Dajjal (False Messiah, Antichrist)

dajjal-false-messiah-antichrist-hadith-islam-christianity

Every religiously educated person whether its Christianity, Judaism or Islam knows that the end of the world and the era of mankind is about to be finish soon. Hollywood has made dozens of movies about end of time and the final battle between the forces of evil and good before the end of this world called Armageddon. The Antichrist or Masih ad-Dajjal will lead the forces of evil and Jesus Christ will defeat him. Who is Antichrist or Dajjal, what will be his ambitions and how will Muslims recognize him, these are the important questions and the most important question is how will Muslims defeat him. Lets explore subject and try to figure out the answers.

Who is Dajjal – The Antichrist

It is the most important question which has been asked for ages that who is Dajjal or Antichrist or false messiah. There are three different concepts about that, one is Jewish, one is Christian and one is Islamic. The three monotheistic religions are agreed upon the fact that a false messiah will come before the end of this world. Let’s take a look at the all three namely Jewish, Christian and Islamic concept of false messiah:

The Jewish view

The Jewish eschatology (a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of mankind) that is deeply influenced by the Babylonian and Iranian myths, he would appear as a mighty ruler at the head of gigantic armies, destroy three rulers (the three horns, Daniel 7:8, 24), persecute the saints (7:25), and devastate the Temple of God.

The Christian view

The Christian eschatology, a view of the Antichrist is given in II Thessalonians 2. Here Antichrist appears as a tempter who works by signs and wonders and seeks to obtain divine honours; it is further signified that this “man of lawlessness” will obtain credence or metal acceptance, especially among the Jews because they have not accepted the truth. The idea that the Jews would believe in Antichrist as punishment for not having believed in the true Christ seems to be expressed by the author of the Fourth Gospel (John 5:43).

I am come in my father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come his own name, him ye will receive.
(John 5:43)

The conception of Antichrist as a perverter of men led naturally to his connection with false doctrine (I John 2:18, 22, 4:3; II John 7).

Little children, it is the last time : and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists ; whereby we know that it is the last time.

They went out from us, but they were not of us ; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us : but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us.

But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things. I have not written unto you because ye know not the truth, but because ye know it, and that no lie is of the truth.

Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ ? He is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son.

(I John 2:18-22)

And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God : and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come ; and even now already is it in the world.

(I John 4:3)

For many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. This is a deceiver and an antichrist.

(II John 7)

In the Book of Revelation, the Antichrist is seen as a worker of wonders and a seducer.

And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion : and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death ; and his deadly wound was healed : and all the world wondered after the beast.

And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast : and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast ? who is able to make war with him ?

And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies ; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.

And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them : and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.

And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

If any man have an ear, let him hear.

He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity : he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth ; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast ; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.

And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast : for it is the number of a man ; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

(Revelation 13)

Islamic view

Now lets take a look at the Islamic perspective. In Sahih Hadith or the sayings of prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h) the word used for representing the Antichrist is Al Masih ad-Dajjal, means a false messiah who will deceive the people and claim that he is a true messiah i.e. Jesus (p.b.u.h). Dajjal is an Arabic word means “deceiver”. In Islamic eschatology, the Antichrist who will come forth before the end of time; after a reign of 40 days or 40 years, he will be destroyed by Hazrat Isa or Jesus (pbuh).

He is described as a plump, one-eyed man with a ruddy face and curling hair and the Arabic letters k-f-r (“unbelief”) on his forehead. Ad-Dajjal will appear during a period of great tribulation (in the period of great affliction); he will be followed by the Jews and will claim to be God in Jerusalem. He will work false miracles, and most people will be deceived. At this moment the Second Coming of Jesus Christ will occur.

That was a quick introduction of Al Massih Ad-Dajjal or antichrist. Now lets explore the subject in wider perspective. According to sahih hadith mentioned in Sahih Bukhari:

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The Last Hour would not come until there would arise about thirty impostors, liars, and each one of them would claim that he is a messenger of Allah.

What will be the significance of Dajjal in all the thirty false prophets and lairs

Dajjal would be one of them. And he would be the most powerful and influential and more trouble maker for mankind in all the falsely proclaimed messiahs and prophets.

Abu Qatada reported: We used to go to Imran b. Husain passing in front of Hisham b. ‘Amir. He, one day, said: You pass by me (in order) to go to some per- sons but (amongst ttie living persons) none remained in the company of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) more than I and none knows more ahadith than I. I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There would be no creation (creating more trouble) than the Dajjal right from the creation of Adam to the Last Hour.

Muslim :: Book 41 : Hadith 7037

Now you’ve got the little idea about the hardship of the affliction caused by the Antichrist.
Now, read the following Hadith that states the appearance of Dajjal is the first sign of the coming of the last hour (Al-Qayamah).

Abu Zur’a reported that three persons amongst Muslims had been sitting in Medina in the presence of Marwan b. Hakam and they heard him narrate these signs from him and the first amongst them was the appearance of the Dajjal.

Muslim :: Book 41 : Hadith 7026

As I discussed earlier that all the three monotheistic religions, namely Judaism, Christianity and Islam are agreed upon the appearance of Antichrist or Dajjal in the time of great affliction. In the following Hadith our beloved prophet Mohammad (pbuh) mentioned that:

Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: There is never a prophet who has not warned the Ummah of that one-eyed liar; behold he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed. On his forehead are the letters k f. r. (Kafir).

Muslim :: Book 41 : Hadith 7007

Our prophet not only warned us about him but he also prayed for seeking refuge from the hardness of the time because he knew that it would be the most darkest and worst age for Muslims around the world and it would be so hard to protect faith and to be a true believer.

Narrated ‘Aisha:
I heard Allah’s Apostle in his prayer, seeking refuge with Allah from the afflictions of Ad-Dajjal.

Bukhari :: Book 9 :: Volume 88 :: Hadith 243

So, How will Muslims recognize him

In another Hadith it is mentioned that the letters k, f and r or the word “kafir” would be easily read by every Muslim. He would be blind by his one eye and that would be left one and his hairs would be thick and curly with red complexion. It means that every Muslim at that time would be able to recognize him as the false messiah.

Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Dajjal is blind of one eye and there is written between his eyes the word” Kafir”. He then spelled the word as k. f. r., which every Muslim would be able to read.

Muslim :: Book 41 : Hadith 7009

Now read these Hadith which define the appearance of Dajjal more clearly.

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle said. “While I was sleeping, I saw myself (in a dream) performing Tawaf around the Ka’ba. Behold, I saw a reddish-white man with lank hair, and water was dropping from his head. I asked, “who is this?’ They replied, ‘The son of Mary.’ Then I turned my face to see another man with a huge body, red complexion and curly hair and blind in one eye. His eye looked like a protruding out grape. They said (to me), He is Ad-Dajjal.” The Prophet added, “The man he resembled most is Ibn Qatan, a man from the tribe of Khuza’a.”

Bukhari :: Book 9 :: Volume 88 :: Hadith 242

He (Dajjal) would be a young man with twisted, contracted hair, and a blind eye. I compare him to ‘Abd-ul-’Uzza b. Qatan. He who amongst you would survive to see him should recite over him the opening verses of Sura Kahf (xviii.). He would appear on the way between Syria and Iraq and would spread mischief right and left.

Muslim :: Book 41 : Hadith 7015

What will be the aims and ambitions of Antichrist

According to Hadith and religious scholars that Dajjal would come in the time of great afflictions. He will be the test by the God for people to distinguish the true believers and the people who are working for the satanic agenda in the world, and to make a world a better place for us by sending the true messiah i.e. Jesus (p.b.u.h) who will fight and then eliminate all the evil powers in the world and spread the peace and harmony among the nations of the world. The aim of Antichrist would be completely wipe out the religious believes and promote ungodly worship and then total disbelief in God or Atheism. Ungodly worship can be in the form of Idol worship like Hindus and Buddhists and also can be in the form of democratic governing system.

Shuroot ul-Jihaad (Jihaad and its Conditions)

jihad

Rasheed Barbee (hafidhahullaah), during the Islam vs Terrorism Conference in North Carolina

After Khutbat ul-Hajjah, the khateeb mentioned six of the conditions of Jihaad that Shaikh Muhammad Bazmool (hafidhahullaah) put together from the Qur`an and Sunnah.

a- Al-Islam – the person has to be a Muslim
b- of age
c- a male
d – of sound mind
e- Permission of the Ruler (of his country)
f- Fighting behind that Ruler
g- Permission of the two parents (if they are Muslim); if parents are not present, then the grandparents
h- Preparation for Jihaad
i- Having the ability to make Jihaad

I’d like to begin this talk with a very important statement that you can find in the book of Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) – a book that has been explained by Shaikh Muhammad ibn Saleh al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) in his Muqadima fi Tafsir (Introduction to Tafsir).

It is obligatory to know that the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) clarified the meanings of the Qur`an to his companions (radiallaahu ‘anhum) in the same way he clarified to them the wordings of the Qur`an. So therefore, the statement of Allaah ta’aala (The Most High):

…And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad) the reminder and the advice (the Qur`an), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them. (An-Nahl, ayah 44) Therefore, it entails this and this.

Meaning it entails him (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explaining the meaning and wordings. So he (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) taught them the wording and the meanings. Therefore, the companions were fully aware of the meanings of the Qur`an.

And I mention this because, many a times a non-Muslim will read a verse of the Qur`an, whether they read the English translation or they become proficient in Arabic and they read it in Arabic. And from the verse [or translation] that they read, they come to their own conclusions of what it means. And this is not permissible. And many times the Muslims will read a verse of the Qur`an or a hadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and will come to our own conclusion of what it means. But this is not permissible. Rather, we have to return our understanding to the way it was understood by the companions, as Allaah ta’aala says:

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allaah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (Al-Baqarah 2:137)
And if they believe in the like of that which you believe, meaning the companions, then they will be rightly guided. So when it comes to the issue of Jihaad, we must return our understanding to the way that the companions understood it.

So we start with the meaning of this word Jihaad. The word Jihaad in the language does not mean “Holy War.” It means to exert an effort, or to strive. And as Shaikh al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said, “It is a four-letter verb:Jahada, Yujaahidu, Jaahid, Jihaadin, mujaahada.” It means to struggle, or to put forth an effort. And many people erroneously think it means “Holy War,” but it doesn’t. And the clear proof is the statement of Allaah ta’aala:

But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not… (Luqman, ayah 15)
Here Allaah is speaking about Jihaad which is made by two non-Muslim parents against their Muslim child. If your two non-Muslim parents make a Jihad against you – as a Muslim child – to force you to associate partners with Allaah, don’t obey them, but be to them in this world a good companion. The word Jihaad in the religion means much more than just fighting with the sword. Rather, it means a struggle.
In the religion, Shaikh Fawzaan (hafidhahullaah) said it means: to strive in the worship of Allaah and in His obedience.

And it more vast than just killing; it is very broad. And Jihaad, ya ikhwaan wa khawaat fil Islaam (brothers and sisters in Islam) is old. Very old. Jihaad is not something invented when the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) became a Prophet. It preceeded [Muhammad’s Prophethood] by many years. As when Musa (Moses) and the people left from Fir’awn and they went to the Holy Land in Jerusalem, and they found there an oppressive people. So Musa said: O my people! Enter the holy land (Palestine) which Allaah has assigned to you, and turn not back (in flight) for then you will be returned as losers.(Al-Ma`idah, ayah 21)

Here there were people who were oppressive, evil people who [occuppied] this land that belonged to the Muslims. The land is Jerusalem, so Musa was telling his people – the Children of Israel – to go into this land and make Jihaad against these people, and take the land back from the people. They said: O Musa (Moses)! In it (this holy land) are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter. (Al-Ma`idah, ayah 22)

Two men of those who feared (Allaah and) on whom Allaah had bestowed His Grace [they were Yusha’ (Joshua) and Kalab (Caleb)] said: “Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours, and put your trust in Allaah if you are believers indeed.” (Al-Ma`idah, ayah 23)

They said: “O Musa (Moses)! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go you and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here.” (Al-Ma`idah, ayah 24)

He [Musa (Moses)] said: “O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so separate us from the people who are the Fasiqun (rebellious and disobedient to Allaah)!” (Al-Ma`idah, ayah 25)

First point: they had a land with an evil people. Allaah ta’aala commanded Musa to tell the Children of Israel to enter this land and take it back from the people by Jihaad.
Shaikh Fawzaan said that the Children of Israel were cowards. And they did not want to go into there. So Musa said: I have power only over myself and my brother.

Here is the first question: how did the battle turn out? Who won the battle?

[Answer:] No battle happened. These two men – the two men who feared Allaah regarding the blessing – advised the people who were not helping Musa to help Musa and they would be victorious. But the Children of Israel were cowards, and no battle took place. Why didn’t Musa go fight? He was from the ‘ulul al-‘azam (the five best Messengers), and his brother was also a Prophet with him. Why didn’t he fight?
Condition number six; he didn’t have the ability. They didn’t have the ability to win. If you don’t have the ability to win the battle, you don’t fight. And this is a refutation against those people who want to go to war with a rock. They want to fight against an airplane with a rock. No preparation. So this is from the conditions. And also this is proof – the shaikh said – that Jihaad is old [and not new].

[Another proof is:] So they routed them by Allaah’s Leave and Dawud (David) killed Jalut (Goliath). (Al-Baqarah, ayah 251)

The next question. I said that Musa and Harun did not fight this battle. So is it mentioned in the Qur`an that he ever made Jihaad? Na’aam (yes), it is mentioned. Surely, he made Jihaad against Fir’awn because Jihaad is not only with the sword but also with the tongue. So he made a Jihaad with the tongue against Fir’awn, and this is from the greatest forms of Jihaad.

As Imam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said, “Jihaad appears in the Qur`an in three different ways. It appears with the weapon. It also appears with the statement, as Allaah ta’aala said: So obey not the disbelievers, but strive against them [make Jihaad against them] (by preaching) with the utmost endeavour [with a great Jihaad], with it (the Qur`an). (Al-Furqan, ayah 52) Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiallaahu ‘anhumma) said:

‘It’ is the Qur`an.

And Shaikh Salim at-Taweel (hafidhahullaah) said:

Jihaad with the Qur`an (statement) is more difficult than a Jihaad with the sword, and it is more specfic (meaning less people can do it).

How’s that? You can find a non-Muslim who is courageous and good with the weapon to make Jihaad with the sword all day long. The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, And Allaah may aid this Deen with an evil man (faajir). But how many people can stand with the statement of the Qur`an, and make a jihaad with the Qur`an against the hypocrites and the kufaar and bring the argument against them to shut them down. Only the ‘ulemma (can do this). Only the ‘ulemma!  [May Allaah preserve those righteous ones who are alive.]

And the Shaikh Fawzaan made a side point. Allaah says: Those to whom We gave the Qur`an, recite it “Haqqa Tilawita” (in a way that it should be recited) as it should be recited (i.e. followed). Here is the word tilawah. What does the word tilawah mean, or Yattluw? They translate it as those who recite the Qur`an with proper recitation. But then we have the verse: And by the moon as it follows it (the sun). (Ash-Shams 91:2)  So the word “talaha” means to follow. So this verse means those who follow the Qur`an the way it should be followed – not just recited. It means those who recite it in a proper way and live by it.

Because the Qur`an was not just sent down to be recited but also to work by it and to put it in your life [to be implemented and hold it as your ‘aqeedah]. The recitation is not sufficient.

And Allaah says: O Prophet (Muhammad)! Strive hard [make Jihaad] against the disbelievers and the hypocrites. (At-Tawbah, ayah 73) What’s the shahid (point of reference) here? We know, in Islam, the munaafiq is not fought with the sword. The Munaafiq is only fought with the tongue, with the argument. This shows that Jihaad is not only by the sword. Why is this important? Because later on when you hear the hadeeth that “Jihaad is present until the Hour is established,” what kind of Jihaad is the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) speaking about? Is the meaning of this that you have to fight with the sword until the Hour or is this different types of Jihaad?

[Answer:] Different types; this is very important.

So Ibnul-Qayyim said: Jihaad is made with the weapon, statement and the action. Allaah said: And strive hard in Allaah’s Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that His Name should be superior)… (Al-Hajj, ayah 78) Meaning with your actions. And Ibnul-Qayyim said that Jihaad is fought against four, and you may be surprised that only one of those four is physical. He said that Jihaad is made against:

1- The self, against his own soul. And if a person cannot do that, then he is not fit to make Jihaad against anyone else. Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said, “You are with yourself all the time, and you cannot make Jihaad against yourself but you want to make Jihaad against someone else?” [Then the khateeb recounted an incident that took place in Eqypt, where he met a man in a store who claimed that he intended to go out Falestine and make Jihaad against the Jews – and he was adament about it. When the adhaan was called, the khateeb said to him “let’s go pray,” and the man said he didn’t pray. Aoodhoobillaah! And the masjid was across the street.] He couldn’t make Jihaad against his own soul to pray, yet he wanted to make Jihaad versus the Jews. So the first Jihaad we must make is against our own soul.

