over the household of her husband and his children and shall be questioned about them (as to how she managed the household and brought up the children).
A slave is a guardian over the property of his master and shall be questioned about it (as to how he safeguarded his trust).
Beware, every one of you is a guardian and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust.” (Sahîh Muslim, Book 20, Hadith No. 4496)
Then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
“By the One Who owns Muhammad’s soul, if Moses (عليه السلام) were alive and reached [the time of] my prophethood he would have followed me. ” (Sunan ad-Dârimî, Hadith No. 436)
This says clearly that even if Moses (عليه السلام) were alive at the time of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), he (عليه السلام) would have to follow the Sharî`ah of Islam that was given to Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم). As for at the âyât in Surah al-Mumtahinah where it mentions Prophet Ibrahîm (عليه السلام) being an “excellent example,” it contains the conjunction “when” (idh) which makes it specific to a pertinent situation and not general as in the following the “excellent example” of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم):
“Indeed, there was an excellent example for you in Ibrahîm (Abraham) and those with him when (idh) they said to their people…” (The Holy Qur’an, Sûrah al-Mumtahinah, 60:4)
This is in contrast to the generality of the “excellent example” of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which is not restricted to a specific situation but is general for all situations:
“Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have an excellent example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day.” (Sûrah al-Ahzâb, 33:21)
When we participate in a kufr system, we are not working towards its abolishment; what happens is that its existence is further perpetuated by the involvement of people who are working in accordance to the system. This is sharp contrast to the time of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) when he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and the Sahâbah (رضی اللہ عنهم) worked hard and achieved by the Permission of Allah the full abolishment of the kufr system of Quraysh. There was no attempt on the part of the Muslims at that time to “work within” the system of Quraysh via lobbying, voting for candidates, or even running for the candidacy in a particular office in their system. The Muslims at that time could have opted to suffer much less and achieve more material benefits but did not because that would go against and compromise Islam.
Finally, Allah made it Haraam to elect a kaafir to have an authority or way over the Muslims:
“Allah will not grant the Kuffar a way over the Muslims.” (Qur’an, 4:141)
ولا تهنوا ولا تحزنوا وأنتم الأعلون إن كنتم مؤمنين
So do not lose heart or be grieved for you will surely prevail if you are believers. [3:139]
As a soldier in the army of God in promoting Islam-
Sunnah is our uniform. Our leader is Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)). And our constitution is preserved in the Holy Quran.
All praise is due to Allaah. May peace and blessings be upon His Prophet Muhammad, his family and companions.
Fellow Muslims! Fear Allaah in all your undertakings and worship him all the time. Thank Him for His blessings for He has promised additional favour for whosoever is grateful.
“O you who believe! Fear Allaah as He should be feared and die not except in a state of Islaam.” (Aal ’Imraan: 102).
Fellow Muslims! Make a just estimate of Allaah such as is due to Him and reflect over signs of His magnificence, favours, sovereignty and His wonderful creatures for this will increase you in faith. He says, “And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.” (Ath Thaariaat: 20).
He also says, “Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.” (Aal ’Imraan: 190).
Allaah created this wonderful and great universe and all that it contains in which there are signs upon signs. Glory be to Him! He manifested His proofs for those who reflect and made His evidence clear to those who are heedless. Blessed be Allaah, the Best of Creators. Ibn Mas’ood said, “The distance between the nearest heaven and that which follows it is a journey of 500 years; the distance between one heaven and another is a journey of 500 years and the distance between the seventh heaven and the Kursiyy (“Footstool”) is a journey of 500 years. The Throne is over the water, and Allaah is over the Throne, and He knows what you do.” (Ad Daarimie). The Prophet also said,“The seven heavens are in relation to the Kursiyy like a ring thrown into a waterless desert. And the superiority of the ‘Arsh (the Throne) over the Kursiyy is like the superiority of the desert over that ring.” (Al Bayhaqqie). Ibn Abbaas said, “The seven heavens and the seven earths are nothing more in Allaah’s hand than a mustard seed in the hand of one of you.”
Dear Muslims! One of the proofs of Allaah’s greatness is a hadeeth narrated by Bukhaarie and Muslim on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood that a Jewish rabbi came to the Prophet and said, “When it is on the Day of Resurrection, Allaah will place the heavens on a finger, the earths on a finger, the sea and the soil on a finger and the rest of creation on a finger then He will shake them and say, “I am the King, I am the King.” Ibn Mas’ood said, “I saw the Messenger of Allaah smiling (upon hearing this) so that his molar teeth showed in astonishment and confirmation of what the rabbi had said. Then he recited, “They made not a just estimate of Allaah such as is due to Him. And on the Day of Resurrection the whole of the earth will be grasped by His hand and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand. Glorified is He, and high is He above all that they associate with Him.”
The Prophet also said, “I am permitted to speak about one of Allaah’s angels who is one of the bearers of the ‘Arsh; the distance between his earlobe and shoulder is a journey of 700 years.”
Bukhaarie related on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said, “When Allaah has ordained some affair in the heaven, the angels beat with their wings in obedience to His statement which sounds like a chain dragged over a rock. Until when fear is banished from their hearts they (the angels) say, “What is it that your Lord has said?” They say, “The Truth! And He is most High most Great.” Glory be to the Owner of Power and Majesty. None has the right to be worshipped save Him.