2- The second is against shaytan, because he is an open enemy, from his whispers and him encouraging  us to do evil. we have to make Jihaad against him by not obeying him.

3- The third of whom Jihaad is made against is the munaafiq (hypocrite). And who is the munaafiq? The munaafiq is the one who pretends to be a Muslim, but he is not really a Muslim on the inside. And no one really knows this except Allaah, unless Allaah ta’aala revealed it [in the Qur`an or the Sunnah]. So this Jihaad – against the munaafiqoon – is made by the tongue.

4- And the fourth Jihaad is the Jihaad against the kufaar, and that Jihaad is not always physical. This is the only that can ever get physical.
Is that clear?

Answering a listener’s question, the khateeb stated again – as he had the first time – that the Imam Ibn Qayyim said that the one who cannot do Jihaad against his own soul is not fit to make Jihaad against anyone else. Not that he’s unable; rather he is not fit to make Jihaad against anyone else. If you can’t make Jihaad against shaytan – and we know that everyone has a qareen (companion) from the jinn with him all the time. He’s never going to leave you [in this world]. So if you can’t make Jihaad against that enemy who is always with you, then why go on a plane and chase another enemy down? This one is with you all the time!

Then what has to be understood, my brothers and sisters in Islaam, is the purpose for Jihaad. We mentioned that there are different types of Jihaad, right? What is the purpose of Jihaad?

A man came to the Prophet Muhammad and asked him about a man who fights because he is brave or a man who fights due to some type of nationalism (pride), or he fights to show off. So which one of these is fighting for the sake of Allaah? The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

Whoever fights to make the word of Allaah the Uppermost (highest), he is in the path of Allaah.

 Whoever fights to make the word of Allaah the Uppermost (highest), he is in the path of Allaah.

Allaah said: And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allaah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allaah Alone. (Al-Anfal, ayah 39)

So there are a lot of points regarding this:

If the intent is to make the word of Allaah the highest, then fighting is a wasila (a means) to get to the end – but not the goal. Meaning what?

What is the Word you are trying to make the highest? La illaaha il Allaah (there is none deserving of worship except Allaah).

This means those fighting have to be Muwahidoon (those who single out Allaah in everything specific to Him, including worship). Why would a person who commits shirk with Allaah fight Jihaad? A person who commits shirk, worships the graves, makes du’aa (supplicates) to the awliyaah (“saints”), how is he going to make the Kalima (Word) of Tawheed the uppermost, while he himself doesn’t practice Tawheed?

Also what we understand from this is what happened with the great Prophet Sulaiman (‘alaihi salaam), who amassed his troops (in case of a) war against Bilqis. [But first,] he wrote [As Allaah informed us]:

“Verily! It is from Sulaiman (Solomon), and verily! It (reads): In the Name of Allaah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. Be you not exalted against me, but come to me as Muslims (true believers who submit to Allaah with full submission).'” (An-Naml, ayat 30 and 31)

What do we understand from this? He gave her a letter, giving her da’wah.
Shaikh Fawzaan said:

Jihaad has to be preceeded by Da’wah.

He wrote her a letter, giving her da’wah, calling her to Tawheed. So first, he gave her da’wah before Jihaad.

And this was also done by the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), as comes in the hadeeth of Anas (radiallaahu ‘anhu). He ordered for a letter to be written to oppressive rulers Kisra and Caesar, and Najashi, giving them da’wah to Allaah. The Messenger of Allaah used to order for letters to be written to rulers, giving them da’wah. He (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to give people da’wah before Jihaad.
Yet you don’t find these people today who claim “jihaad” giving da’wah. Rather they do the opposite by running people away from Islam. As Shaikh Fawzaan said: they give the impression that Islam is a barbaric religion that is all about killing. So they run the people away from Islam.

Also, Shaikh Fawzaan mentioned the verse:
Have you not thought about the group of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Musa (Moses)? When they said to a Prophet of theirs, “Appoint for us a king and we will fight in Allaah’s Way.” (Al-Baqarah, ayah 246)

Raise for us a king so we can fight in the path of Allaah. What’s the point of reference here?

Seeking leadership! Shaikh Fawzaan says:

This shows they were not going to fight the battle until they had a leader. Because Jihaad has to be with the permission of the Imam (ruler). There’s no Jihaad without the ruler!

This is the condition that I want to bring home the most here in America! That it is not the right of any individual or any group to go out on an offensive Jihaad.Not permissible! Can’t do it. The only one who can declare war is the ruler. No one else. No one else.

And there are many proofs that we will bring throughout the night in sha` Allaah that the Jihaad can only be initiated by the ruler.

The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The Imam is a protection, and the battle is fought from behind him. The people fight from behind the Imam.

Ya ikhwaan wa khawaat, before I mention some of the conditions, something has to be understood and brother ‘Umar Quinn (hafidhahullaah) alluded to this last night about the detail of Islam.

Now, if I may ask a question: when you entered the masjid, what was the first thing you did? You stepped in the masjid. Which foot did you step in with? [Right foot.] Why did you do that? [Because that’s the Prophet’s (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) Sunnah.] And then did you sit down or pray two rak’ah? [Two rak’ah Tahiyat al-Masjid.] And for those who went into the hamaam (bathroom), which foot did you enter with? [Left Foot.] Did you make du’aa? [yes.] When you came out, with which foot did you come out with? [Right.] Did you make a du’aa? [Yes.] When you leave the masjid – bi-idhnillaah – which foot will you be leaving with? [Left.] When you get in your car, do you make a du’aa? [Yes.] When you enter your home, do you make a du’aa? [Yes.] When you leave your home, do you make a du’aa? [Yes.] Has anyone had a child recently? When you have a child, what do you do? [Sacrifice an animal.] Can you sacrifice a chicken? Why not?

So do we think that Allaah ‘azza wa jall has given us guidelines on how to enter the masjid, how to leave, how to enter the bathroom, and how to leave the bathroom, how to sacrifice an animal, what animals you can sacrifice and what animals you can’t, but when it came to Jihaad we may do it any way we want? There are guidelines on which animal you can sacrifice, but you can kill any human you want to? Only kill certain animals, they have to be a certain age, a certain type. You can’t kill a chicken [except with specfic conditions], but come to a human, kill any human you want to: man, women, children? You think your Lord sent down His Deen like that? We have guidelines on how to go to our families, what to say when we sneeze, what to say when we eat; eat with your left hand or right hand? [Right.]

Allaah ta’aala gave us that detail, but [you think] when it came to Jihaad, it’s up to you?

And if you ask anyone who is a so-called “Jihaadi,” what are the conditions of Jihaad, he can’t tell you.

What is the greatest deed in Islam, the greatest action after the shahaadah? A man said to the Prophet Muhammad (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): what actions are best? The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The salat in its fixed time, kindness to parents, and Jihaad. So if the best deed is Salat in its fixed time, and it’s time to make the Salat, and I stand up and make the takbir [and pray opposite the qiblah] is the salat accepted? [No.] Why not? Because I am not facing the qiblah, right? So there are conditions with the salat. If I take my parents to church, is that from the best deeds [kindness to parents]?

Allaah said: But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not… (Luqman, ayah 15)  So if I take my parents to church, I am not doing a good deed. So good deeds have conditions. Salat is the best beed, but if you stand up and pray, and you’re not in wudhu, you have no salat.

If you have wudhu, but you’re not wearing any clothes, no salat. A mistake many of the brothers make – may Allaah forgive me and you – is when they find the Imam in ruku’, they want to hurry up and catch the rak’ah, what do they do? They rush to go into ruku’. What’s the problem here? No takbiratul Ihram, no opening takbir [which is a pillar from the pillars of the salat]! No salat!

You find many people when they make salat, they pray and their mouth is closed. And they’re reciting in their mind. No salat! The lips have to move for it to count.

So how can it be that Jihaad has no details? It’s not possible. Jihaad has details that have to be followed in order for it to be accepted. Is this clear? [Al-Hamdulillaah.]

And we have some statements from the ‘ulemma, showing this [second] condition, and tonight in sha` Allaah, we will mention the refutations of the doubts, because there are many doubts that the people bring; the people of takfir bring different doubts to try to shoot down the conditions. [Aoodhoobillaah!] The ‘ulemma have refuted these conditions in a very clear and simple manner. And also we will mention what they call “mawani’ shahaada”, that which will prevent the person from becoming a shaheed (martyr). A person will leave thinking he’s going to be a shaheed, and he will do something that will prevent him from becoming a shaheed, and it may land him in the hellfire. Aoodhoobillaah!

So he Shaikh Fawzaan mentioned the verse of Allaah: O you who believe! what is the matter with you, that when it is said to you march forth in the Cause of Allaah (i.e. Jihaad) you cling heavily to the earth?.. (At-Tawbah, ayah 38)
What’s the point of reference here? What condition do we get from this? Getting permission. When it is said to you, not when you decide yourself to go, butWhen it is said to you. When you are told to go in the Path of Allaah by the Imam (ruler).
As Shaikh Fawzaan said: These ayat that mention going to Jihaad, Allaah ta’aala is speaking with the leader; He is not speaking to the individual. Allaah is speaking to the leader.

And as the brother mentioned last night regarding Dhul-Khwaisrah, the founder of the Khawaarij. So when he said, “Be just o Muhammad.” Many mistakes in this, such as calling him by his first name [in addition to rebelling against him]. Disrespect. The sahaaba (companions) say, “O Messenger of Allaah.” But the Jews would say, “O Musa,” calling him by his first name. Disrespect. Dhul-Khwaisrah told him to be just. ‘Umar said, “leave me to take his head.” What lesson do we take from this?

[‘Umar sought] permission. ‘Umar didn’t chop his head. ‘Umar said, “Leave [let] me to take his head.” He asked permission. If you could make your own Jihaad, he would have just chopped his head off, and his head would have rolled down the street, and everybody would have gone about their business. But ‘Umar asked permission to do so. Jihaad is only with the permission of the ruler, ya ikhwaan. He asked permission, “Leave me to cut off his head.”

Imam at-Tahawee (rahimahullaah) said:

Jihaad remains with the leader of the Muslims – whether they are pious or wicked – until the hour is established. That Jihaad remains with the ruler.

Shaikh al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaahh) said:

It’s not permissible for the army to make a war except with the permission of the ruler regardless of what the affair is, because the one being addressed with the Jihaad is the ruler – not the individual. And the only exception is Jihaadu dafa’ (defensive Jihaad). Defensive Jihaad.

So there is a difference. You have the offensive Jihaad and the defensive Jihaad. And the purpose of the offensive, ya ikhwaan, is to make the statement of Allaah the highest, but it doesn’t mean to force people into Islam. Allaah said:There is no compulsion in religion… (Al-Baqarah, ayah 256)

Shaikh Fawzaan said:

The offensive Jihaad is only to protect the Muslims who are being oppressed and to stop the people from preventing Islam from being heard.

But it’s not to force anyone into the Deen of Islam.
Shaikh Fawzaan said:

Everything that comes with making Allaah’s word the highest comes with it such as: spoils of war (anfal), getting their land, taking slaves. These are things that come with it. [They’re not the aim, but rather a reward that comes with making Allaah’s word the uppermost.] And the proof is if they accept Islam before the battle, there is no battle [and therefore no spoils of war].

When they went to Makkah, how long did the battle last? There was none. When ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab ent to Jerusalem, what happened? They gave him the keys. If the goal would have been killing, he would have said, “Okay, I’ve got the keys, let’s open the door and start killing.”

There was no battle. So that was the statement of Shaikh al-‘Uthaimeen that it is not permissible for the individual to initiate Jihaad.

Shaikh Fawzaan said that there is no Jihaad except by the permission of the leader (ruler), because with him is the rectification and without him is confusion. And the only exception is defensive Jihaad, but this doesn’t mean “we’re at war with America, therefore I’m on the Defensive Jihaad.”

Shaikh Fawzaan said, “if you’re afraid of his dog” – meaning the danger is right there and you don’t have time to get permission [then defensive Jihaad is allowed]. Shaikh Fawzaan said, “You even need permission in a defensive Jihaad, if you have the ability to ask permission.” If you have enough time to ask the ruler, you have to do so. If there’s not enough time because the danger is right there, then you can defend yourself.
And we need to explain to the people in America that what they have from their wars, they got it from Islam, but they – of course – messed it up along the way. Think about it: and this one thing that we must explain especially to the Muslims, as many times you find they invite the non-Muslims to the Masjid and they say, “Watch us pray, we all make ruku’ at the same time, we make sujud at the same time – we have order.” But then they want to go out and bomb and kill everyone, and show no order.

So an example is, could you imagine…a group of [the kufaar] declaring war against ‘Iraq or ‘Iran by themselves? They would have to wait for permission from who? The President. But if they were on a ship, and they were attacked, they could defend themselves… But you cannot initiate something without the permission of the ruler, because he knows the ability, and he knows the benefit and the harm.

In sha` Allaah what I want you to hear is the scholars’ refutation of these doubts, as the scholars are refuting the Khawaarij’s doubts in a real easy way. The point of reference is all these conditions have to be present.

a- Al-Islam – the person has to be a Muslim
b- the person has to be the right age
c- has to be a male, as when ‘A`ishah asked if Jihaad is prescribed for women, the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Yes, a Jihaad which is without fighting; it is the hajj and the ‘Umrah.
d – of sound mind
e- Permission of the Ruler (of his country)
f- Fighting behind that Ruler
g- Permission of the two parents (if they are Muslim); if parents are not present, then the grandparents
h- Preparation for Jihaad
6- Having the ability to make Jihaad

I will mention these again when we mention the ‘ulemma’s refutations of the people of takfir.

Q&A Session:

First Question: Someone asked a question which could not be heard.

First Answer: The khateeb answered it by pointing that it falls under the third condition, then added the following benefits bi-idhnillaah:

When the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sent Mu’adh to Yemen, did he send him to fight Jihaad? [No,] he sent him to give da’wah to those in Yemen. Do you know which religion those in yemen were upon. [Ahlul-Kitaab, yes,] but do you know which religion (specifically)? They were Jews (not Christians). And when I was in Yemen, I saw that there were still many Jews in Yemen, from Yemeni descent in the north. He (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sent [Mu’aadth and Abu Musa] to give them da’wah, and most of them became Muslim. The point is da’wah preceeded fighting.

Second Question: Since we haven’t had a Khalifa since the 1920s, will we get another one? How is this action done?

Second Answer: So this is another doubt which the ‘ulemma addressed. And I’m going to answer this in sha` Allaah by presenting this question to you: who was the first King in Islam?

Many people say that “because King Fahd or the kings of Saudia Arabia are Kings, and Islam doesn’t have Kingship, therefore we don’t have to obey them. Therefore, there is no ruler, therefore I am going to make my own Jihaad, me and my peoples.”
So who was the first King in Islam? And we are speaking about the time after the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). This person said, “I am the first of the Kings.” (Abi Zayd al-Qayrawaanee [1/96].) He said this (about himself). [It was] Mu’awiyah. [Yes,] Mu’awiyah.

The Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) informed us there would be 30 years of Khilafa upon the Prophetic Methodology. [The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: The khilaafah after me is thirty years, then there will be biting kingship. (Ahmad)] And after that, there shall be kings, some of them righteous and some of them not righteous.

Mu’awiyah said, “I am the first of the Kings.” Was Mu’awiyah from the sahaaba or not? He was from the sahaaba (radiallaahu ‘anhum ajama’een). So a person being a king, as the ‘ulemma explain, only means they are going to pass down rulership by inheritance. That’s all it means. It doen’t mean if there is a king, they rebel against him. It means it is going to be passed down to his son, his son and like that. So the ‘ulemma say that really the Islamic Khilaafa did not end in 1920 (1344 H); it ended with ‘Ali (radiallaahu ‘anhu), because after that everyone become a leader based upon kingship. They inherited it.
So the khilaafa didn’t end in 1920; it ended way before that [more than 13 centuries].

5 Habits of Highly Productive Muslims

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First, what is a ‘habit’? It’s a settled or regular tendency or practice, esp. one that is hard to give up.’ (Google dictionary)

And, what is ‘productivity’? It’s ‘the quality, state, or fact of being able to generate, create, enhance, or bring forth goods and services’. (Dictionary.com)

In other words, which habits helps a Muslim be productive in this life.

    1.Morning Person gets more done!

He knows that he can get more work done in a day than the whole week of working in the evenings/ nights.

“Allah made the early hours blessed for my Ummah.”(Hadith, Ahmed)

Allah (swt) made our body to stay alert during the day and sleep during the night.

“It is He (Allah) who has appointed the night a covering for you and sleep for a rest. The day He has appointed for rising.”(Furqan: 47)

  1. Regular & Punctual person builds up momentum!

She knows that in order to make best use of her time on a permanent basis she will have to do certain things regularly, and this requires her to be punctual.
When our bodies get used to doing things at a certain time and place then it will become easier and easier to do them, e.g. fasting and recitation.

“The deeds which Allah loves the most are those done regularly, even if they are small.”(Hadith Bukhari)

  1. Proactive person makes use of all available time!

He is never satisfied with doing the minimum. He will learn what he does not know, try what he hasn’t tried before and succeed where he has never succeeded.

He is always thinking of what else he could do with his time, and how he could do them with the help of people around him.

“Take advantage of five matters before five other matters: your youth, before you become old; and your health, before you fall sick; and your richness, before you become poor; and your free time before you become busy; and your life, before your death.”(Hadith, Ahmed)

  1. Helpful & Cheerfulperson is full of life!

‘Every act of goodness is charity’ (Hadith, Muslim). So, she likes being helpful and cheerful towards everyone, and not just to her family members. And this makes her lively.

“Acts of kindness protect one from ruin wrought by evil. Sadaqah (charity) given secretly appeases the anger of the Lord, and a gift to strengthen the ties of relationship (blood relatives) increases one’s life span. All good deeds are sadaqah, and those who do acts of kindness in this world are also the same people in the other world. Those who do misdeeds in this world are the same people in the other world. The first of those who shall enter Paradise are the people who do acts of kindness.”(Hadith, Tabarani)

  1. Focused person never goes astray!

He knows what he wants and how to get there. When he starts something good he always sees it through. He isn’t easily de-motivated, distracted or derailed by things that happen around him.

“Work for the affairs of the world as if you were going to live forever but work for the Hereafter as though you will die tomorrow.” (Hadith, Mishkat)

Compiled by/ Author/ Source: Abid Choudhury (Seed.org.uk)

The Quran and the Sunnah as the Sources of Truth in Conveying the Message of Islâm

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Adherence to the Qur’an and the Sunnah (Authentic Ahâdîth) as the Sources of Truth

As Du’ât, we have to take all the opportunities to seek knowledge of the Truth.  We have to read the Book of Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) and the Sunnah (or authentic Ahâdîth)  of His Messenger (ﷺ).  They serve as the best and genuine tools to convey the Truth to the non-Muslims. Our belief and deeds must be based on these two authentic sources of knowledge and guidance (See Islamic Creed Based on Qur’ān and Sunnah and The Obligation of Holding Steadfast to the Qur’ān and Sunnah).

We have to convey the need to search for knowledge of the Truth to the non-practicing Muslims as well as the non-Muslims. We have to emphasize that what we are going to explain to them is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.  We have to explain why the Qur’an is the Divine Revelation from Allah the Almighty (See Miracles of the Qur’ān).  They have to know that the Qur’an is complete:

“For We had certainly sent unto them a Book (Qur’an) based on knowledge, which We explained in detail, a guide and a Mercy to all who believe.”   (7:52)

 “…We have sent down to you the Book (Qur’an) explaining all things, a guide, a Mercy, and glad tidings to Muslims.”   (16:89)

Furthermore, we have to explain to them clearly why we have to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ).  They have to know that to follow the Prophet (ﷺ) is a divine commandment from Allah, the Rabb of the worlds:

“Say: ‘If you do love Allah follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.’”  (3:31)

“But no, by your Rabb, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.”  (4:65)

It is imperative, therefore, that we must strictly adhere to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. It is a divine commandment that guides us to the Straight Path.  Both the Qur’an and the Sunnah constitute the best guidance for the whole mankind.  We have to believe and follow the following teachings from the Qur’an and the authentic Ahâdîth:

“And if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and His Messenger.’”  (3:31)

“And verily, This is my Straight Path so follow it, and follow not (other paths, for they will separate you away from His Path.  This He has ordained for you that you may become pious.” (6:153)

Jabir Bin ‘Abdullah (r.a.)  narrated that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “The best speech is that embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. The most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is an error.”     (Muslim1885 and Ibn Majah 1/45)

 Jabir Bin ‘Abdullah (r.a.)  narrated that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to say in his prayer after tashahhud, “The most excellent words are the words of Allah and the most excellent guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.”    (Tirmidhi 956 and Nasa’i)

Hudhaifah  narrated that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said to us, “Honesty descended from the Heavens and settled in the roots of the hearts of men (faithful believers), and then the Qur’an was revealed and the people read the Qur’an, (and learned from it) and also learned it from the Sunnah.  Both Qur’an and the Sunnah strengthened their (the faithful believers’) honesty.”  (Bukhari 9/381)

All of us have to read Islamic books that are based on the Qur’an and authentic Ahâdîth written by Muslim scholars.  We have to explain further to the non-Muslims that true knowledge of Islam consists of the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the prescriptions rightly deduced from the two:

‘Abdullah Bin ‘Amr  narrated that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Knowledge consists of three things: the decisive verses (Qur’an), authentic Hâdîth and prescriptions rightly deduced from the two.  What is beside them is superfluous.”  (Ibn Majah 1/54 and Abu Dawud 2879)

Mu’adh Bin Jabal (r.a.)  narrated that some of his companions said, “When Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) intended to send him (Mu’adh Bin Jabal) to Yemen, he asked: “How will you judge when the occasion of deciding a case arises?”  He replied, I shall judge in accordance with Allah’s Book.   He was asked: “(What will you do) if you do not find any guidance in Allah’s Book?”  He replied, “(I shall act) in accordance with the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).”   He (ﷺ) asked, “(What will you do) if you do not find any guidance in the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and in Allah’s Book?”  He replied, “I shall do my best to form an opinion and I shall spare no effort.”  Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) then patted him on the breast and said: “Praise be to Allah Who has helped Allah’s Messenger to find something which pleases Allah’s Messenger.”   (Abu Dawud 3585)

We have to encourage the non-Muslims to read the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah as well as books based on these Divine Sources of Truth.   We have to remember that the firstSurah (Chapter) that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) revealed to His Messenger (ﷺ) for our guidance pertains to reading.  Allah the Exalted commands:

“Read! In the name of your Rabb and Cherisher, Who created — created man, out of a leech-like clot.  Read!  And your Rabb  is Most Bountiful. He Who taught (the use of) the Pen, taught man that which he knew not…”  (96:1-4)

When we follow the divine commandment to read, we find that of all books, the Qur’an is the only Book wherein Allah instructs mankind to:  read (73:20), understand (21:10; 47: 24; 54:17, 22, 32, 40), study (2:121), recite (29:45 and 73:4), listen (7:204), remember (80:11-14) and follow it for guidance (6:155 and 39:18).   The Qur’an, is the Truth from Allah (Qur’an, 32:2-3).  It is the Book Full of Wisdom (36:2);  and the Truth of assured certainty (69:51).  Why?  Because, it is the Truth from our Rabb (22:54) — the One full of knowledge and wisdom (22:52). Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“We sent down  (the Qur’an)  in Truth, and in Truth has it descended…” (17:105)

The following Âyât  (verses) should awaken all of us to learn more of Allah’s Book:

“Is then one who does know that, that which has been Revealed unto you from your Rabb is the Truth, like the one who is blind?  It is those who are endowed with understanding that receive admonition…!”  (13:19-24)

The Prophet (ﷺ) also inspires us to learn and teach Allah’s Book.  He stresses that if we hold on to the Qur’an we will never go astray:

Uthman Bin Affan narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The most superior among you (Muslims) are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it.”  (Bukhari 6/546)

Jabir Bin ‘Abdullah (r.a.)  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,  “…I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray…”   (Muslim2803.1)

It is for our guidance that we must believe the whole of the Qur’an.  We are not considered to be true believers if we doubt some parts of the Revelation.  If we reject any part of it, we will suffer grievous punishment in the Hereafter. Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) warns:

…Then is it only a part of the Book that you believe in.  And do you reject the rest?  But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this but disgrace in this life?  And on the Day of Judgment they shall be consigned to the most grievous chastisement for Allah is not unmindful of what you do.  These are the people who buy the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter: their chastisement shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.  (2:85-86)

In our Da’wah, we have to explain to the non-Muslims that the Qur’an is the only comprehensive book available to mankind for guidance. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says that nothing has been omitted from it (6:38).   It is further explained in detail (11:1 and 6:114).  It guides us to believe and obey the blessed Messenger (3:31-32; 4:170 and 47:33). For our complete guidance, it is necessary for us to follow the Sunnah (Traditions of the Prophet (ﷺ)) because he is Allah’s universal Messenger to the whole mankind (34:28).  he is the Seal of the Prophets (33:40) whom our Creator sent with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to make it prevail over all religions (61:9).

Amr bil Maroof wa Nahi anil Munkar (Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil)

http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-unity-peace-image1019393Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said in surat Al-Imran, (Verse 110), what can be translated as, “You are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind, you enjoin Al-Ma’ruf and forbid Al-Munkar, and you believe in Allah…”

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) tells us in this verse that this Ummah (The Ummah of the prophet (ﷺ)) is the best Ummah that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has ever sent to humanity. He revealed the reason behind what makes this Ummah the best. It is the best not because of ethnic background, color, or language, but because of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil and the belief in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). So, if these characteristics are attained, this Ummah will be good. And if they are not attained, this Ummah will not be good. Qatadah said: We were told that while Omar Ibn Al-khattab (R.A.) was performing Hajj, he found people relaxed then read this verse and said: “He who is pleased to be from this Ummah, then let him perform Allah’s due in this verse.” If anyone who does not perform this duty (enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil) is like the People of the Book that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) scolded them when he said in surat Al-Ma’dah, (Verse 79), what can be translated as, “They used not to forbid one another from theMunkar which they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do.”

What does Al-Ma’roof mean? And what does Al-Munkar mean?

Al-Ma’roof is a noun that includes everything that is looked upon as good by Islam like obeying Allah, getting closer to Him, and being good with people.

Al-Munkar is a noun that includes everything that is looked upon as bad by Islam like disobeying Allah and turning one’s back to Him and being bad with people.

Here, we must point to two important issues:

1- The definition of Al-Ma’roof and Al-Munkar is not based on the customs and traditions of people, rather it is based on Islam revealed by Allah and that defined the Halal and Haram and the rest of rules. So, if Islam considers something good, then it isMa’roof and commendable, and if Islam considers something bad, then it is Munkar and must be rejected.

2- The Muslim society should only adopt Al-Ma’roof as defined by Islam and reject Al-Munkar that is rejected by Islam. For this reason, Al-Ma’roof was called Ma’roof because the believers, with all the knowledge and belief that they have, feel reassured with it because they know that is what Allah and his messenger want. And Al-Munkar was called Munkar because the believers reject it and are disgusted with it.

The meaning of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil include the whole Deen because the Deen is either an order to do something or not to do something. Imam Ibn Taimiyah said: “Sending messengers and sending down the Books, all intended: Enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil.”

Enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil change societies, shape them and make them distinctive.

The corrupted society is infested with the Munkar, and ruled by the evil doers even if the society is not devoid of good and good doers who enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil. The straight society is the society of Ma’roof, ruled by the good doers even if the society is not devoid of evil and the evil doers.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) described the first society of Islam, so He said in surat At-Tawbah, (Verse 71), what can be translated as, “The believers, man and woman, are Auliya’ of one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma’ruf and forbid (people) fromAl-Munkar…”

In another verse, He (سبحانه و تعالى) says about the same society that there are hypocrites in surat At-Tawbah, (Verse 67), what can be translated as, “The hypocrites, man and woman, are from one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Munkar and forbid(people) from Al-Ma’ruf …”

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) ordered this Ummah in surat Al-Imran, (Verse 104), what can be translated as, “Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good (Islam), enjoining Al-Ma’ruf and forbidding Al-Munkar. And it is those who are the successful.”

Imam Ibn Katheer said: “What is meant by this verse is that there must be a group of people dedicated to this issue, even if it takes every individual in the Ummah to do it. This is supported by a Hadith reported by Imam Muslim that the prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said: ” Whoever amongst you sees Munkar (an evil), he must change it with his hand; if he is not able to do so, than with his tongue; and if he is not able to do so, then with his heart; and that is the weakest form of faith.”

All scholars have consensus that Munkar must be rejected. This is based on many verses and Ahadiths.

Rejecting Al-Munkar with the heart is obligatory upon every single individual. This rejection inside the heart of the individual relieves the individual from the responsibility if he is incapable of removing the Munkar with his hand and his tongue. Ibn Masood (R.A.) said: “There will be a time when one finds a Munkar, but he is not up to it, but Allah knows that his heart rejects the Munkar.” The incapable individual has a legitimate excuse only if he knows that he can not reject the Munkar with his hand or with his tongue, or if he knows that he will be harmed knowing that he is not up to it.

Removing the Munkar with the hand and the tongue has two rules: It is either obligatory upon each and every individual or obligatory upon enough a group that can remove it. It is the latter type when more than one Muslim finds a Munkar. In this case, it is obligatory upon them to reject it. If removing this Munkar is done even by one person, then this obligatory will fall off the rest of the Muslims. If no one removes this Munkar, then everyone will be sinning.

Removing the Munkar with the hand and the tongue will be obligatory of the first type when only one Muslim finds this Munkar and he is capable of removing it.

The characteristic of everyone who enjoins what is good and forbids what is evil:

1- Sincerity: It is a must that the intention must be solely for Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). His pleasure must be the only intended reward. Nothing from this worldly life can be intended. Whims and desires like showing off, fighting blindly for one’s opinion, cannot be intended.

2- Knowledge: It is a must that the knowledge of Ma’roof and Munkar must be present and must be according to Allah’s legislation. If this type of knowledge is not present, then enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil will be based on whims and desires. Many people reject what they do not like and are not used to even though it is allowed in Islam. Having the correct knowledge implies having the correct ways and etiquette of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil. It also implies the knowledge of the situation of the person being spoken with.

3- Kindness and wisdom: When enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, one must be kind and gentle. Without it, people will not accept it. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) ordered the messenger Muhammad (ﷺ) in surat An-Nahl, (Verse 125), what can be translated as, “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better…” And also Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) ordered Mousa and Haroon when he sent them to Faroah in surat Taha, (Verse 44), what can be translated as, “And speak to him mildly,…”

4- Patience: When enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, one must persevere through hardships and must stand for all the harm that he may find in his way. For this reason, Luqman advised his son: Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said in surat Luqman, (Verse 17), what can be translated as, “…And enjoin (on the people) for Al-Ma’ruf and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar and pear with patience whatever befalls you…”

5- He must be doing what he is ordering people to do, and refraining from what he is ordering people to refrain from. This way he is effective in his order to people and his act will not be against him on the Day of Judgment. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says Allah in surat As-Saf, (Verses 2&3), what can be translated as, “O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not? Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.” Also Imams Bukhari and Muslim reported that the prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)

said: “A man will be brought on the day of resurrection and will be cast into Hell, and his intestines will pour forth and he will go round them as an ass goes round its millstone. The inmates of Hell will gather round him and say: ‘what has happened to you, O so-and-so? Were you not enjoining us to do good and forbidding us to do evil? He will reply: ‘I was enjoining you to good, but was not doing it myself; and I was forbidding you to do evil, but was doing it myself.”

If one does not have these characteristics, he will be breaking more than fixing. His silence may sometimes be better than speaking so that he may not start a bigger Munkar.

Conditions that must be there in every Munkar that needs to be removed:

1- The Munkar has to be done openly. The prophet (ﷺ) said: ” Whoever amongst you sees Munkar…” It is not allowed to look for the hidden Munkar to remove because this is considered from spying that we were forbidden from.

2- All scholars must have consensus that this specific thing is a Munkar. The Munkar is not the subject of debates and differences of the scholars. The differences in Ijtihad amongst scholars are not Munkar because the prophet (ﷺ)acknowledged these differences and did not attack them like the incident of the Asr prayer at the village of Bani Quraithah, which was reported by Imams Bukhari and Muslim.

Islam: The Complete Way of Life :Some Proofs from the Qur’an and the Authentic Ahadith

islam-system

Introduction

Muslims believe that Islam is the ultimate and complete way of life for mankind.  This belief is based on the Divine Book of Allah, the Qur’an  and the Sunnah/Ahadith (tradition and sayings or teachings of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) (Salallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).  Islamic teachings are full of truth, wisdom and virtues; and taken altogether they are a perfect guide to mankind of all ages, generations, races and social strata.  They are simple, yet very practical. If implemented as a way of life, Islam will be the ultimate solution to all sorts of perplexing problems affecting mankind.

It is worth recalling that towards the middle of the sixth century AD, mankind had lived in pain, oppression, cruelty and chaos. Before this, messengers had come in regular succession, but for 600 years no message had come from Allah. The absence of divine guidance for so long a time was itself a manifestation of Allah’s chastisement to mankind for doing all kinds of evil deeds on earth.   Allah  (Subhanahu wa ta’ala, meaning: the Exalted, Most Glorious) sent Muhammad  (ﷺ) and chose him as a universal Messenger to all mankind  (Qur’an 34:28), as a Mercy for all creatures (Qur’an 21: 107) and as the Seal of the Prophets (Qur’an 33:40).

Allah   sent down the Qur’an  to His Messenger as a guide to mankind (Qur’an 2:185).  It is a complete divine guidance, with nothing omitted from it (Qur’an 6:38). It is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book — wherein there is no doubt–  from the Creator of the Worlds (Qur’an 10:37).  Allah   assuredly guards it (from corruption). (Qur’an 15:9) It is verily a Message for the God-fearing, a Truth of assured certainty (Qur’an 69:43-52).