Dear Muslims! These are but some of the texts that point to the more obvious signs of Allaah, His omnipotence and greatness. Do we make just estimates of Allaah? Do we glorify Him as we should? Do we fulfil our obligations to him as His slaves and creatures? Mu’aath Ibn Jabal said, “I was riding behind the Messenger of Allaah on a donkey called ‘Ufayr and he said, “O Mu’aath! Do you know Allaah’s right upon His slaves and the slaves’ right upon Allaah?” I said, “Allaah and His Messenger know best.” He then said, “Allaah’s right upon His slave is that they should worship Him and associate nothing with Him in worship, and the slaves’ right upon Allaah is that He does not punish whoever does not associate anything with Him.” (Bukhaarie & Muslim).
Fellow Muslims! The greatest act of injustice is to associate partners with Allaah in worship. He says, “Whoever sets up partners with Allaah, Allaah has forbidden Paradisefor him, and the fire will be his abode. And for the wrongdoers there are no helpers.” (Al Maa’idah: 72).
He also says, “So shun the abomination (worshipping) of idols and shun lying speech. Hunafaa Lillaah (i.e. to worship none but Allaah), not associating partners to Allaah. And whoever assigns partners to Allaah, it is as if he had fallen from the sky and the birds had snatched him or the wind had thrown him to a far off place.”(Al-Hajj: 30-31).
Brothers in Islaam! Beware of Shirk and the means that lead to it and be aware that the best way to be safe from Shirk is to know it. Huthaifie Ibn Al-Yamaan said, “People used to ask the Messenger of Allaah about good things but I used to ask about evil things so that they might not touch me.”
Fellow Muslims! It is unfortunate that some Muslims fall into actions that negate the principle of Tawhied. It is therefore necessary to explain to people issues and rules that have to do with Tawhied. There are many Qur’aanic verses and authentic Ahadeeth that give clear and comprehensible proofs on the fact that it is only Allaah who has the right to be worshipped and that all acts of worship should be dedicated and devoted to Him alone.
Dear Muslims! It is part of perfection of Tawhied to abstain from uttering Shirk-containing statements even if one does not intend it as such. Likewise is swearing by others beside Allaah and whoever does that is on the verge of a dangerous sin. The Prophet said, “Whoever swears by other than Allaah has committed Kufr or Shirk.” (Ahmad).
He also said, “Do not swear by your fathers or mothers or other deities beside Allaah. And also do not swear by Allaah unless you are saying the truth.” (Abu Daawood).
One can swear by Allaah, His names and Attributes. Whoever swears by other than Allaah should repent and not do that again. Sa’d Ibn Abee Waqqaas said, “We were having a discussion at a time when I had just left Jaahiliyah (just embraced Islaam) and I swore by Al-laata and Al-Uzza [some Arab idols]. The companions of the Messenger of Allaah then told me, “What an evil statement have you uttered! Go to the Prophet and tell him of what you have said. We think that you have become a Kafir by this utterance.” Then I went to Him and told him that. He then said, “Say: Laa Illaaha Illa Allaah Wahdahu Laa Shareeka Lah.” Three times then spit to your left side three times and do not say the statement again.”
Dear Muslim! Shun the use of despicable utterances like, “I depend on Allaah and you.” Ahmad reported that: “A man came to the Prophet and told him, ‘Whatever Allaah and you will.’ The Prophet replied, ‘Are you making me an equal to Allaah? Nay, it is whatever Allaah alone wills.’”
Fellow Muslim! Beseech Allaah and seek for His favour through good deeds like Tawhied and abstention from all forms of Shirk. Do not beseech Him through un-recommended and forbidden supplications. Further shun the wearing of talismans and the like, for doing such is part of Shirk. Turn to Allaah alone in difficulties for He is the only one capable of removing hardships. He says, “And if Allaah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, He is able to do all things, and He is Irresistible, above His slaves and He is the All-Wise, Well-Acquainted with all things.” (Al-An’aam: 17-18).
Fellow Muslims! All these superstitious objects that people wear cannot prevent harm from touching them, nor can they cure them of any illness. One should therefore keep away from them. Imraan bin Husain narrated, “The Prophet saw a brass talisman on a man’s arm and asked him, “What is this?” The man answered, “It is Al-Waahinah (an object worn on the arm to prevent pain). The Prophet then said, “It will not increase you except in feebleness. Take it off. If you die while it is on you, you will never prosper.” (Ahmad).
Ahmad also reported that: “A group of people came to the prophet. He took the allegiance of nine of them and held his hand from the tenth. They said, “O Messenger of Allaah You took the allegiance of all of us and left this man.” The Prophet replied, “It is because he is wearing a talisman.” Then the man broke the talisman and the Prophet took his allegiance.
Fellow Muslim! Do not visit fortune-tellers, astrologers and soothsayers because they claim to possess the knowledge of the unseen. They are tricky and treacherous people and ask their clients to associate partners with Allaah and to slaughter animals to others beside Allaah. The Prophet said, “May Allaah curse whoever slaughters for others beside Allaah.” He also said, “Whoever visits a fortune-teller and asks him anything, his prayer will no be accepted for forty nights.” (Muslim) He also said, “Whoever visits a soothsayer and believes him in what he says has disbelieved in what is revealed to Muhammad.” (Ahmad).