Islam as the revealed Religion from Allah is comprehensive and perfect. Its Divine Book, the Qur’an is the only most comprehensive book available to mankind for guidance   nothing has been omitted from it.   It is further explained in detail.  Allah the Most High says:

[…Nothing have We omitted from the Book and they [all] shall be gathered to their Rabb in the end.] (Qur’an 6: 38)

[…He it is Who has sent unto you the Book, explained in detail. They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it has been sent down from your Rabb in Truth. Never be then of those who doubt.] (Qur’an 6: 114)

[For We had certainly sent unto them a Book based on knowledge, which We explained in detail – a Guide and a Mercy to all who believe.] (Qur’an 7: 52)

[…[This Qur’an is] a Book with Verses basic or fundamental [of established meaning]    further explained in detail    from One Who is All-Wise and Well-Acquainted [with all things].] (Qur’an 11: 1)

     As the complete Book of Guidance, the Qur’an guides us to believe and obey Prophet Muhammad (r).   The Messenger (r) possesses an exalted standard of character (i.e., sublime morals) and is an excellent example for us to follow. Our Creator emphasizes:

[Indeed, in the Messenger of Allah [Muhammad] you have an excellent example to follow for him who hopes in [meeting with] Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.] (Qur’an 33: 21)

     It is imperative, therefore, that we must strictly adhere to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. It is a divine commandment that guides us to the Straight Path.  Both the Qur’an and the Sunnah constitute the best guidance for the whole mankind.  We have to believe and follow the following teachings from the Qur’an and the Ahâdîth:

“And if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and His Messenger.’”  (Qur’an 3:31)

“And verily, this is my Straight Path so follow it, and follow not other paths, for they will separate you away from His Path.  This He has ordained for you that you may become pious.” (Qur’an 6:153)

Jabir Bin ‘Abdullah (r.a.) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (r) said, “The best speech is that embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. The most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is an error.”     (Muslim1885 and Ibn Majah 1/45)

Jabir Bin ‘Abdullah (r.a.) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (r) used to say in his prayer after tashahhud, “The most excellent words are the words of Allah and the most excellent guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.”   (Tirmidhi 956 and Nasa’i)

Hudhaifah (r.a.) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (r) said to us, “Honesty descended from the Heavens and settled in the roots of the hearts of men (faithful believers), and then the Qur’an was revealed and the people read the Qur’an, (and learned from it) and also learned it from the Sunnah.  Both Qur’an and the Sunnah strengthened their (the faithful believers’) honesty.”  (Bukhari 9/381)

    In order to guide mankind to the Right Religion, Allah has completed His Divine Favor upon us by making Islam the Perfect Religion. The last message that Allah has sent to His Messenger, Prophet Muhammad (r) for our Divine Guidance is the perfection of Islam. Allah, the All-Mighty, says:

[…This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…] (Qur’an 5: 3)

     The following are some Qur’anic verses and Ahadith  (Prophet’s teachings) which reflect the comprehensiveness of Islamic economic, social, religious and cultural values. These are compiled mostly from Alim for Windows Version 4.5.

Economic Values and Ethics

Fair/Honest Dealing in Trading, Buying and Selling

“O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice.  Be just: and fear Allah.  For Allah s well-acquainted with all that you do.”  (Qur’an 5:8)

Hakim bin Hizamt (Radhiallahu anhu, meaning: May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods as long as they have not parted or till they part; and if both the parties spoke the truth and betrayed in purchasing.” The Prophet told him to say at the time of buying, “No cheating.” (i.e., he has the right to return it if found undesirable). (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 328)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “If one gives in charity what equals one date-fruit from the honestly earned money and Allah accepts only the honestly earned money    Allah takes it in His Right (hand); and then enlarges its reward for that person (who has given it), as anyone of you brings up his baby horse, so much so that it becomes as big as a mountain described the defects and qualities (of the goods), then they would be blessed in their transaction.  And if they told lies or hid something, then the blessings of their transaction would be lost.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 293)

Hakim ibn Hizam narrated  that Allah’s Messenger said: “The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods as long as they have not parted or till they part; and if both the parties spoke the truth and described the defects and qualities (of the goods), then they would be blessed in their transaction, and if they told lies or hid something, then the blessings of their transaction would be lost.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 293)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verse and Hadith see: Qur’an  3:161 and Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 491 Vol. 3 Hadith 293 Vol. 3 Hadith 597, Abu Dawud Hadith 3527, Tirmidhi Hadith 2799, Ibn Majah and Darimi)

Weighing/ Measuring of Goods for Business

“Give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a balance that is straight.  That is better and fairer in the final determination.”  (Qur’an 17:35)

“So establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance.”  (Qur’an 55:9)

Al-Miqdam bin Ma’dikarib narrated  that the Prophet  r said: “Measure your foodstuff and you will be blessed.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 338)

(For other  relevant Qur’anic verse and Ahadith see: Qur’an  83:1-3, Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 334 Vol. 3 Hadith 341 Vol. 3 Hadith 345,  Vol. 3 Hadith 345 and  Vol. 3 Hadith 385.)

Documentation and Fulfillment of Contracts/Obligations

“… Fulfill  the contracts  which  you have  made;  and  to  be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering)  and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic.  Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing.”  (Qur’an 2:177)

“O you who believe!  When you deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a  fixed period of time reduce them to writing.  Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties.  Let not the scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him.  So let him write.  Let him who incurs the liability dictate, but let him fear Allah His Rabb (Sustainer) and not diminish aught of what he owes.  If the party liable is mentally deficient, or weak or unable himself to dictate; let his guardian dictate faithfully.  And get two witnesses, out of your own men.  And if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as you choose, for witnesses, So that if one of them errs the other can remind her.  The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on  (for evidence). Disdain not to reduce to writing (your contract) for a future period, whether it be small or big; it is more just in the sight of Allah, more suitable as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves.  But if it be a transaction which you carry out on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you if you reduce it not to writing.  But take witnesses whenever you make a commercial contract; and let neither scribe nor witness suffer harm. If you do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So fear Allah; for it is Allah that teaches you.  And Allah s well acquainted with all things. If you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully)  discharge His trust, and let him  Fear Allah his Rabb (Sustainer).  Conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it- His heart is tainted with sin. And Allah knows all that you do.  (Qur’an 2:282-283)

“O you who believe! Fulfil (all) obligations…”  (Qur’an 5:1)

“And take not your oaths, to practice deception between yourselves with the result that someone’s foot may slip after it was firmly planted, and you may have to taste the evil (consequences) of having hindered (men) from the Path of Allah, and a mighty Wrath descend on you.”  (Qur’an 16:94)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Umamat that Allah’s Messenger said:  “He who appropriated the right oft a Muslim by (swearing a false) oath, Allah would make Hell-fire necessary for him and would declare Paradise forbidden for him.”  (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 252)

(For other relevant verses and Ahadith  see: Qur’an  5:89; 16:92; 16:94; Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 252; Hadith 4056; Al-Bukhari Vol.8 Hadith 668 and Abu Dawud  Hadith 3237; Al-Bukhari Vol.6 Hadith 138; Abu Dawud, Hadith 3316; Al-Bukhari Vol.8 Hadith 622 and Vol.9 Hadith 538.)

Obligatory Payment of Debts

“If  the debtor is in a difficulty, grant him time till it is easy for him to repay.  But if you remit it by way of charity, that is best for you, if you only knew.  And fear the Day when you shall be brought back to Allah.  Then shall every soul be paid what it earned, and none shall be dealt with unjustly.”  (Qur’an 22:280-281)

Abu Hurairah narrated that a dead man in debt to others used to be brought to Allah’s Messenger who would ask, “Has he left anything to repay his debts?”  If he was informed that he had left something to cover his debts, the Prophet would offer the funeral prayer for him; otherwise he would say to the Muslims (present there), “Perform the funeral for your friend,”  But when Allah helped the Prophet to gain victory (o his expeditious) he said: “I am closer to the Believers than themselves, so, if one of the Believers dies in debt, I will repay it, but if he leaves wealth, it will be for his heirs.  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 284)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “If I had a gold equal to the mountain of Uhud, it would not please me that anything of it should remain with me after three nights (i.e., I would spend all of it in Allah’s Cause) except what I would keep for repaying debts.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 452)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses and Ahadith, see: Qur’an  4:12, 24:11, Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 502 Vol. 8 Hadith 452, Muslim Hadith 3896, Tirmidhi Hadith 2926, Nasa’I and Abu Dawud Hadith 3558.)

Discouragement of Being in Debt

‘Aishah (Radhiallahu anha) narrated that Allah’s Messenger used to invoke Allah n the prayer saying, “O Allah, I seek  refuge with you from all sins, and from being in debt.”  Someone said: “O Allah’s Messenger, (see you) very often you seek refuge with Allah from being in debt.  He replied, “If a person is in debt, he tells lies when he speaks, and breaks his promises when he promises.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 582 and Abu Dawud  Hadith 879)

Amr bin Al-Asnarrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “All the sins of a Shahid (martyr) are forgiven except debt.”  (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4649)

(For other relevant Ahadith, see Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 487 and Abu Dawud  Hadith 3336.)

Prohibition of  Usury

 “Allah  will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for deeds of charity: for He loves not creatures ungrateful and sinner.”  (Qur’an 2: 276)

“O you who believe! Fear God, and give up what remains of your demand for usury, if you are indeed believers.” (Qur’an  2: 278)

“O you who believe! Devour not usury, doubled and multiplied, but fear God that you may (really) prosper.” (Qur’an 3:130)

Abdullah ibn Mas’ud narrated that Allah’s Messenger  cursed the one who accepted usury, the one who paid it, the witness to it, and the one who recorded it.”  (Abu Dawud  Hadith 3327)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses and Ahadith see: Qur’an 2:275, 4:161 and 30:39; Al-Bukhari Vo.l. 3 Hadith 379, Vo.l. 7 Hadith 829, Muslim Hadith 3854, Tirmidhi Hadith 2829 and Nasa’i, Hadith 2827, Ibn Majah, Bayhaqi and Ahmad.)

Prohibition of Bribery

“And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as a bait (bribe) for the judges, with intent that you may eat up a little of (other) people’s property.” (Qur’an 2:188)

‘Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘Asnarrated that he heard Allah’s Messenger saying, “Fornication will not appear among any people without their being punished by famine, and bribery will not appear among any people without their being punished by terror.”  (Tirmidhi Hadith 3582 and Ahmad)

‘Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘Ast  narrated that Allah’s Messenger cursed the one who bribes and the one who takes bribe.  (Abu Dawud  Hadith 3573)

Avoidance of Hoarding and Monopoly

“On the Day when heat will be produced out of that (wealth) in the fire of Hell, and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs.  ‘This is the (treasure) which you buried for yourselves: Taste you, then the (treasures) you buried.’” (Qur’an  9:35)

Abda t. narrated that the Prophet said: “Do not withhold your money by counting it (i.e. hoarding it), (for if you did so), Allah would also withhold His blessings from you.”  (Al-Bukhari Vo.l. 2 Hadith 514)

Ya’la ibn Umayyah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Hoarding up food (to sell it at a high price) in the sacred territory is a deviation (from right to wrong).”   (Abu Daud Hadith 2015)

Ma1mar bin Abdullah t, the son of Nadla reported that Allah’s Messenger  said, “None but a sinful person hoards (goods).”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2154)

Umar bin  Al-Khattab t  reported that Allah’s Messenger  said: “He who imports (goods is granted provision and he who hoards (goods) is a cursed one.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2153)

Avoidance of Entering into Transaction when another is already Making the Same Transaction

Ibn Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “Anyone of you should not enter into transaction when another is already making the transaction.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2171)

Abu Hurairah reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “A man should not enter into transaction  against the transaction of his brother (while he is making a transaction) to his brother’s purchase.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2172)

Mutual Consent

“O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual goodwill: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hats been to you Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an 4:29)

Abu Sa’id Khudri reported that Allah’s Messenger said “A  transaction  is valid as a result of mutual consent.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2185)

Generosity in Business Transaction

Uthman bin Affan  reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “Allah will admit to the Paradise a man who is lenient as a seller and a buyer.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2202)

Jabir bin Abdullah reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “May Allah have mercy on the bondsman who is kind when he sells, kind when he buys and lenient when he demands (his debt)..”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2202)

Disapproval of Taking Oaths in Business

Abu Qatada reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “Beware of taking oaths in a business transaction because it (first) promotes the business and then ultimately obliterates (the blessings of the business).”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2209)

(For other relevant Hadith see: Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2208.)

Defects of Commodity for Sale should be Known

Uqba bin ‘Amir t is reported to have said: I heard Allah’s Messenger as saying: “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim.  It is not permissible for a Muslim to sell a commodity that contains some defect in it except that he describes that (defect) to him (the buyer).”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2246)

(For other relevant Hadith see: Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2247)

Encouragement of Partnership and Profit Sharing

Salih bin Suhaib t  reported on his father’s authority that Allah’s Messenger said: “There are three things which contain a blessing in them: buying and selling for a prescribed period, profit sharing (mudaraba) and mixing of wheat with barley for domestic consumption but not for sale.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2289)

Prohibition of Theft and Robbery

“As to the thief, male or female, cut off his hand or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah, for their crime: and God is exalted in power.” (Qur’an 5:38)

‘Aishah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The hand should be cut off for stealing something that is worth a quarter of a Dinar or more.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.8 Hadith 780 and 782)

‘Abdullah ibn Yazid al Ansaryt  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) forbade robbery (taking away what belongs to others without their permission), and also forbade mutilation (or maiming) of bodies. (Al-Bukhari Vol.3 Hadith 654)

(For other relevant verse and Ahadith  see: Qur’an  5:39; Al-Bukhari Vol. 5 Hadith79; Abu Dawud  Hadith 4367 and Hadith 4396.)

Prohibition of Land Grabbing

Sa’id bin Zaidnarrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, his neck will be encircled with seven earths (on the Day of Resurrection).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith  632; Vol. 4 Hadith 419)

Ibn ‘Umar  narrated that the Prophet said: “Whoever takes a piece of the land of others unjustly, he will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 634; Vol. 4 Hadith 418)

Prohibition of Gambling and the Selling, Buying, and Consumption of Intoxicants

“O you who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication) of stones, and (divination by) arrows are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork: Eschew such abomination, that you may prosper. Satan’s plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred among you, with intoxicants and gambling, and to turn you away from the remembrance of God and from Prayer: Will you not then abstain?” (Qur’an  5:90-91)

‘Aishah  narrated that  Allah’s Messenger was asked about Al-Bit, a liquor prepared from honey which the Yemenites used to drink. Allah’s Messenger said: “All drinks that intoxicate are unlawful (to drink).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 492, Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4956)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verse and Hadith, see: Qur’an  2:219 and Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 438.)

Prohibition of Pork

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which has been invoked the name  of other than Allah…”  (Qur’an 5:3)

“Say: ‘I find not in the Message received by me by inspiration any (meat) forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be dead meat, or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine;  for it is an abomination or what is impious, (meat) on which a name has been invoked other than Allah’s.  But (even so), if a person is forced by necessity, without lawful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, your Rabb (Sustainer) is  Most Forging, Most Merciful.’”  (Qur’an 6:145 also see 16:115)

Prohibition of Making/Having Pictures of Animated Objects

Narrated Ibn Abbas t: … “I heard him (Muhammadr) saying, ‘Whoever makes a picture will be punished by Allah till he puts soul (life) in it, and he will never be able to put soul (life) in it ..’.”    (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 428)

Abu Talhat  reported Allah’s Messenger having said:  “Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture.”  (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 5249)

Avoidance of Smoking

“And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction.”  (Qur’an 2:195)

“O you who believe!  Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but  let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah has been to you Most Merciful!  If any do that in rancour and injustice, soon We shall cast him into the Fire: and easy it is for Allah.  If you (but) eschew  the most heinous of the things which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit your evil deeds, and admit you to a Gate of great honour.”  (Qur’an 4:29-31)

Other Forbidden Sources of Income/Business

Abu Maslud Al Ansarit  narrated that Allah’s Messenger forbade taking the price of a dog, money earned by prostitution and the earnings of a soothsayer.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 439)

Proper Slaughtering of Animal for Food

O you people!  Eat of what is on  earth, lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of Satan for he is to you an avowed enemy… O you people!  Eat of the good things that We have provided for you, and be grateful to Allah,  if it is Him you worship.   He has only forbidden  you  dead  meat, and blood, and  the flesh of swine, and that on which any other name has been invoked besides that of Allah.  But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, then is he guiltless.  For Allah s Oft-Forging Most Merciful.  (Qur’an 2:168-173)

Shaddad bin Aust  said: “Two are the things which I remember Allah’s Messenger having said:  ‘Verily Allah has enjoined goodness to everything; so when you kill, kill in a good way and when you slaughter, slaughter in a good way.  So every one of you should sharpen his knife, and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably.’”  (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4810)

(For other relevant verses, see: Qur’an  5:3 and 5:4.)

Planting

Narrated Anas bin Malik Allah’s Messenger said: “There is none amongst the Muslims who  plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, but is regarded as a charitable gift from him.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3: Hadith 513; Vol.  8 Hadith 41)

Conservation of Resources

“It is He Who produces gardens, with trellises and without, and dates, and tilth with produce of all kinds, and olives and pomegranates, similar (in kind) and different (in variety).  Eat of their fruits in their season, but render the dues that are proper on the day that the harvest is gathered.  But waste not by excess: for Allah loves not the wasters.”  (Qur’an 6:141)

Protection of the Environment

“There is a type of man whose speech about this world’s life may dazzle you.  And he calls Allah to witness about what is in his heart; yet he is the most contentious of enemies.  When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and progeny but Allah loves not mischief.  When it is said to him, Fear Allah,” he is led by arrogance to (more) crime.  Enough for him is Hell; an  evil bed indeed (to lie on)!”  (Qur’an 2:204-206)

Protection of Property

‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr  narrated: “I heard the Prophet saying, ‘Whoever is killed while protecting his property then he is a martyr.’” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 660)

Sa’id ibn Sayed  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “He who is killed while protecting his property is a martyr, and he who is killed while defending his family, or his blood, or his religion is a martyr.”  (Abu Dawud  4754)

Moderation/Wise Spending and Avoidance of Extravagance and Extremes

“O you who believe! Make not unlawful the good things which God has made lawful for you, but commit no excess: for God loves not those given to excess.” (Qur’an 5:87)

“O children of Adam!  Wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: but waste not by excess, for Allah loves not the wasters.”  (Qur’an 7:31)

“Verily spend thrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and the Evil One is to his Rabb (Sustainer) (Himself) ungrateful.” (Qur’an 17:27)

 (For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 17:26; 17:29 and 25:63-67)

Discouragement of Miserliness

So he who gives (in charity) and fears (Allah), and (in all sincerity) testifies to the Best, We will indeed make smooth for him the path to Ease.  But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient, and gives the lie to the Best,  We will indeed make smooth for him the Path of Misery; nor will his wealth profit him when he falls headlong (into the Pit).  Verily We take upon Us to guide, and verily unto Us (belong) the End and the Beginning. Therefore do I warn you of a Fire blazing fiercely; none shall burn therein but those most unfortunate ones who give the lie to Truth and turn their backs.  But those most devoted to Allah shall be removed far from it.    Those who spend their wealth  for increase  in self-purification, and have in their minds no favor from anyone for which a reward is expected in return, but only the desire to seek for the Countenance of their Creator Most High; and soon will they attain (complete) satisfaction.  (Qur’an 92:4-21)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Every day two angels come down from Heaven and one of them says, ‘O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your cause,’ and the other (angel) says, ‘O Allah! Destroy every miser.’”  (Al-Bukhari,Vol. 2 Hadith 522)

(For other relevant Ahadith, see: Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 166; Vol. 2 Hadith 523 and Tirmidhi,1873.)

Encouragement of Self-Sufficiency and Discouragement of Begging

Abu Said Al-Khudri   narrated that some Ansari persons asked for (something) from Allah’s Messenger and he gave them. They again asked him for (something) and he again gave them. And then again they asked him and he gave them till all that was with him finished. And then he said: “If I had anything, I would not keep it away from you. (Remember) Whoever abstains from asking others, Allah will make him contented, and whoever tries to make himself self-sufficient, Allah will make him self-sufficient. And whoever remains patient, Allah will make him patient. Nobody can be given a blessing better and greater than patience.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 548)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “By Him in Whose Hand my life is, it is better for anyone of you to take a rope and cut the wood (from the forest) and carry it over his back and sell it (as a means of earning his living);  rather than to ask a person for something and that person may give him or not.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 549)

Hakim bin Hizam  narrated that the Prophet said: “The upper hand is better than the lower hand, (I.e., he who gives charity is better than him who takes it).  One should start giving first to his dependents.  And the best object of charity is that which is given by a wealthy person (from the money which is left after his expenses.)  And whoever abstains from asking others for some financial help, Allah will give him and save him from asking others, Allah will make him self-sufficient.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 508)

(For other relevant Hadith, see: Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 509.)

Emphasis and Reward for Hard Work

“That man can have nothing but what he strives for.”  (Qur’an 53:39)

“And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls: for Allah’s free of all needs from all creation. Those who believe and work righteous deed, from them shall We blot out all misdeed that they have committed, and We shall reward them according to the best of their deeds.” (Qur’an 29:6-7)

Al-Miqdamt  narrated that the Prophet said: “Nobody has ever eaten a better meal than that which one has earned by working with one’s own hands. The Prophet of Allah, Daud (David), used to eat from the earnings of his manual labor.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 286)

Paying Salaries/Wages of  Employees/Laborers on Time

Abu Hurairah  narrated that the Prophet  said:  “Allah says, ‘I will be against three persons of the Day of Resurrection:  1. One who makes a covenant in My Name, but he proves treacherous; 2. One who sells a free person (as a slave) and eats the price; and  3. One who employs a laborer and gets the full work done by him but does not pay him his wages.’”  (Al-Bukhari 3:430)

Anast  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) used to get cupped and would never withhold the wages of any person. (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 480)

Abdullah ibn Umar  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Give the worker his wages before his sweat dries.”  (Tirmidhi Hadith 2987 and Ibn Majah)

Value of Time

“By the time, verily man is in loss, except such  as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual enjoining of Truth, and of patience and constancy.”  (Qur’an 103:1-3)

Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “There are two blessings which many people lose: (They are) health and free time for doing good..”   (Al-Bukhari Vol.  8 Hadith 421)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “Allah said: ‘The son of Adam hurts Me by abusing Time, for I am Time; in My Hands are all things and I cause the revolution of night and day.’ ” (Al-Bukhari 6/351; 8/200;9/583 and Muslim 4/5581)

Traveling

“For We assuredly sent amongst every People a Messenger, (with the Command), ‘Serve Allah, and eschew Evil.’  Of the people were some whom Allah guided, and some on whom Error became inevitably (established).  So travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who denied (the Truth).”  (Qur’an 16:36)

 Abu Hurairah  narrated  that  the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Traveling is a kind of torture as it prevents one   from eating, drinking and sleeping (properly).  So when one’s needs are fulfilled, one should return quickly to one’s family.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol.  3 Hadith 31)

Sah bib Sa’d As-Sa’idit  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “To guard Muslims from infidels in Allah’s Cause for one day is better than the world and whatever is on its surface, and a place in Paradise as small as that occupied by the whip of one of you  is better than the world and whatever is on its surface; and a morning’s or an evening’s journey which a slave (person) travels in Allah’s Cause is better than the world and whatever is on its surface.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 142)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that the Prophet said: “It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to travel for one day and night except with a mahram (her husband or a male close relative with whom she can not marry at all  examples: her brother, father, grandfather, etc.).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 194)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verse and Ahadith, see: Qur’an  30:9-10, Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 242 and Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 239.)

Riches/Wealth

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet said: “Riches does not mean having a great amount of property, but riches is self-contentment.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol.  8 Hadith 453)

Condition for Change/Development

“Because Allah will never change the Grace which He has bestowed on a people until they change what is in their (own) souls.  And verily Allah s He Who hears and knows (all things).”  (Qur’an 8:53)

Political Values

Power and Sovereignty

“To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth.  Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it, Allah calls you to account for it.  He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases, for Allah has power over all things.”  (Qur’an 2:285)

“Say: “O Allah!  Rabb (Sustainer) of Power (and Rule), You give Power to whom You please, and You stripes off Power from whom You pleases.  You endow with honour whom You please and You bring low whom You please.  In Your hand is all Good.  Verily, over all things you have power.”  (Qur’an 3:24; also 3:29)

“To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; and Allah has power over all things.”  (Qur’an 3:189; 11:4)

“Do you not know that to Allah (Alone) belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth?  He punishes whom He pleases, and He forgives whom He pleases.  And Allah has power over all things.”  (Qur’an 5:40; also 5:120)

“If Allah touches you with affliction, none can remove it but if He touches you with happiness, He has power over all things.  He is Irresistibly Supreme over His servants.  And He is the Wise, acquainted with all things.”  (Qur’an 6:17-18)

“It is He (Allah) Who has made you the inheritors of the earth.  He has raised you in ranks, some above others; that He may try you in the gifts He has given you: for your Rabb (Sustainer) is quick in punishment.  Yet, He is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an 6:165)

Goal

“To each is a goal to which Allah turns him; then strive together (as in a race) towards all that is good.  Whosoever you are, Allah will bring you together; for Allah has power over all things.”   (Qur’an 2:148)

“Say: ‘Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds.’”  (Qur’an 6:162)

“…And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and to all that is between.  And to Him is the final goal (of all).”  (Qur’an 5:18)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses see: 5:105 and 40:2-3)

Obedience to God, His Messenger and to Rulers/Authorities

“O you who believe! Obey God, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you.  If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to God and His Messenger, if you do believe in God and the Last Day: that is best and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an 4:59)

Ibn Abbas  narrated that the Prophet said: “Whoever disapproves of something done by his ruler then he should be patient, for whoever disobeys the ruler even a little (a span) will die as those who died in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance (i.e., rebellious sinners).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9Hadith. 176)

Anas bin Malik narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “You should listen to and obey your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian (black) slave whose head looks like a raisin.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith No.256)

‘Abdullah  narrated that the Prophet said: “A Muslim has to listen to and obey (the order of his ruler) whether he likes it or not as long as his orders involve not one in disobedience (to Allah), but if an act of disobedience (to Allah) is imposed one should not listen to it or obey it.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith  No.258)

‘Auf bin Malik narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke God’s blessings upon you and you invoke His blessings upon them.  And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you and whom you curse and who curse you.”  It was asked (by those present): “Should we not overthrow them with the help of the sword?  He said: “No, as long as they establish prayer among you.  If you then find anything detestable in them, you should hate their administration, but do not withdraw yourselves from their obedience.”  (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4573)

Discouragement to Seek Power/to Rule

‘Abdur Rahman bin Samurah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “O ‘ Abdur Rahman bin Samurah! Do not seek to be a ruler, for if you are given authority on your demand, you will be held responsible for it, but if you are given it without asking for it, then you will be helped (by Allah) in it.  If you ever take an oath to do something and later on you find that something else is better, then do what is better and make expiation for your oath..”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 260)

Accountability

Abdullah bin Umarnarrated that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying: “Every one of you is a guardian, and responsible for what is in his custody.  The ruler is a guardian of his subjects and responsible for them; a husband is a guardian of  his  family  and  is responsible for it;  a lady is a guardian of her husband’s house and is responsible for it, and a servant is a guardian of his master’s property and is responsible for it.  A man is a guardian of his father’s property and is responsible for it so all of you are guardians and responsible   for  your  wards  and  things under your care).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 592; also  Vol. 3 Hadith 73)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Maliht that Ubaidullah bin Ziyad t visited Ma’qil bin Yasar t in his illness.  Ma’qil said to him:  I am narrating to you a Hadith which I would have never narrated  to  you had I not been in death-bed.  I heard Allah’s Messenger said:  “A ruler who has been entrusted with the affairs of the Muslims, but he if makes no endeavours (for the material and moral uplift) and does not sincerely mean (their welfare) would not enter Paradise along with them.”  (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 264)

Law of Equality and Justice

“In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) life to you, O you men of understanding that you may restrain yourselves.” (Qur’an 2:179)

“Allah does command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due; and when you judge between people that you judge with justice.  Verily how excellent is the teaching, which He gives you!  For Allah s He Who hears and sees all things.”  (Qur’an 4:58)

“O you who believe!  Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. For not the lusts (of your departure), lest you swerve, and if you distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah s well-acquainted with all that you do.”  (Qur’an 4:135)

“O you who believe!  Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice.  Be just: that is next to piety.  And fear Allah for Allah s well-acquainted with all that you do.”   (Qur’an 5:8)

“Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and giving to kith and kin, and He forbids all indecent deed, and evil and rebellion,  He instructs you that you may receive admonition.”  (Qur’an 16:90)

Anas Bin Malik narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The prescribed Law of Allah s the equality in punishment (i.e.  Qisas).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 6 Hadith 26)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses see: 2:178 and 6:164.)

Encouragement for Giving Right Judgement

‘Amir bin Al-’As  t is reported to have said that he heard Allah’s Messenger  as saying: “When a judge gives a decision, and he tries his best to decide correctly and is right (in his decision), there are two rewards for him and if he gave judgement and did his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2314; Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4261)

Abdur Rahman bin Bakrareported:  “My father…heard Allah’s Messenger   as saying: ‘One of you should not judge between two persons when he is angry.” (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4264)

Prohibition of Graft and Corruption

Narrated  Khaula Al-Ansariyat :  “I heard Allah’s’ Messenger  said: ‘Some people spend Allah’s wealth  (Muslim’s wealth) in an unjust manner; such people will be put in the (Hell) Fire on the Day of Resurrection.’”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith347)

Mutual Consultation

“Those who respond to their Rabb (Sustainer), and establish regular prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for sustenance; and those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves.”  (Qur’an 42:38-39)

Prohibition for Fighting/Murder and Other Crimes

Never should a Believer kill a Believer; except by mistake, and  whoever  kills a Believer by mistake it is ordained  that he  should  free a believing slave.  And pay blood  money to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it freely.  If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a Believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is enough).  If he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, blood-money should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed.  For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah: for Allah has all knowledge and all wisdom.   (Qur’an 4:92)

“If a man kills a Believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever): and the wrath and curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful chastisement is prepared for him.”  (Qur’an 4:193)

“Nor take life    which Allah has made sacred   except for just cause.  And if anyone is slain wrongfully,  we have given  his  heir authority   (to  demand Qisas  or to  forgive): but let him not  exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped by the (Law).”   (Qur’an 17:33)

Abu Bakrah narrated: “I heard Allah’s Messenger   saying, ‘When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered  will go to Hell-fire.”  I said: “O Allah’s Messenger!. It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?  Allah’s Messengereplied, “He surely had the intention to kill his companion.’”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 30)

Ibn Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger    said: “A faithful believer remains at liberty regarding his religion, unless he kills somebody unlawfully.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol.9 Hadith 2)

Abdullah Ibn Umar narrated that the Prophet said:  “Whoever carries arms against us, is not from us.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 13)

Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet said: “The most hated persons with Allah are three: 1) A person who deviates from the right conduct (i.e., an evil-doer), in the Haram (sanctuaries of Makkah and Madinah); 2. A person who seeks that the traditions of the period of ignorance should remain in Islam; and 3. A person who seeks to shed somebody’s blood without any right.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith21)

Conditions for Killing a Believer

Abdullahnarrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “The blood of a Muslim, who confesses that La ilaha il-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and that I am the Messenger of Allah, cannot be shed except in three cases:  1. life for life (in cases of intentional murders without right i.e., Al-Qisas Law of equality in punishment);  2. a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse; and 3. the one who turns renegade from Islam (apostate) and leaves the group of Muslims (by innovating heresy, new ideas and new things etch. in Islamic religion).”    (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 17)

Prohibition of Suicide

“O you who believe!  Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but  let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah has been to you Most Merciful.”(Qur’an 4:29)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell-fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-fire (forever).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 446)

Jundabnarrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “A man was inflicted with wounds and he committed suicide, and so Allah said:  ‘My slave has caused death on himself hurriedly, so I forbid Paradise for him.’”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 445)

Prohibition of Betrayal

Ibn ‘Umar narrated that the Prophet said: “Every betrayer will have a flag which will be fixed on the Day of Resurrection, and the flag ‘s prominence will be made in order to show the betrayal he committed..”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 411)

Fighting against Oppression, Transgression and Persecution

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.  And slay them wherever you catch them, and turn them out from   where they have turned you out; for persecution is worse than slaughter.  But fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first)  fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them.   Such is the punishment of those who reject faith. But if they cease, Allah s Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more persecution and the religion becomes Allah’s.  But if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression.   (Qur’an 2:192-193)

“The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a Chastisement grievous.”  (Qur’an 42:42)

Ibn Umar narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Oppression will be a darkness on the Day of Resurrection.”  (Al-Bukhari 3:627; Muslim Vol.4 Hadith 6249)

Anas bin Malik narrated that  Allah’s Messenger said: “Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is an oppressed one. People asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! It is all right to help him if he is oppressed, but how should we help him if he is an oppressor? The Prophet said: “By preventing him from oppressing others.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 624 and  Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6254)

Abu Dharr reported Allah’s Messenger as saying:  “Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said:  ‘My servants, I have made oppression unlawful for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another…’” (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6246)

 (For other relevant Ahadith, see: Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 628 and Hadith 629.)