Brothers in Faith! Keep your Tawhied pure and free from Shirk, know that it is unlawful to seek blessings from trees, graves, stones etc. Aboo Waaqid Allaythee narrated that:“They (the companions) went out with the Prophet to Hunayn. The unbelievers had a lote tree under which they would stay for worship and on which they hanged their weapons for blessing. That tree was called Dhaat Anwaat. So the companions came by a huge green lote tree on their way and said, “O Messenger of Allaah! Make for us a Dhaat Anwaat as like that of them (the unbelievers).” The Prophet replied, “By Him in Whose hand in my soul, you have said what the Children of Israel said to Moosa: Give us a god like their gods.” He then said, “Indeed you are an ignorant people! You shall follow the paths of those who were before you little by little.” (Ahmad and others).
Be also aware, dear brothers, that it is not permissible to seek blessings from the Prophet’s grave nor from his birthplace or that of any Prophet or righteous people. It is also not permissible to seek blessing from walls of any mosque, even the sacred mosque in Makkah. It is only recommended to kiss or touch Al-Hajar Al-Aswad and to touch the Yamanicorner. Ibn ‘Umar said, “I have not seen the Prophet touching anything of The House except the Yamani Corner and the Hajar al-Aswad.” (Bukhari & Muslim). ‘Umar also said while kissing the Black Stone, “By Allaah! I know that you are only a stone that can neither benefit no harm, had I not seen the Prophet kissing you, I would not have kissed you.” (Muslim).
Fellow Muslims! Seeking help from the dead, supplicating to them, asking them one’s needs, slaughtering to appease them etc. are all acts of idol worshippers who are friends of Satan. These are of the Major Shirk that destroy one’s good deeds and lead one to eternal condemnation. Allaah says, “And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) beside Allaah, such as will not answer him until the Day of Resurrection and are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them. And when mankind are gathered (on the Day of Resurrection) they (the false deities) will become enemies for them and deny their worshipping.” (Al-Ahqaaf: 5-6).
Fellow Muslims! Going to the excess as regards the graves of Prophets and righteous people by building mosques and domes on them and decorating them is a major sin and an avenue to Shirk.
‘Aa’ishah and Ibn ‘Abacas said, “When the Prophet was dying, he would cover his face with a sheet and remove it when he felt pain. While in this condition, he said, ‘May the curse of Allaah be on the Jews and the Christians, for they made graves of their prophets mosques.” Warning (his Ummah) against what the Jews and Christians did.”
Dear Muslims! Erecting structures on the graves, plastering them and inscribing on them are unlawful. Jaabir narrated, “The Messenger of Allaah has forbidden plastering of graves, sitting on them and erecting structures on them.” (Muslim and others). In At-Tirmithie’s narration, he adds, “…and writing on them.” ‘Alee Ibn Abee Taalib told Abul Hayyaaj Al-Asdee, “Let me indeed send you with what the Messenger of Allaah sent me, that, “you should not leave any statue undemolished nor a raised grave unlevelled.” (Muslim).
Indeed, having intention of worshipping Allaah at the grave of a Prophet or a saint is a means leading to Shirk. That is why making supplications at the graves – including that of the Prophet – is forbidden. Aboo Ya’laa and Ad-Diya Al-Maqdisee reported that ‘Alee Ibn Husain saw a man who used to enter an opening that is at the Prophet’s grave and make supplications there. He forbade him from doing that and told him.” Let me narrate to you a hadeeth I heard from my father on the authority of my grandfather that the Messenger of Allaah said, “Do not turn my grave into a place of festival, nor turn your houses to graves [whereby you do not pray in them]. Invoke blessings on me, for your invocation of peace and blessings on me reaches from wherever you may be.”
Brothers in Islaam! Fear Allaah as He should be feared and be conscious of Him in public and in private. Allaah says, “O you who believe! Be afraid of Allaah and be with those who are true (in words and deeds)” (At-Tawbah: 119).
Fellow Muslims! Implementation of Allaah’s law upon His slaves is an act of glorifying Allaah. It is therefore incumbent upon Muslims and their leaders to submit to Allaah’s law, surrender to His judgements and fight anything that runs counter to it. Indeed associating partners with Allaah in rules and judgement is like associating partners with Him in acts of worship and whosoever denounces the right of Allaah’s and His Prophet’s judgement, believes that others’ judgements are better than or equal to Allaah’s or believes that it is permissible to judge with what contradicts Allaah’s and His Messenger’s Law has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad and gone out of the fold of Islaam. Allaah says,“But No! By your Lord! They can have no faith until they make you (Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions and accept (them) with full submission.” (An-Nisaa: 65).
Fellow Muslims! Perceiving evil omens in days, months or some birds is an act of the period of ignorance (Jaahiliyah) which Islaam has come to eradicate. Perceiving evil omens does not in any way change what has been decreed. Bukhaarie reported that the Messenger of Allaah said, “(There is) no Adwa (no contagious disease is conveyed without Allaah’s permission), nor is their any bad omen (from birds) nor is there any (bad omen in a bird called) Haamah nor is there any bad omen in the month of Safar.”
Fear Allaah, devote your hearts to Allaah and fight superstition in all its forms.
|“Turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice to Him alone.” (Sûrah al-Kauthar (108):2)|
Udhiyah (sacrifice) is among the great rituals of Islâm, which signify the Oneness of Allâh, His Blessings, and Bounties. It reminds us the exemplary obedience of our father, Ibrahîm (alaihi as-salâm), to His Lord and his great sacrifices to Him. Udhiyah encompasses much goodness and blessings and thus acquires a great deal of importance in the lives of Muslims.
|“And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the Name of Allâh over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. And your God is One God, so you must submit to Him Alone (in Islâm)” [Sûrah al-Hajj (22): 34]|
Hereunder is a brief look at the important rituals of Udhiyah:
Udhiyah: Its meaning and definition
Udhiyah refers to the animal (camel, cattle or sheep) that is sacrificed as an act of worship to Allâh, during the period from after the Eid prayer on the Day of Nahr (Eid al-Adha) until the last day of Tashrîq (the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah), with the intention of offering sacrifice. Allâh says:
|“Say (O Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa-sallam)): ‘Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allâh, the Lord of the Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists).” [Sûrah al-An’âm (6): 162]|
Is Udhiyah an Obligation?
Scholars differ concerning the ruling of Udhiyah, some are of the opinion that Udhiyah is wâjib or obligatory while others hold Udhiyah as a confirmed Sunnah.
Among those who uphold the first opinion (wâjib or obligatory) are Imâm al-Awzâ’i, Imâm al-Layth and Imâm Abu Hanîfah, and it is one of the two opinions narrated from Imâm Ahmad. It was also the opinion of Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, and is one of the two opinions in the mathhab of Imâm Mâlik. Those who favor this opinion take the following as evidence: Allâh says:
|“Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).” [Sûrah al-Kawthar 108:2]|
This verse is a command and a command implies obligation. Also, it is repeated in the Sahîhayn (i.e. Sahîh al-Bukharî and Sahîh Muslim) from Jundub (radhi allahu anhu),
|The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
“Whoever slaughtered his sacrifice before he prays, let him slaughter another one in its place, and whoever did not slaughter a sacrifice, let him do so in the name of Allâh.” [Sahîh Muslim vol. 3, no: 4818-21]
|“Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so, let him not approach our place or prayer.”|
[Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah. (Sahîh) by al-Hâkim (from Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu)), it is related in Fath al-Barî that its men are thiqât. This Hadîth is declared Hasan (Good) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh Sunan Ibn Majah v: 2, no: 2532-1323]
Those who assert to the second opinion, i.e. Udhiyah is a confirmed Sunnah (meaning Sunnah mu’akkadah) are the better-known opinion of Mâlik and Imâm Ahmad, and the mathhab of al-Shâfa’î. It should be mentioned here that majority of the scholars uphold this view, and they state it Makrûh (disliked) to neglect this act of worship, if one has the capability to perform a sacrifice. [Rasâ’il Fiqhiyyah by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymîn, p. 46]
This opinion is based on the following Ahâdîth. Jâbir (radhi allahu anhu), narrated:
|“I prayed on Eid al-Adha with the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), and when he finished (the prayer), he was brought one ram, and he sacrificed it. He said:
“In the Name of Allâh, Allâh is Most Great. This is on behalf of myself and any member of my Ummah who did not offer a sacrifice.”
[Awnul M’abûd Sharh Sunan Abî Dâwûd by Muhammad Shams al-Haq ‘Adhîm آbâdi, vol. 8, pp. 3-6] and the Hadîth reported by all the famous Muhaddithîn apart from al-Bukharî that the Messenger of Allâh (radhi allahu anhu) said:
“Whoever among you wants to offer a sacrifice, let him not take anything from his hair or nails.”
[Sahîh Muslim vol. 3 nos. 4869-73]
Shaikh Ibn Uthaymîn (rahimahullah) following his discussion of those who say it is obligatory and those who say it is a Sunnah said,
|“Each point of view has its evidence. It is safe for the one who is able to offer a sacrifice should not neglect to do so, because of what is involved in this act of reverence towards Allâh, remembering Him, and making sure that one has nothing to be blamed for.”|
The Principle of Udhiyah
The basic rule of Udhiyah is that sacrifice is required at an appointed time from one who is alive, on behalf on himself and on behalf of his household. He may also include in the reward all those whom he wishes, dead or alive.
It is from the Sunnah that one includes his household living and dead in his Udhiyah. So, when he slaughters his sheep, he should say, “Allâhumma hâtha ‘annî wa ‘an ahli baytî” meaning “O Allâh! This is on my behalf and on behalf of my family members.” It is from the virtues of Udhiyah that one animal is sufficient for one man and his family; he is not required to make separate sacrifices on behalf of every member (living or dead). Narrated Abu Ayyub:
|“At the time of Allâh’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and the members of his household, and they would eat from it and give some to others.”
[Sunan Ibn Majah v: 4, no: 3147. (Sahîh) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh Sunan Ibn Majah v: 2, no: 2546] [also, see previously mentioned Hadîth reported by Jâbir (radhi allahu anhu) (Abu Dawûd)]
With regards to Udhiyah of a deceased person, if he has bequeathed up to one third of his wealth for the purpose of sacrifice or included it in his waqf (endowment), then his wishes must be carried out. Otherwise, offering sacrifice on behalf of the deceased is a good deed and it is considered to be giving charity on behalf of the dead.