Conditions for Fighting/Waging War against Enemies

“Fight in the Cause of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.”  (Qur’an 2:190)

“To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily Allah s Most Powerful for their aid.  (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they say, “Our Rabb (Sustainer) is Allah.”… (They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give zakat, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.”   (Qur’an 22:39-41)

Jihad/Fighting in the Cause of Allah

“And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed); men, women and children, whose cry is:  “Our Rabb (Sustainer)! Rescue us from this town; whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect; and raise for us from You one who will help!?”  (Qur’an 4:75)

“Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who reject Faith fight in the cause of Evil; so fight against the friends of Satan.  Feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.”  (Qur’an 4:76)

O you who believe!  Shall I lead you to a bargain that will save you from a grievous Chastisement?  That you believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you strive (your utmost) in the Cause of Allah, with your wealth and your persons: that will be best for you, if you but knew!  He will forgive you your sins, and admit you to the Gardens of Eternity: that is indeed the supreme Triumph.   (Qur’an 61:10-12)

Abu Sa’id Al-Khudrit  narrated that somebody asked, “Allah’s Messenger!  Who is the best among the people?  Allah’s Messengereplied: “A believer who strives his utmost in Allah’s Cause with his life and property…”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 45)

It has been narrated on the authority of Sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idit that the Messenger of Allah said:  “The journey undertaken by a person in the morning (for Jihad) in the way of Allah (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.”  (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4640, also see Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 50)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see:  4:95-96 and 9:20.)

Punishment/Retaliation

“And if  you punish/retaliate, let your punishment be proportionate  to the wrong that  has been done to you.  But  if you show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient.”  (Qur’an 16:126)

“The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree):  but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) loves not those who do wrong.” (Qur’an 42:40)

Peace and Reconciliation

 “Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; and turn away from the ignorant.”   (Qur’an 7:199)

But if the enemy incline toward peace, do (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is the One that hears and knows (all things).”  (Qur’an 8:61)

“. . . Let them forgive and overlook.  Do you not wish that Allah should forgive you?  For Allah s Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an 24: 22)

“The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for Allah loves not those who do wrong.”  (Qur’an 42:40)

“Tell those who believe, to forgive those who do not hope for the Days of Allah; it is for Him to  recompense  (for good or ill)  each  people according to what they have earned.”  (Qur’an 45:14)

If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make you peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the command of Allah; but if it complies, then make peace between them with justice, and be fair:  for Allah loves those who are fair (and just). The believers are but a single Brotherhood: so make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers: And fear Allah, that you may receive Mercy.  (Qur’an 49:9-10 also see Qur’an  4:90 and 5:45)

Conciliation and Compromise

Abdullah, the son of Amr Bin ‘Aufreported his father has having said on his grandfather’s authority:  “I heard Allah’s Messenger saying: ‘Conciliation is permissible among the Muslims, except the compromise that makes the lawful as unlawful or makes the unlawful as lawful.’”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2353)

Fulfillment of Treaties

 “(But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom you have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in ought, nor aided any one against you.  So fulfill your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loves the righteous.”   (Qur’an 9:4)

Patience/Perseverance

“…Seek (Allah’s) help with patient,  perseverance and prayer…”   (Qur’an 2:45)

“O you who believe! Seek help with patient, perseverance and prayer: for Allah s with those who patiently persevere.  And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah: ‘They are dead.’  Nay, they are living, through you perceive (it) not.  Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods, lives and the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.  Who say, when afflicted with calamity; ‘To Allah we belong, and to Him  is our return’: they are the those on whom (descend) blessings from their Rabb (Sustainer), and Mercy.  And these are the one that receive guidance.”  (Qur’an 2:153-157)

“For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women for devout men and women for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast, for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah’s remembrance for them has Allah  prepared forgiveness and great reward.”   (Qur’an 33:35)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 4:90 and 5:45 7:126 and 13:20-24.)

Social Values and Ethics

Marriage

“Marry those among you who are single, and  the virtuous ones among your slaves, male or female.  If they are in poverty, Allah will give them means out of His grace: for Allah s Ample-Giving, and He knows all things.”  (Qur’an 24:32)

“Let Those who find not the wherewithal for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah gives them means out of His Grace…”  (Qur’an 24:33)

“And among His Signs is this, that He created  for your mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearths).  Verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.”  (Qur’an 30:21)

Uqbah ibn Amir narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “From among all the conditions which you have to fulfill, the conditions which make it legal for you to have sexual relations (i.e. the marriage contract) have the greatest right to be fulfilled.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 882)

‘Abdullah narrated: “We were with the Prophet (ﷺ) while we were young and had no wealth whatever. So Allah’s Messenger said:’”O young people! Whoever among you can marry, should marry, because it helps him lower his gaze and guard his modesty (i.e. his private parts from committing illegal sexual intercourse etc.), and whoever is not able to marry, should fast, as fasting diminishes his sexual power.’” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 4)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “A woman is married for four things, i.e., her wealth, her family status, her beauty and her religion. So you should marry the religious woman (otherwise) you will be a loser.”    (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 27)

Dower

“And give the women (on marriage) their dower as an obligation; but if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it and enjoy it with right good and cheer.”  (Qur’an 4:4)

“But if you decide to take one wife in place of another, even if you had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, take not the least bit of it back.  Would you take it by slander and a manifest sin?  And how could you take it when you have gone in unto each other, and they have taken from you a solemn covenant?”  (Qur’an 4:20-21)

Conditions for Polygamy

“If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two, three or three, or four.  But if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or that which your right hands possess.  That will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.”  (Qur’an 4:3)

‘Aishah  narrated that whenever Allah’s Messenger wanted to go on a journey, he would draw lots as to which of his wives would accompany him. He would take her whose name came out. He used to fix for each of them a day and a night. But Sauda ibnt Zam’a gave up her (turn) day and night to ‘ Aishah   , the wife of the Prophet in order to seek the pleasure of Allah’s Messenger (by that action).  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 766)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “When a man has two wives and he is inclined to one of them, he will come on the Day of resurrection with a side hanging down.”  (Abu Dawud  Hadith 2128)

Prohibition of Adultery and Prostitution

“Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).” (Qur’an 17:32)

“The man and woman guilty of adultery or fornication, flog each of them with a hundred stripes.   Let no compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by God, if you believe in God and the Last Day: and let a party of believers witness their punishment. Let no man guilty of adultery or fornication marry any but a woman similarly guilty, or an unbeliever: nor let any but such a man or an unbeliever marry such a woman: to the believers such a thing is forbidden.”  (Qur’an  24:2-3)

Aishah  narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “O followers of Muhammad! There is none, who has a greater sense of Ghira (self-respect) than Allah, so He has forbidden that His slave commits illegal sexual intercourse or His slave girl commits illegal sexual intercourse. O followers of Muhammad! If you but knew what I know, you would laugh less and weep more!”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 148)

Ubadah ibn as-Samith narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Receive (teaching) from me, receive (teaching) from me. Allah has ordained a way for those (women).  When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female, (they should receive) one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death.”   (Muslim Hadith 4191)

Abdullah ibn Abbas  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “There is no prostitution in Islam. If anyone practised prostitution in pre-Islamic times, the child will be attributed to the master (of the slave-woman). He who claims his child without a valid marriage or ownership will neither inherit nor be inherited.”  (Abu Dawud  Hadith 2257)

 Modesty

Successful indeed are the Believers, those who humble themselves in their prayers; who avoid vain talk; who are active in giving zakat;  who guard their modesty, except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, or (the captives) whom their right hands possess for (for in their case) they are free from blame. But those whose desires exceed those limits are transgressors.  Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants, and who (strictly) guard their prayers; these will be the heirs, who will inherit Paradise. They will dwell therein (forever).  (Qur’an 23:1-11)

Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for  greater purity for them: and Allah s  well acquainted with all that they do.  And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (ordinarily appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers or their brothers’ sons,  or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male attendants free of sexual desires. or small children who have no carnal knowledge of women.  And that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.  And O you Believers! Turn you all together towards Allah n repentance that you  may be  successful.    (Qur’an 24:30-31)

Saffiyah bint Shaiba narrated that ‘Aishah  used to say: “When (the Verse): ‘They should draw their veils over their necks and bosoms,’ was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their faces with the cut pieces.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.6 Hadith 282)

‘Aishah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a veil.”   (Abu Dawud Hadith 641)

Divorce

For those who take an oath for abstention from their wives, a waiting for four months is ordained.  If then they return, Allah s Most Forgiving, Most Merciful. But if their intention is firm for divorce Allah hears and knows all things. Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. And it is not lawful for them to hide what Allah has created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right  to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable.  But men have a degree over them and Allah s Exalted in Power Wise. (Qur’an 2:226-228)

“A divorce is only permissible twice; after that, the parties should either hold together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness.   It is not lawful for you (men) to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah…” (Qur’an 2:229)

“For divorced women is a suitable Gift.  This is a duty on the righteous.  Thus does Allah make clear His Signs to you: in order that you may understand.”  (Qur’an 2:241; also see 2:230-240)

Muharib  narrated that the Prophet () said:  “Allah did not make anything lawful more abominable to Him than divorce.”  (Abu Dawud  Hadith 2174)

Respect and Kindness to Women

“For divorced women is a suitable gift.  This is a duty on the righteous.”  (Qur’an 2:241)

“O you who believe!  You are forbidden to inherit women against their will.  Nor should you treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dower you have given them, except where they have been guilty of open lewdness.  On the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity if you take a dislike to them it may be that you dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.”  (Qur’an 4:19)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that Allah ‘s Messenger said:  “Treat women nicely, for a women is created from a rib.   And the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion.  So, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 548)

Kindness to Wife

Abu Hurairah  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:  “Among the Muslims the most perfect, as regards his faith, is the one whose character is excellent, and the best among you are those who treat their wives well.” (Tirmidhi Hadith 628, 278 and 3264 and Abu Dawud)

Woman’s Obligations to Her Husband

Abu Hurairah  narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “It is not lawful for a lady to fast (Nawafil) without the permission of her husband when he is at home.  She should not allow anyone to enter his house except with his permission.  And if she spends of his wealth (on charitable purposes) without being ordered by him, he will get half of the reward.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 123)

Talq ibn Alit  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “When a man calls his wife to satisfy his desire she must go to him even if she is occupied at the oven.”  (Tirmidhi Hadith 3257)

Abu Umamaht  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) used to say, “After fear of Allah a believer gains nothing better for himself  than a good wife who obeys him if he gives her a command, pleases him if he looks at her, is true to him if he adjures her to do something, and is sincere towards him regarding her person and his property if he is absent.”  (Tirmidhi Hadith 3095 and Ibn Majah)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: Had it been permissible that a person may prostrate himself before another, I would have ordered that a wife should prostrate herself before her husband.”  (Tirmidhi Hadith 285)

Thawban  narrated that… the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The best property is a tongue which mentions Allah, a grateful heart, and a believing wife who helps a man with his faith.”  (Tirmidhi, 2275; Ahmad, and Ibn Majah)

Love and Care for Children

“Say: ‘Come, I will rehearse what Allah has (really) prohibited you from’: join not anything with Him: Be good to your parents; kill not your children on a plea of want.  We provide sustenance for you and for them.  Come not nigh to indecent deeds, whether open or secret; take not life, which Allah has made sacred, except by way of justice and law. Thus does He command you, that you may learn wisdom.”  (Qur’an 6:151)

“Kill not your children for fear of want.  We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you.  Verily the killing of them is a great sin.”  (Qur’an 17:31)

Narrated  ‘Amirt: “I heard An-Numan bin Bashir… Allah’s Messenger said: ‘Be afraid of Allah, and be just to your children….’”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 52)

’Aishah  the wife of Allah’s Messenger said: “A woman came to me along with her two daughters.  She asked me for (charity) but she found nothing with me except one date, so I gave her that.  She accepted it and then divided it between her two daughters and herself ate nothing out of that.  She then got up and went out, and so did her two daughters.  Allah’s Messenger visited me and I narrated to him her story.  There upon Allah’s Messenger said: “He who is involved (in the responsibility) of bringing up) daughters, and he accords benevolent treatment towards them, there would be protection for him against Hell-Fire.’”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6362)

Malik  reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “He who brought up two girls properly till they grew up, he and I would  come (together very closely) on the Day of Resurrection.”  And he interlaced his fingers (for explaining the point of nearness between him and that person.).  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6364)

Kindness to the Family, Parents, Relatives, Orphans, the Poor, the Needy, and the Weak

 “…Treat with kindness your parents and kindred, and orphans and those in need; speak fair to the people; be steadfast in prayer; and give zakat…”  (Qur’an 2:83)

“To those weak of understanding give not your property which Allah has assigned to you to manage, but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.” (Qur’an 4:5)

“Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbours who are of kin, neighbours who are strangers, the companions by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and what your right hands possess: for Allah loves not the arrogant, vainglorious.”  (Qur’an 4:36)

“And come not high to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength; give measure and weight with (full) justice.  No burden do We place on any soul, but that which it can bear.  Whenever you speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfil the Covenant of Allah.  Thus does He command you, that you may remember.”  (Qur’an 6:152)

“Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds);  for those whose departure have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth);  for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of Allah; and for the wayfarer.  (Thus is it) ordained by Allah.  And Allah s full of knowledge and wisdom.” (Qur’an 9:60)

 “Let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in Allah’s cause.  Let them forgive and overlook, do you not wish that Allah should forgive you?  For Allah s  Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an 24:22)

And We have enjoined on man (to be good) to his parents: in travail upon travail did his mother bear him and in years twain was his weaning:  (hear the command), “Show gratitude to Me and to your parents: to Me is (your final) Goal.”   But if they strive to make you join in worship with Me things of which you have no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them company in this life with justice (and consideration), and follow the way of those who turn to Me.  In the End the return of you all is to Me.  And I will tell you all that you did. (Qur’an 31:14-15)

“We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents in pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth.” (Qur’an 46:15)

Abu Mas’udt  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “If a man spends on his family with the intention of having a reward from Allah, sincerely for Allah’s sake, then it is a (kind on alms-giving (in reward) for him.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 52)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that a man came to Allah’s Messenger and said: “O Allah’s Messenger! Who is more entitled to be treated with the best companionship by me?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Your mother.” The man said: “Who is next?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Your mother.” The man further said: “Who is next?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Your mother.” The man asked (for the fourth time), “Who is next?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Your father.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 2; Muslim Vol. 4Hadith 6180-6183)

Abu Mas’ud Al-Ansarit  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “When a Muslim spends something on his family intending to receive Allah’s Reward, it is regarded as sadaqa (act of charity) for him.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 263)

Jubair bin Mut’imt  narrated that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, “Al-Qati’ (the person who severs the bond of kinship) will not enter paradise.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 13; Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6199-6200)

Abu Hurairah  narrated: “I heard Allah’s Messenger saying, ‘Whoever  is pleased that he be granted more wealth and that his lease of life be prolonged, then he should keep good relations with his kith and kin.’”    (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 14)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, and Ahadith see: Qur’an  17:23-24, 29:8; 90:12-19, Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 4 and Hadith 18)

Kind Treatment to the Friends of One’s Parents

‘Abdullah bin Umar  reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “The finest act of goodness is that a person should treat kindly the loved ones of his father.” (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6193 also Vol. 4 Hadith 6192)

Protection Given to the Orphans and Widows

“To orphans restore their property (when they reach their age), nor substitute (your) worthless things for (their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by mixing it up) with your own.  For this is indeed a great sin.” (Qur’an 4:2)

“And come not nigh to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength…”   (Qur’an 6:152)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said:  “The one who looks after a widow or a poor person is like a Mujahid (warrior) who fights for Allah’s Cause, or like one who offers salat (prayers) all the night and observes sawm (fast) all the day.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 265)

Sahl bin Sa’id  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said:  “I and the person who looks after an orphan and provides for him, will be in Paradise like this.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 34)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses see:  4:6  and 4:127.)