Animals prescribed for Udhiyah are camels, cattle and sheep. With regards to sharing a sacrifice, then a camel or a cow can be shared by seven people, this is based on the narration of Jabir (radhi allahu anhu), who said:
|“The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) commanded us to share camels and cattle, each seven men sharing one animal.” [Sahîh Muslim v: 2, p. 662, no. 3024]|
If a sheep, a goat or a ram is offered for Udhiyah, then sharing is not allowed, since no evidence is found in the Sunnah for it.
It should be mentioned here that the scholars agree that sacrificing an animal and giving its meat in charity is better than giving its value in charity. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) chose to perform sacrifice and he did not do anything but that which is best and most befitting. This is the opinion of Abu Hanîfah, al-Shâfa’i and Ahmad. This refutes the saying of those who say that today people need money more than they need food, therefore it is better to give the money rather then sacrifice an animal.
From the conditions of Udhiyah is that the animal offered for sacrifice must have reached the required age, which is six months for a lamb, one year for a goat, two years for a cow and five years for a camel. The animal should be completely free of any faults because sacrifice is an act of worship and Allâh is Tayyib and He only accepts that which is Tayyib. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)
|“There are four that will not be accepted for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose limp is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones.” [(Sahîh) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh al-Jamî no. 886]|
Milder defects do not disqualify an animal, but it is Makrûh to sacrifice such animals, for e.g. animal with a horn or ear missing, or an animal with slits in its ears, etc. Whoever honors the rites of Allâh, this has to do with the Taqwa (piety and righteousness) of his heart.
The Sacrificial animal is not for sale. It is forbidden to sell the animal chosen for sacrifice, except for a better exchange. If it gives birth to an offspring, the offspring must be sacrificed along with it. It is permissible to ride the animal. Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) saw a man leading his camel. He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Ride it.”
The man replied: “It (the animal) is for sacrifice.” The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Ride it.”A second or a third time.” [Sahîh Muslim vol: 2, no: 3046]
Prescribed time for sacrifice
The animal can be sacrificed after the Eid prayer and the Khutbah (not when the Khutbah or the prayer starts) until before the sunset of the last day of Tashrîq, which is 13th Dhul-Hijjah. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
|“Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, let him repeat it.” [Sahîh Muslim vol: 3, p. 1084, no: 4818]|
It is related from Ali (radiyaAllahu ‘anhu):
|“The days of Nahr (sacrifice) are the day of al-Adha and the three days following it.”|
This is also the opinion of al-Hasan al-Basrî, Atâ Ibn Abi Rabâh, al-Awzâ’î, al-Shâfi’e and Ibn al-Munthir (rahimahullahum ajma’îm)
Slaughtering the animal with one’s own hands is better, but if one does not do so, it is Mustahabb (liked, preferable) for him to be present at the time of slaughtering. Anas (radhi allahu anhu) reported that Allâh’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) sacrificed with his own hands, two horned rams with black markings, reciting the name of Allâh and glorifying Him (saying Allâhu-Akbar). He placed his foot on their sides (while sacrificing). [Sahîh Muslim: vol. 3, p. 1087, no: 4841]
Eating from one’s sacrifice is Mustahabb (liked, preferable). It is also Mustahabb for him, who performs a Udhiyah, not to eat before he offers his sacrifice; he should break his fast with the meat of his sacrifice the prayer. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam):
|“Let every man eat from his sacrifice.” [(Sahîh) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh a-Jamî no: 5349]|
Buraidah (radhi allahu anhu) reported:
|“The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) would not go out on the day of breaking the fast (Eid al-Fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice (Eid al Adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from Salât]” This is related by at-Tirmidhî and Ibn Majah and also by Sunan Ad-Dâramî who added: “And he would eat from his sacrifice.” [Sharah as-Sunnah, vol. 4, p. 306, footnote no: 1. Shaikh al-Albane said, its isnâd is Sahîh, al-Mishkât, vol: 1, p. 452, no: 1440]|
Dividing the meat into three is Mustahabb (liked, preferable), one-third to keep for oneself, one-third to be given as gifts and one-third to be given in charity. This was the opinion of Ibn Mas’ûd (radhi allahu anhu) and Ibn Umar t. [(Sahîh) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sunan Ibn Majah vol: 2, p: 203, no: 2546]
Selling any part of the sacrificed animal is prohibited
Scholars agree that it is not permissible to sell anything from the sacrificed animal’s meat, skin or fat. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
|“Whoever sells the skin of his Udhiyah, there is no Udhiyah for him (i.e. his sacrifice is not counted).” [(Hasan) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh al-Jamî, no: 6118]|
The butcher should not be given anything from the sacrifice, by way of reward or payment. Ali (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
|“The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) commanded me to take care of the sacrifice and to give its meat, skin and raiment (covering used for protection) in charity, and not to give anything of it to the butcher as a compensation. He said: ‘We will give him something from what we have.'” [(Agreed upon). Sahîh Muslim, vol: 2, no: 3019]|
|“It was said that it is permissible to give the butcher something as a gift. It is also permissible to give some of it to a Kafir, if he is poor or a relative or a neighbor, in order to open his heart to Islam.” [Fatawa Shaikh Abd al-Azîz Ibn Bâz]|
|“IF ANY OF YOU WANTS TO OFFER UDHIYAH…”|
Umm Salamah (radhi allahu anha) related that the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
|“If you see the Hilâl (new moon) of Dhul-Hijjah, and any one of you wants to make a sacrifice, then he should not cut (anything) from his hair and his nails.”|
and in one narration he said:
|“…then he should not take (cut) anything from his hair, nor from his nails, until he performs the sacrifice.” [Sahîh Muslim]|
These instructions of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) are unconditional, and unavoidable because his instructions constitute to obligation and his prohibition signifies Harâm. Therefore, anyone who does any of the above-mentioned acts deliberately then he should seek forgiveness from Allâh, but there is no report for any compensation.
If the hairs or nails cause harm to a person, like a broken nail, or a hair on the place of wound, then he is permitted to cut it. It should be mentioned here that both men and women can wash their hairs, because the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) only forbade cutting of the hairs and not washing them. There is no harm in washing the head, or scratching it, even if some hairs may fall out.
It is incorrect to assign someone else to perform the sacrifice for the sake of cutting hairs and nails. This practice is completely wrong because the ruling applies to the one who offers the sacrifice, whether or not he sacrifices with his own hands. The person who is delegated to sacrifice on behalf of someone else does not have to abide by this ruling. Also, this ruling applies only to the one who slaughters a sacrifice and not on the whole family, unless if separate Udhiyah is slaughtered for everyone. Allâh’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) used to offer sacrifice and include all his family members but no report is found saying that he forbade his family members to cut hairs or nails.
If a person cuts his hairs or nails because he did not intend to perform a sacrifice and then later decides to slaughter an Udhiyah (in the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah), then he should refrain from cutting them from the time he intends to perform a sacrifice. In the case, when a person does not intend to perform a sacrifice but he later plans to perform Hajj, then he should also not cut his nails or hairs because the cutting is only permitted in times of necessity. But if he is performing Hajj Tamattu (a form of Hajj, whereby the Hajj and Umrah are combined but separate Ihrâm is made for Umrah and a new Ihrâm is made for the Hajj), then he should trim his hairs after the Umrah because it is a part of the ritual.
Scholars mention that the wisdom behind this prohibition is so that he may resemble those in Ihrâm in some aspects of the rituals and the one who sacrifice may draw nearer to Allâh by offering his sacrifice. “…and do not shave your heads until the Hadî (sacrifice) reaches the place of sacrifice…” Therefore, he leaves his hairs and nails along until the time when he offers his sacrifice in hope that Allâh will save him form the Fire. And Allâh knows best.
By Abul A’la Maududi
In this discourse I shall explain to you the process by which an Islamic State comes into being as a natural consequence of a particular set of circumstances. Now-a-days the phrase “Islamic State” has become a child’s plaything; the idea has caught the imagination of certain people, and some of them even profess to have adopted it as a positive ideal. But such strange methods are being suggested for its attainment as would make it as impossible to reach the desired goal as reaching America in a motor car. This loose thinking is due to the fact that owing to certain political and historical causes, a desire has sprung up for a certain ideal which may be called the “Islamic State” ; but no attempt has been made either to define in a scientific manner the nature of this state or to study the process of its evolution. In these circumstances it becomes doubly necessary to investigate this problem in a scientific manner.
Natural Evolution of the State System
In this gathering of educated people I need not spend much time in explaining that a state, whatever its nature, is not formed by artificial means; it is not an article of manufacture to be prepared at a particular place and then transplanted elsewhere entirely at the sweet will of men. It is rather a natural product of the interplay of certain moral, psychological, cultural and historical factors pre-existing in a place. Certain pre-requisites must be fulfilled, certain social forces created and some natural requirements satisfied before it can come into being by the pressure of events. Just as in Logic, deduction always follows the arrangement of premises; in Chemistry a chemical compound is formed by the combination, in a particular way, of certain ingredients possessing chemical affinity; likewise it is an undeniable fact that in Sociology a state is merely the natural consequence of the circumstances which pre-exist in a particular society. Again, the nature of state is wholly determined by the nature of the circumstances which underlie its birth and formation. Just as it is not possible that premises may be of one type and their arrangement may bring about a different conclusion ; chemical components may be of a particular nature and by mixing them up a compound of a totally different kind may be obtained ; a lemon seed may be sown and a tree bearing mangoes may grow out of it ; similarly it is not possible that conditions may exist favoring the growth of a particular type of state and the manner of their mutual interaction may also suit the development of the same type of state but, after passing through various evolutionary stages, an altogether different state may emerge out of the process ; and the operation of the very forces which favored one form of state may result in a state being established which belongs to a different category altogether.