Kindness/Good Treatment  to Neighbours

‘Aishahnarrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “Jibrael (Gabriel) continued to recommend me about treating the neighbours kindly and politely, so much so that I thought he would order me to make them as my heirs.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith  43 and Muslim Vol.  4 Hadith 6354-6356)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “By Allah, he does not believe! By Allah, he does not believe! By Allah, he does not believe!” It was said: “Who is that, O Allah’s Messenger?” He said: “That person whose neighbour does not feel safe from his evil.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 45)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Whosoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not harm his neighbour. Whosoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should entertain his guest generously.  And whosoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should talk what is good or keep quiet.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 47)

Kindness to People and Animals

‘Aishah (radiallahu anha) narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “‘Aishah, verily Allah s kind and He loves kindness and confers upon kindness, which he does not confer upon severity and does not confer upon anything else besides it (kindness).”  (Muslim,6273)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:  “There are one hundred (parts of) mercy of Allah.   He has sent down out of these one part of mercy upon the jinn and human beings and the insects.   It is because of this (one part) that they love one another, show kindness to one another and even the beast treats its young one with affection.  And Allah has reserved ninety-nine parts of mercy with which He would treat His servants on the Day of Resurrection.”  (Muslim, 6631)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “While a man was walking he felt thirsty and went down a well and drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a dog panting and eating mud because of excessive thirst. The man said: ‘This (dog) is suffering from the same problem as that of mine. So he (went down the well), filled his shoe with water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed up and watered the dog. Allah thanked him for his (good) deed and forgave him.” The people asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! Is there a reward for us in serving (the) animals?” He r  replied, “Yes, there is a reward for serving any animate.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 551; Vol. 8 Hadith 38)

Sahl ibn Al-Hanzaliyyah narrated that Allah’s Messenger came upon an emaciated camel and said:  “Fear Allah regarding these dumb animals. Ride them when they are in good condition and feed them when they are in good condition.”  (Abu Dawud  2542)

Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Every act of kindness is sadaqah, (charity)  and kindness includes meeting your brother with a cheerful face and pouring water from bucket into your brother’s vessel.”  (Tirmidhi, 1910 and Ahmad)

‘Abdullah ibn Abbas  narrated that Allah’s Messenger forbade inciting animals to fight with one another.”  (Tirmidhi Hadith 4103 and AbuDawud)

Ali ibn Abu Talibt  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “One Muslim should do six acts of kindness to another:  He should greet him when he meets him;  accept his invitation when he gives one;  say ‘Allah have mercy on you’ when he sneezes;  visit him when he is ill;  follow his bier when he dies;  and like for him what he likes for himself.”   (Tirmidhi Hadith 4643 and Darimi)

(For other relevant Ahadith see: Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 449,  Hadith 421; Muslim  Hadith 5281,  6274, Tirmidhi Hadith 3024,  Abu Dawud Hadith 1668,  Tirmidhi Hadith 4925 and Ibn Majah)

Universal Unity and Brotherhood

“Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into  disputations after receiving Clear Signs; for them is a dreadful Chastisement.”  (Qur’an 3:105)

“The Believers, men and women, are protectors, one to another. They enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil.  They observe regular prayers, pay zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger.  On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.”  (Qur’an 9:71)

Bin Umar  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor.  Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfil his needs; whoever brought his (Muslim) brother out of a discomfort, Allah will bring him out of the discomforts of the Day of Resurrection, and whoever screened a Muslim, Allah will screen him on the Day of Resurrection.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 622)

An-Numan bin Bashir  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 40)

Abu Musat  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “A believer for another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.” The Prophet (ﷺ)  then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced. (At that time) the Prophet was sitting and a man came and begged or asked for something. The Prophet (ﷺ)  faced us and said: “Help and recommend him and you will receive the reward for it, and Allah will bring about what He wills through his Prophet’s tongue.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 55)

Nu’man bin Bashir  narrated that Allah’s Messenger as saying: “The believers are like one person; if his head aches, the whole body aches with fever and sleeplessness.”  (Muslim Vol. 4Hadith 6260)

Abu Musa narrated that Allah’s Messenger as saying: “A believer is like a brick for another believer, the one supporting the other.” (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6257; Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 626)

Anas Bin Malik  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “None of you will have faith till he likes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 12)

Respect to Non-Muslims (People of the Book)

“This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you.  The food of the people of the Book (the Jews and the Christians) is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them.  (Lawful unto you n marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time, when you give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness. Taking them as lovers.  If any one rejects faith, fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).  (Qur’an 5:5)

“And dispute not with the People of the Book, except in the best way;  unless it be with those of them who do wrong but say, “We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; our God and your God is One; and it is to Him we submit (in Islam).’”  (Qur’an 29:46)

“Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loves those who are just.  Allah only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection).  It is such as turn to them ) in these circumstances), that do wrong.”      (Qur’an 60:8-9)

Respect to All Foreign Delegates

Sa’id bin Jubair narrated that he heard Ibn Abbas … said: “When the condition (health) of Allah’s Messenger deteriorated,…The Prophet (ﷺ)  ordered them to do three things saying, ‘Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.’  The sub-narrator added, “The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol.4 Hadith 393)

Etiquette of Social Interaction/Speaking

“When a (courteous) greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or (at least) of equal courtesy.  Allah takes a careful account of all things.”  (Qur’an 4:86)

“Allah does not love the utterance of evil words in public except by one who has been wronged. Allah s He Who hears and knows all things.”   (Qur’an 4:148)

“…Whenever you speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfil the Covenant of Allah.  Thus does He command you that you may remember.”  (Qur’an 6:152).

“Say to My servants that they should (only) say those things that are best: for Satan does sow dissension among them: for Satan is to man an avowed enemy.”  (Qur’an 17:53)

 “Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah, works righteousness, and says, ‘I am of those who bow in Islam’?” (Qur’an 41:33)

“And he who brings the Truth and he who confirms (and supports) it—such are the men who do right.  They shall have all that they wish  for, with their Rabb (Sustainer).  Such is the reward of those who do good: so that Allah will remit from them (even) the worst in their deeds and give them their reward according to the best of what they have done.”  (Qur’an 39:33-35)

“O you who believe! Why say you that which you do not? Grievously hateful is it in the sight of Allah that you say that which you do not.”  (Qur’an 61: 2-3)

Abdullah bin Amr narrated that a man asked the Prophet (ﷺ), “Whose Islam is good or what sort of deeds (or what qualities) of Islam are good.” The Prophet replied, “To feed (others) and to greet those whom you know and those whom you do not know.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 11)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ), said: “The young should greet the old, the passer-by should greet the sitting one, and the small group of persons should greet the large group of persons.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8Hadith 250)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ),  said: “A slave (of Allah) may utter a word which pleases Allah without giving it much importance, and because of that Allah will raise him to degrees (of reward); a slave (of Allah) may utter a word (carelessly) which displeases Allah without thinking of its gravity, and because of that he will be thrown into the Hell-Fire.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 482)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Whoever believes in Allah and  the last day should talk what is good or keep quiet; and whoever  believes in Allah and  the last day should  not hurt (or insult his neighbour; and whoever  believes in Allah and  the last day should entertain his guest generously.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 485; Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4286)

Religious and  Spiritual Values

Religion

“Truly, the religion before Allah s Islam (submission to His Will).”  (Qur’an 3:19)

“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to God), never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who lost (all spiritual good).”   (Qur’an 3:85)

 “…This day have I perfected  your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam  as your religion.”   (Qur’an 5:3)

“Whatever you worship apart from Him is nothing but names, which you have named.  You and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority: the command is for none but Allah.  He has commanded that you worship none but Him.  That is the right religion, but men understand not.”  (Qur’an 12:40)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Religion is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will not be able to continue in that way. So you should not be extremists, but try to be near to perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded; and gain strength by offering the prayers in the mornings, afternoons and during the last hours of the nights.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 38)

No Compulsion in Religion

“Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error…”  (Qur’an 2:256)

“If it had been Your Rabb (Sustainer)’s Will, they would all have believed,    all who are on earth!  Will you then compel mankind, against their will, to believe?”  (Qur’an  10:99)

“Say: O you that reject Faith!  I worship not that which you worship, nor will you worship that which I worship.  And I will not worship that which you have been wont to worship nor will you worship that which I worship. To you be your religion, and to me my religion.”  (Qur’an 109:1-6)

Islam

“O you who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam….that you may be guided.” (Qur’an 3:102-103)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Islam has been built upon five things: declaring that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah;  the establishment of salaah (five compulsory daily prayers); the payment of zakaah (obligatory charity);  the Hajj (pilgrimage to the House of Allah, (if one is able); and sawm of Ramadan (fasting in the month of Ramadan).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 7)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Ayyubt  that a man came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said: “Direct me to a deed which draws me near to Paradise and takes me away from the Fire (of Hell).” Upon this he (the Prophet(ﷺ)) said: “You worship Allah and never associate anything with Him, establish prayer, and pay Zakat, and do good to your kin.” When he turned his back, the Messenger of Allah remarked:  “If he adheres to what he has been ordered to do, he would enter Paradise. “ (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 13)

Oneness of God in Islam: Part I – Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (the declaration or belief in Allah’s Rabb (Sustainer)ship of the universe)

“This is the true account: There is no god except Allah; and Allah   He is indeed the Exalted in Power, the Wise.”  (Qur’an 3:62)

“Allah!  There is no god but He: of a surety He will gather you together on the Day of Judgement, about which there is no doubt.  And whose word can be truer than Allah’s?”  (Qur’an 4:87)

“Your Guardian Rabb (Sustainer) is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days.  Then He settled Himself on the Throne: He draws the night as a veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: and the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) are subservient by His Command. Verily His are the creation and the Command. Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds.”  (Qur’an 7:54)

“We created not the heavens, the earth, and all between them, but for just ends… For verily it is your Rabb (Only God and Sustainer) Who is the Master-Creator, knowing all things.” (Qur’an 15: 85-86)

“It is Allah  Who has created you: further, He has provided for your sustenance; then He will cause you to die; and again He will give you life.  Are there any  of your (false) “Partners” who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him!  And High is He above the partners they attribute (to Him)!  (Qur’an 30:40)

“Such is Allah, your Rabb (Sustainer), the Creator of all things, there is no god but He.  Then how you are deluded away from the Truth!”  (Qur’an 40:62)

Oneness of God in Islam: Part II – Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (the Declaration or Belief that all Beautiful Names and Attributes belong to Allah alone)

“God! There is no god but He    the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal.  No slumber can seize Him nor sleep.  His are all things in the heavens and on earth.  Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permits?  He knows what (appears to His creatures as) Before or After or Behind them.  Nor shall they compass ought of His knowledge except as He wills.  His Throne does extend over the heavens and on earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).”   (Qur’an  2:255)

“To Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth.  Verily we have directed the People of the Book before you, and you (O Muslims) to fear Allah.  But if you deny Him, lo!  Unto Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth.  And Allah s free of all wants, worthy of all praise.”   (Qur’an  4: 131).

“The most beautiful names belong to Allah:  so call on Him by them; but shun such men as to distort His names: for what they do, they will soon be requited.”  (Qur’an 7: 180)

“And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” (Qur’an 14:4)

“Glorified be your Rabb (Sustainer),  the Rabb (Sustainer) of Honour and Power. (He is free) from what they attribute unto him.” (Qur’an 37:180)

“For to Allah belong the Forces of the heavens and the earth; and Allah s Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom.” (Qur’an 48:7)

“Verily! Allah s the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.”  (Qur’an 51:58)

He is Allah, besides Whom there is no (other) deity; knowing the unseen and the visible. He is the Mercy-giving, the Merciful!  He is Allah, besides Whom there is no (other) deity, the Sovereign, the Holy, (the Source of) Peace, the Secure, the Preserver, the Powerful, the Irresistible, the Grandiose: Glory be to Allah ahead of anything they may associate (with Him)!  He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper, His are the Finest Names. Everything in Heaven and Earth celebrates Him.  He is the Powerful, the Wise.   (Qur’an 59:22-24)

“But Honour, Power and Glory belong to Allah and His Messenger …”   (Qur’an ,63:8)

“Say, He is God the One. The Eternally besought of all.  He begets not nor was He begotten and there is none comparable unto Him.”  (Qur’an 112: 1-4)

Abu Musa Al-Ashari narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “None is more patient than Allah against the harmful and annoying words He hears (from the people): They ascribe a son to Him, yet He bestows upon them health and provision.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 475)

Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) used to say, “I seek refuge (with You) by your Izzat (Honour, Power and Glory) Lailaha illa Anta, (none has the right to be worshipped but You), Who does not die while the Jinn and the human beings die.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 480)

Oneness of God in Islam: Part III – Tawheed al-Ibaadah/Alhuluhiya (the Declaration of Belief that Allah Alone Deserves to be Worshipped)

“O mankind!   Worship your Guardian,  Allah, Who created you and those who came before you that you may become righteous.”   (Qur’an 2:21)

“That is Allah your God!  There is no god but He, the Creator of all things; then you worship Him: and He has power to dispose of all affairs.  No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision; He is Subtle well-aware.” (Qur’an 6:102-103)

“So glorify the praises of your God and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him).  And worship your God until there comes unto you the Hour that is certain (i.e., death).”    (Qur’an 15:98-99)

“O people! Worship your Guardian Rabb (Sustainer), Who created you and those who came before you that you may have the chance to learn righteousness: Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down the rain from heavens; and brought forth therewith fruits for your sustenance.  Then set not up rivals unto God when you know (the truth).”  (Qur’an 2:21-22)

“I have only created jinn and men, that they may worship Me.” (Qur’an 51:56)

Anas Bin Malik narrated that the Prophet said: “Whoever said La ilaha ila-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a barley grain, will be taken out of hell. And whoever said La ilaha ila-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a wheat grain, will be taken out of hell. And whoever said La ilaha ila-Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of an atom, or a small ant, will be taken out of hell.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 42)

(For other relevant Ahadith, see: Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 98, Vol. 2 Hadith 253, and Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 13.)

Oneness of God: The Common Mission of the Prophets

Have you not turned your thought to one who disputed with Abraham about his Rabb (Sustainer), because Allah has granted him power? Abraham said: “My Rabb (Sustainer) is He Who gives life and death.” He said: “I give life and death.” Said Abraham: “But it is Allah that causes the sun to rise from the East: Do you then cause it to rise from the West.” Thus, was he confounded who (in arrogance) rejected faith. Nor does Allah give guidance to a people unjust.” (Qur’an 2: 257; also 6: 80)

“Certainly they disbelieve who say: ‘Allah s Christ the son of Mary.” But said Christ: O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Rabb (Sustainer) and your Rabb (Sustainer).’ Whoever joins other gods with Allah, Allah will forbid him the Garden, and the fire will be his abode.  There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.” (Qur’an 5: 72)

“We sent Noah to his people. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him. I fear for you the Punishment of a dreadful Day!’” (Qur’an 7:59 also 23:23)

“To the Ad people. (We sent) Hud, one of their (own) brethren: He said: “O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him. Will you not fear(Allah)?” (Qur’an 7:65)

“To the Thumbed people. (We sent) Salih, one of their own brethren: He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him.’”  (Qur’an  7:73)

“To the Madyan people. (We sent) Shuaib, one of their own brethren: He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him.’”  (Qur’an  7:85)

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘O mankind ! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He. So believe in Allah and His Messenger …’”   (Qur’an 7:158)

“Paraoh said: ‘And what is the Rabb (Sustainer) and Cherisher of the Worlds?’ (Moses) said: ‘The Rabb (Sustainer) and Cherisher of the heavens and the earth, and all between,    if you had but sure belief.’” (Qur’an 26: 26)

“So also was Elias among those sent (by Us). Behold, he said to his people, ‘Will you not fear (Allah)? Will you call upon Baal and forsake the Best of Creators   Allah, your Rabb (Sustainer) and Cherisher and the Rabb (Sustainer) and Cherisher of your fathers of old?’” (Qur’an 37: 123-126)

The Qur’an : The Divine Comprehensive Guidance to Mankind

“This (Qur’an ) is  the Book of guidance sure, without doubt to those who fear Allah; who believe in the Unseen, and steadfast in prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them; and who believe in the Revelation sent to you, and sent before your time, and (in their departure) have assurance of the Hereafter.”  (Qur’an 2:2-4)

“Allah!   There is no god but He    the Living, the Self-Subsisting, the Supporter of all.    It is He  Who  sent  down to You   (step by step), in truth, the Book . . . as a guide to mankind, and He sent  down the Criterion    (of Judgement between right and wrong).”  (Qur’an 3:2-4)

“. . . He it is Who has sent unto you the Book, explained in detail. ‘They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it has been sent down from your Rabb (Sustainer) in truth.  Never be then of those who doubt.”  (Qur’an  6:114)

 “This  Qur’an   is not such as can be produced by  other than Allah;   on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book    wherein there is no doubt  from the Creator of the Worlds.”   (Qur’an 10:37)

“We have  explained in detail in this Qur’an  for the benefit of mankind,  every kind of similitude: but man is, in most things, contentious.”  (Qur’an 18:54)

 “These are Verses of the Wise Book, a Guide and a Mercy to the Doers of Good,   those who establish regular Prayer, and give zakat and have sure faith in the Hereafter.  These are on (true) guidance from their Creator; and these are the ones who will prosper.”   (Qur’an 31:3)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see:  3:7; 5:48; 6:92; 7:52; 11:1; 12:1-2; 13:36-37; 16:89; 25:6; 42: 17; 46:2; 69:43-52.)