Please do not imagine that I am bringing in the doctrine of Determinism here and denying the freedom of human will. There is no doubt that in determining the nature of a state the volition and actions of individuals and communities play a very great part. What I am driving at is that whatever the nature of the state system that is desired to be created, it is indispensable to adopt and choose such means as fit in with the nature and spirit of the desired system and then to hit upon the appropriate course of action leading towards it. It is essential that a particular type of movement should grow up permeated by the same spirit; the same sort of mass character should be molded; the same type of communal morality should be developed; the same kinds of workers should be trained, arid the same type of leadership should emerge; and such collective action taken as is inherent in the nature of the particular state system desired to be set up. It is only when all these means have been successfully employed and all the necessary forces and appropriate factors have continued to operate for a sufficient period of time and when, as a result of their operation over a considerable period, they have created a social pattern strong enough to withstand all influences foreign to its spirit, then there comes into being, as a natural sequence of this train of events, that particular type of state for which these powerful forces have prepared the ground. This is exactly as a tree springs out of a seed and continues to grow with its own force, so that on reaching a particular stage of development it begins to bear the self-same fruit for which its natural structure was particularly suited. If you consider this fact, you will recognize that when a particular type of movement, leadership, mass-character and communal morality have emerged into a shape appropriate to a definite form of state system and yet the hope is entertained that, as a consequence thereof, a state system of an altogether different nature will be created, it would be little more than wishful thinking.
The Ideological State
We have now to consider what is the nature of the state which we call an Islamic state. In this connection I may point out that the distinguishing mark of the Islamic state is its complete freedom from all traces of nationalism and its influences, direct and indirect. It is a state built exclusively on principles. I should call it an ideological state. A state having its foundations in certain recognized moral principles and free from all idea of nationality or race is one which the world has known but once only and the advantages of which it does not appreciate even to this day. In ancient times men knew only of government by families or classes. Later on, they had experience of racial and national governments. But the idea of a state conducted on a definite set of principles and ruled by a group of persons compose of widely differing nationalities who have accepted those principles as the basis of their entire life, social, economic and political–such acceptance of principles being their sole title to have a voice in the affairs of the state, this has never struck root in the narrow mind of man. Christianity did embody a very dim perception of this truth but it could not develop a full system of ideas on the basis of which such a state could be formed. In the French Revolution we discover a faint glimpse of the idea of a state founded on a set of principles, but it soon disappeared in the darkness of nationalism. Communism of course preached this gospel with deep fervor and did even attempt to form a state on this basis, so that the world began to take interest in the great Russian experiment. But the evil spirit of nationalism soon possessed the Communist state and injected its poison down to its roots. From the dawn of history down to modern days, Islam is the only system in the world which seeks to organize the state on the basis of an ideology free from all traces of nationalism and invites mankind to form a non-national state by accepting its ideological basis.
As this is something novel and the world around us is moving in a contrary direction not only the non-Muslims but even Muslims themselves are unable to realize its full implications. The idea completely eludes the grasp of those Muslims who, though born in Muslim families, have had their training and education on Western lines and whose views on life and history are borrowed from the European history and Western politics. The result has been that in, countries outside India, where Muslims preponderate and which are more or less independent, when people of this type assumed the reins of government, they could think of no other form of government or state system except a national government and national state. This was because they had no knowledge of Islam and its attitude towards the problems of life and no conception of a state formed on a definite set of moral and spiritual principles instead of the principle of race or nationality. In India too, people who have received the same kind of mental training are involved in the same fallacy. They talk of an Islamic state but, because of their peculiar mental training and their background of Western political history, they have before their mind no plan of life except. that derived from the life and history of a national state in Europe. Consciously or unconsciously, they fall a victim to nationalistic ideology; and whatever program they think of is fundamentally nationalistic. According to them, the nature of the problem that confronts us is no more than this: that Muslims are a separate national group like Hindus, Englishmen and Frenchmen and as such they have every right to a separate national existence under a state and government of their own. However much they may rack their brains, they cannot conceive of any other means of attaining this objective except that, as a nation, Muslims should follow the same methods and adopt the same strategy as have been followed and adopted by all other national groups in history. In other words, the elements of which this nationality is composed should first be welded together in a strong unified whole ; a powerful national spirit should then be infused among them ; a central authority should emerge and direct them ; they should organize their own national guards ; they should have a national militia ; wherever they are in a majority they should form a national state based on the well-known democratic principle of majority rule ; and wherever they may be in a minority, their “rights” should be safeguarded and their individuality protected, just as in other countries of the word national minorities seek and claim such protection : in the services, educational institutions and elected bodies, they should have proportionate representation, their representatives should be elected by their own votes ; and they should be given their due share in ministries as a distinct national entity. Such are the methods and ideas of these people. They are evidently borrowed from the conception of European state system and yet those who advocate the above means and strategy talk, in the same breath, of their resolve to form an Islamic state. These people also use Islamic terms, `Ummah’ `Millat’, `Ameer’ and the duty of `obedience to the Ameer’ the meaning of which in Islamic terminology is something quite different from what these persons have in mind when they use these words. To them, however, these Islamic terms are synonymous with the terminology of nationalism and, as good luck would have it, these terms were found ready-made in Islamic literature and are now being freely used to serve as a cloak for un-Islamic ideas and modes of action derived from the West.
If you understand the nature of a state based on spiritual and moral principles, you will find little difficulty in realizing that this attitude of thought and action and this program of work cannot serve even as a starting point for arriving at the desired goal of an ideological state, let alone the question of its utility in the concluding stages of the movement. Rather such ideas and actions are by their very nature fatal to the growth and evolution of a state to be founded on non-national principles. The very basis of an ideological state is that we dismiss all questions of tribes, classes, and `nationalities and look upon men as moral and spiritual beings. It is not with their nationality but with their humanity that we concern ourselves. We place before them certain principles of action and a set of beliefs wherefrom they have been derived, and put forward the claim that these principles provide the basis of a universal culture and a non-national state system which will lead mankind to real peace in this world and in the Hereafter. Anyone who accepts those principles is entitled to an equal share in the conduct of the state system built on them. How can a man whose numerous activities bear the stamp of nationalism come forward with such an ideal? How can he appeal to the wider humanity and the common moral sentiments of mankind when he has already falsified his position by associating himself with the good of a particular community or a particular nation? Would it not be ridiculous to appeal in the name of humanity and the common welfare of mankind to people blinded by national prejudices and fighting each other in the name of nationalism and national states, and in the same breath to demand national rights and national self-determination for our, own people ? Does it stand to reason that a movement for dissuading people from litigation should be launched by instituting a suit in a court of law?
The Divine Caliphate
Another distinguishing feature of the Islamic state is that the basic conception underlying all its outward manifestations is the idea of Divine sovereignty. Its fundamental theory is that the earth and all that it contains belongs to God Who alone is its Sovereign. No individual, family, class or nation, not even the whole of humanity can lay claim to sovereignty, either partially or wholly. God alone has the right to legislate and give commands. The state, according to Islam, is nothing more than a combination of men working together as servants of God to carry out His Will and Purposes. This can happen in two ways: either some person should receive the law of the state and its basic constitution directly from .God or he should follow the lead of another person who is the recipient of such law and constitution, In the working of the state all those will participate who believe in this law and are prepared to follow it. They will all work with a sense of individual and collective responsibility to God, not to the electorate, neither to the king nor the dictator. They will proceed on the belief that God knows everything overt and covert ; from His knowledge nothing is hidden ; and from His grip man can never hope to escape, not even after death: The responsibility for running the state has been vested in men not for the purpose of enforcing their own orders or imposing their own will on others, enslaving people of other nationalities, calling upon them to bow down their heads in submission, enabling them to construct spacious palaces by fleecing the weak and downtrodden ; in short, for the pursuit of their pleasure and self-glorification. On the other hand, men who are at the helm of the state should have a feeling that this is a burden laid on them that they may enforce the Divine law and administer social justice to the creatures of God. They should feel that if they make even a small mistake in following and enforcing the law or become guilty of even a grain of selfishness, prejudice, partiality and dishonesty, they shall be hauled up before the throne of God on the Day of Judgment, even if they escape punishment in this world.
The superstructure of social conduct and political action that is raised on the basis of this theory is entirely different from that of the secular state in all its details and ramifications. Between these two forms of social and political life there is nothing common either in the elements which make up their unity or in the spirit and attitude underlying them. A state system based on belief in the sovereignty of God and in a sense of responsibility to Him requires for its successful working a special type of individual mass character and a peculiar mental attitude. Its army, its police, its law-courts, its revenue system, its taxation, its administrative and foreign policy, its conduct of war and peace-everything differs widely from its counterpart in a secular state. The ordinary judges as well as the Chief Budges of the secular courts are not fit to work as clerks or even peons in its judicial system. The Inspector General of police in a secular state is not worthy of being an ordinary constable therein; and the Generals and Field-marshals not fit to be recruited as ordinary soldiers. The foreign ministers of the secular states, not to say of their fitness for any office under the Islamic state system, will not escape imprisonment under that system for their falsehood, fraud and dishonesty. In short, all persons who have been trained for running the affairs of secular state and whose moral and mental training has been undertaken in the spirit which permeates every activity of the secular state are totally unfit for an Islamic state, which requires human beings of a very different character for its citizens, voters, councilors, office-bearers, judges, magistrates, heads of departments, commanders of the army, ambassadors, and ministers-in brief, for all the different elements of its collective life and administrative machinery. It requires men who have the fear of God in their hearts ; who feel a sense of responsibility towards God ; who prefer the next fife to the present ; in whose eyes moral gain or less is much more important than worldly success or failure ; who follow implicitly, in every walk of life, the-code of conduct and line of action which has been permanently formulated for them ; whose struggle and efforts are directed to the attainment of Divine pleasure ; who, are influenced neither by personal nor national motives ; who are not slaves to avarice of their sensual passions ; who are free from narrow-mindedness and prejudice ; whom wealth and authority cannot corrupt ; who are neither. hungry for riches nor greedy of power ; who possess a strength of character that can resist all temptations even if the entire resources of the earth and all the treasures of the world are placed at their free disposal with nobody to check and -supervise -them ; who pass sleepless nights when the government of a city is entrusted to them so that, under their protection, people may be freed from all fear in respect of their life, property and honor ; who entering a country as conquerors, set at rest by their conduct any fear that may be entertained about them that they wilt indulge in loot and plunder, in tyranny, adultery or sexual incontinence. On the other hand, the conquered population find, .in every soldier of their army, a guardian of their life and property and the honor of their womenfolk; whose reputation in international politics is such that the whose world can depend upon them for their truthfulness, love of justice, adherence to moral principles, and fulfillment of promises and undertakings. An Islamic state can only be formed with this type of people and it is only men of such sterling character that can run it. People with materialistic and utilitarian mentality who always come forward with new principles under the stress of personal or national expediency ; who do not believe in God or in the life Hereafter ; whose policy revolves on the axis of worldly gain or loss, far from being fit to establish or govern such a state are a menace to its stability. Their very existence in such a state is a challenge to the principles on which it claims to rest.