The Qur’an : the Book to be Read, Studied and Followed for Guidance

“Those to whom We have given the Book study it as it should be studied: they are the ones that believe therein: those who reject faith there in    the loss is their own.”  (Qur’an 2:121)

“Follow (o men!) the revelation given unto you from your Rabb (Sustainer), and follow not, as friends or protectors, other than Him. “And this is a Book which We have revealed as a blessing: so follow it and be righteous, that you may  receive mercy.”  (Qur’an 6:155)

 “When the Qur’an  is read, listen to it with attention, and hold your peace: that you may receive Mercy.”  (Qur’an 7:204)

“Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best of it:   those are  the  ones  who  Allah has guided, and  those  are the  ones endued with understanding.”    (Qur’an 39:18)

…. Read you, therefore, of the Qur’an  as much as may be easy (for you).  He knows that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of Allah’s bounty; yet others fighting in Allah’s Cause.  Read you, therefore, as much of the Qur’an  as may be easy (for you); and establish regular Prayer and give zakat (charity)  and loan to Allah a Beautiful Loan.  And whatever good you send forth for your souls, you shall find it in Allah’s Presence. Yeah, better and greater, in Reward. . . . (Qur’an 73:20)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 21:10; 29:45; 47: 24; 73:4; 54:17, 22, 32, 40; 80:11-14)

Muhammad  (): the Final Prophet and  Messenger of Allah  to Mankind

“He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah…”  (Qur’an 4: 80)

“O mankind!  The Messenger has come to you in truth from Allah: believe in him:  it is best for you…”   (Qur’an  4: 170)

 “We sent you (Muhammad) but as a Mercy for all creatures.”  (Qur’an 21: 107)

“You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the Final Day, and who remembers Allah much.”   (Qur’an 33:21)

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is ) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the

 Prophets, and Allah has full knowledge of all things.”  (Qur’an 33: 40)

 “We have not sent you (Muhammad) but as a (Messenger) to all mankind, giving them glad tidings and warning them (against sin), but most men know not.” (Qur’an 34: 28)

Jubair bin Mut’imnarrated that Allah’s Messenger said:  “I have five names:  I am Muhammad and Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi through whom Allah will eliminate infidelity; I am Al-Hashir who will be the first to be resurrected, the people being resurrected  thereafter; and I am also Al-’Aqib (i.e., no prophet will appear after me).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 733)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said:  “I have been sent (as a Messenger) in the best of all generations of Adam’s offspring since the Creation.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 757)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 4: 64;  7: 157; 37: 37; 47: 33 and 59:7.)

Adherence to the Qur’an  and the Sunnah (Tradition/Way of the Prophet Muhammad) and Warning Against  Bid’a (Innovation/Fabrication in Religion)

Abdullah reported on the authority  of  his father, “I heard Allah’s  Messenger saying, ‘He who revived a sunnah of mine that was extinct after me, would (receive) a reward like the reward of one of the people who acted upon it without any diminution in their rewards.  And, he who introduced an innovation that Allah and His Messenger had not sanctioned, would incur (a sin) like the sin of one of the people who acted upon it without any diminution in people’s sins.’” (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 210)

(For other relevant Ahadith, see: Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6466 and Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith14.)

Muslims

“Every child is born  with a true faith of Islam (i.e., Muslim to worship none but Allah Alone).  It is his parents who convert him to Judaism or Christianity or  Magianism.  As an animal delivers a perfect baby animal , do you find it mutilated..”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 467; 6:298 and Muslim)

Abdullah bin Amr narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “A Muslim is the one who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands.  And a Muhajir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allah has forbidden.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 9)

“All my followers (i.e., the Muslims) will enter Paradise except those who refuse” They said: “O Allah’s Messenger!  Who will refuse?” He said: “Whoever obeys me will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeys me is the one who refuses (to enter it).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 384)

Reverts to Islam

Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear to the People in  the Book, on them shall be Allah’s curse, and the  curse of those entitled to curse.  Except those who repent and make amends and openly declare (the Truth): to them I turn; for I am Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.  Those who reject Faith and die rejecting on them is Allah’s curse, and the curse of angels and of all mankind; they will abide therein.  And your God is One God: There is no god but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.  (Qur’an 2:159-163)

Abu Said Al-Khudri narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “If a person embraces Islam sincerely, then Allah shall forgive all his past sins, and after that starts the settlement of accounts, the reward of his good deeds will be ten times to seven hundred times for each good deed and an evil deed will be recorded as it is unless Allah forgives it.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 40)

Abu Burda’s father  narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “Three (kinds of) persons will have a double reward:  1. A person from the people of the scriptures who believed in his prophet (Jesus or Moses) and then believed in the Prophet Muhammad (i.e., has embraced Islam).  2. A slave who discharges his duties to Allah and his master.  3. And a master of a woman-slave who teaches her good manners and educates her in the best possible way (the religion) and manumits her and then marries her.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 97)

Faith

Anas Bin Malik narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “None of you will have faith till he likes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 12)

Anas Bin Malik narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, and his children and all mankind.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 14)

Anas Bin Malik narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whoever possess the following three (qualities) will have the sweetness (delight) of faith: 1. The one to whom Allah and His Messenger become dearer than anything else.  2. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah’s sake.  3. Who hates to revert to atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the fire.”    (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 15)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said , “(Faith is) that you affirm your faith in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and that you believe in  the Resurrection, and that you believe in  Al-Qadar (Divine Decree) in its entirety. Ihsan (Purity of Faith) is that you  fear Allah as if you are seeing Him, and Though you see Him not, verily He is seeing you.”  (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 6)

Islamic Pledge

‘Ubada bin As-Samitt, who took part in the battle of Badr and was a Naqib (a person heading a group of six persons), on the night of Al-Aqaba pledge narrated that Allah’s Messengersaid: while a group of his companions were around him, “Swear allegiance to me for: 1. Not to join anything in worship along with Allah.;  2. not to steal;  3.not to commit illegal sexual intercourse;  4. not to kill your children;  5. not to accuse an innocent person (to spread such an accusation among people;   and 6.  not to be disobedient (when ordered) to do good deed.”  The Prophet (ﷺ)  added: “Whoever amongst you who fulfils his pledge will be rewarded by Allah.  And whoever indulges in any one of them (except the ascription of partners to Allah) and gets the punishment in this world, that punishment will be an  expiation for that sin.  And if one indulges in any of them, and Allah conceals his sin, it is up to Him to forgive or punish him (in the Hereafter).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 17)

3 Conditions for the Acceptance of Deeds

  1. Belief (Faith) in Allah and affirmation of His Oneness:

“This is the Guidance of Allah with which He guides whomsoever He will of His slaves. But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.”  (Qur’an 6:88)

And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad), as it was to those (Allah’s Messengers) before you: “If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in  vain, and you will certainly be among the losers.”   (Qur’an 39:65)

  1. Sincerity (Ikhlas)which is to do deeds for Allah’s sake only neither seeking praise nor recognition from fellow-beings:

“So, call you (O Muhammad and the believers) upon (or invoke) Allah making (your) worship pure for Him (Alone) (by worshipping none but Him and by doing religious deeds sincerely for Allah’s sake only and not to show off and not to set up rivals with Him in worship).”    (Qur’an 39: 14; 40:14)

“Actions are but by intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.  Thus he whose migration was for Allah and His Messenger, his migration was for Allah and His Messenger, and he whose migration was to achieve some worldly benefit or take some woman in marriage, his migration was for that for which he migrated.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith I and Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4692)

  1. Deeds must be in accordance with the Qur’an  and the Sunnah(Traditions of Prophet Muhammad  ())  Allah commands us to obey Him and His Messenger:

“O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger (Muhammad) and render not vain your deeds.”  (Qur’an 47:33)

“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to God), never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who lost (all spiritual good).”   (Qur’an 3:85)

The Truth

“But those  who  believe  and  do  deeds  of righteousness  We shall soon admit them to Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath, to dwell therein forever.  Allah’s promise is the truth, and whose word can be truer than Allah’s?”   (Qur’an 4:122)

“O mankind!  The Messenger has come to you in  truth from Allah:  believe  in him:  it is best for you…”    (Qur’an 4:170)

“And that those on whom knowledge has been bestowed may learn that the Qur’an  is the Truth from your Rabb (Sustainer), and that they may believe therein, and their departure may be made humbly (open) to it: for verily Allah s the Guide of those who believe to the Straight Way.”  (Qur’an 22:54)

“On that Day Allah will pay them back (all) their just dues, and they realize that Allah s the (very) Truth, Who makes all things manifest.”  (Qur’an 24:25)

 “It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth to make it prevail over all religions, even though the Pagans may detest it.”  (Qur’an 61:9)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 10:94 and 13:19-24.)

Truthfulness

“O you who believe!  Fear Allah and be with those who are truthful.”   (Qur’an 9:119)

“That Allah will reward the people of Truth for their Truth, and punish the Hypocrites if that be His Will, or turn to them in Mercy; for Allah s Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 33:24)

“And he who brings the Truth and he who confirms (and supports) it—such are the men who do right.  They shall have all that  they wish  for, with their Rabb (Sustainer).  Such is  the reward of those who do good: so that Allah will remit from them (even)  the worst  in  their  deeds and give them their reward according to the best of what they have done.” (Qur’an 39:33-35)

 “And those who believe in Allah and His messengers they are the Truthful and the martyrs in the eyes of their Rabb (Sustainer).  They shall have their Reward and their Light.  But those who reject Allah and deny Our Signs, they are the Companions of Hell-Fire.”  (Qur’an 57:19)

“Adhere to truth, for truth leads to good deeds and good deeds lead him who does them to paradise.    If a man continues to speak the truth and makes truth his objective, he  will be recorded in Allah’s   presence as eminently truthful. Avoid falsehood,  for falsehood  leads to wickedness and wickedness leads to hell. If a man continues to speak  falsehood  and makes falsehood his objective, he will be recorded in Allah’s presence as a great liar.” (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6309)

Truthfulness versus Falsehood

Those who reject Allah and hinder (men) from the Path of Allah, their deeds will Allah bring to naught.  But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad for it is the Truth from their Rabb (Sustainer), He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition.  This is because those who reject Allah follow falsehood.  While those who believe follow the Truth from their Rabb (Sustainer): thus does Allah set forth for men their lessons by similitude. (Qur’an 47:1-3)

“Who does greater wrong than who forges falsehood against Allah, even as he is being invited to Islam?  And Allah guides not those who do wrong.”  (Qur’an 61:7)

‘Abdullah  narrated that the Prophet said: “Truthfulness leads to Al-Birr (righteousness) and Al-Birr leads to Paradise. And a man keeps on telling the truth until he becomes a Siddiq (truthful person). Falsehood leads to Al-Fujur (i.e., wickedness, evil-doing), and Al-Fujur leads to the (Hell) Fire, and a man may keep on telling lies till he is written before Allah, a liar.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 116; Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6307-6310)

Remembrance of Allah

“O you who believe!  Call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you when certain men formed the design to stretch you out their hands against you, but (Allah) held back their hands from you: so fear Allah.  And on Allah let Believers put (all) their trust.”  (Qur’an 5:11)

“O you who believe!  Let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah.  If any act thus, surely they are the losers.”  (Qur’an 63:9)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Allah will give shade to seven (types of people) under His Shade (on the Day of Resurrection).  One of them will be a person who remembers Allah and his eyes are then flooded with tears.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 486)

“Abu Hurairah reported Allah’s Messenger as saying that “Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, thus stated: ‘I am near to the thought of My servant as he thinks about Me, and I am with him as he remembers Me.  And if he remembers Me in his heart, I also remember him in My Heart.  If he remembers Me in assembly I remember him in assembly, better than his (remembrance).  If he draws near Me by the span of a palm, I draw near him by the cubit, and if he draws near Me by the cubit I draw near him by the space (covered by) two hands.  And if he walks towards Me, I rush towards him.‘“  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6471)

Trust in Allah

“… Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah.  For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).  If Allah helps you, none can overcome you.  If He forsakes you, who is there, after that, that can help you?  In Allah, then, let Believers put their trust.” (Qur’an 3: 159-160)

“O you who believe! Call in remembrance the favor of Allah unto you when certain men formed the design to stretch out their hands against you, but (Allah) held their hands from you.  So fear Allah. And on Allah let Believers put (all) their trust.”  (Qur’an 5:11)

“And He provides for him from (sources) he never could expect.  And if any one puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him.  For Allah will surely accomplish His purpose.  Verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion.”  (Qur’an 65:3)

“For, Believers are those who, when Allah s mentioned, fell a tremor in their hearts, and when they hear His revelations rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, and put (all) their trust in their Rabb (Sustainer).”   (Qur’an 8:2)

“And put your trust in Him Who lives and dies not; and celebrate His praise; and enough is He to be acquainted with the faults of His servants.” (Qur’an 25:58)

Fear of Allah

“O you who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam.  And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves…” (Qur’an 3:102-103)

“And call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you, and His Covenant, which He ratified with you, when you said: “We hear and we obey”: and fear Allah, for Allah knows well the secrets of your departure.”  (Qur’an 5:7)

“O you who believe!  Fear Allah, and let every soul look to what (provision) he has sent forth for the morrow.  Yea, fear Allah for Allah s  well-acquainted with (all) that you do.”  (Qur’an 59:18)

Love for Allah

“Yet there are men who take (for worship) others besides Allah, as equal (with Allah).  They love them as they should love Allah.  But those of Faith are overflowing in their love for Allah.  If only the unrighteous could see, behold, they would see the Punishment: that to Allah belongs all power, and Allah will strongly enforce the Punishment.”  (Qur’an 2:165)

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘If you do love Allah, follow me.  Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: for Allah s  Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.’”  (Qur’an 3:31)

AnasBin Malik narrated that a man asked the Prophet (ﷺ) about the Hour (i.e., Day of Judgement) saying, ‘When will the Hour be?’  The Prophet said:  ‘What have you prepared for it?’  The man said: ‘Nothing, except that I love Allah and His Messenger.’  The Prophet (ﷺ) said: ‘You will be with those whom you love.’  We had never been so glad as we were upon hearing the saying of the Prophet, i.e., ‘You will be with those whom you love.’  Hence, I love the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, and I hope that I will be with them though my deeds are not similar to theirs.  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 5 Hadith 37)

Ubada bin. Samireported Allah’s Messenger as saying:  “He who loves to meet Allah, Allah also loves to meet him, and he who dislikes to meet Allah, Allah also abhors to meet him.”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6486)

Love is From Allah

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:   “If Allah loves a person, He calls Gabriel saying:’Allah loves so and so; O Gabriel love him.’ And then Gabriel would love him, and then Gabriel would make an announcement among the residents of the Heaven, ‘Allah loves so and so therefore you should love him also.  So all the residents of the Heavens would love him, and then he is granted the pleasure of the people of the earth.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 66)

Reward is From Allah

“And be steadfast in prayer and give Zakat: and whatever good you send forth for your souls before you, you shall find it with Allah: for Allah sees well all that you do.”   (Qur’an 2:110)

“Those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, and establish regular prayers and give zakat, will have their reward with their Rabb (Sustainer).  On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.”   (Qur’an 2:277)

“Nor can a soul die except by Allah’s leave, the term being fixed as by writing.  If any do desire a reward in this life, We shall give it to him; and if any do desire a reward in the Hereafter, We shall give it to him.  And swiftly shall We reward those that (serve us with) gratitude.”  (Qur’an 3:145)

“To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness has Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.”  (Qur’an 5:9)

Punishment is From Allah

“As to those who reject Faith, I will punish them with severe chastisement in this world and in the Hereafter nor will they have anyone to help.”  (Qur’an 3:56)

“Those who purchase unbelief at the price of faith,  not the  least harm will they do to Allah, but they will have a grievous punishment.”  (Qur’an 3:177)

“But those who disobey Allah and His Messenger and transgress His limits will be admitted to a Fire, to abide therein.  And they shall have a humiliating punishment.”  (Qur’an 4:14)

Allah’s Justice

“Allah s never unjust in the least degree.  If there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from His Own self a great reward.”  (Qur’an 4:40)

”The Word of your Rabb (Sustainer) does find its fulfilment in truth and in justice.  None can change His Words: for He is the One Who hears and knows all things.”  (Qur’an 6:115)

Guidance is From Allah

“It is not for you to guide them to the right path.  But Allah guides to the right path whom He pleases.  Whatever of good you give benefits your own souls, and you shall only do so seeking the “Face” of Allah.  Whatever good you give, shall be rendered back to you, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly.”   (Qur’an 2:272)

“Say: ’Shall we call on others besides Allah,    things that can do us neither good nor harm and turn on our heels after receiving guidance from Allah?  Like one whom the Satans have made into a fool wandering bewildered through the earth, his friends calling ‘Come to us’,( vainly) guiding him to the Path.’  Say: ‘Allah’s guidance is the (only) guidance, and we have been directed to submit ourselves to the Rabb (Sustainer) of the worlds.’”  (Qur’an 4:71)

“This is the Guidance of Allah.  He gives that guidance to whom He pleases, of His servants if they were to join other gods with Him, all that they did would be vain for them.”  (Qur’an 6:88)

“Whom Allah does guide, he is on the right path.  Whom He rejects from His guidance, such are the persons who lose.”  (Qur’an 7:178)

Friends of Allah

“Your (real) friends are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the Believers    those who establish regular prayers and pay zakat and they bow down humbly (in worship).  As to who turn (to friendship) to Allah, His Messenger, and the Believers, it is the party of Allah that must certainly triumph.”  (Qur’an 5:55-56)

“For my Protector is Allah, Who revealed the Book, and He will befriend the righteous.”  (Qur’an 7:196)

 “This is the Day of your Rabb (Sustainer), leading straight.  We have detailed the Signs for those who receive admonition.  For them will be a Home of Peace with their Rabb (Sustainer).  He will be their Friend, because they practised (righteousness).”  (Qur’an 6:126-127)

 “Behold! verily on the friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve; those who believe and (constantly) guard against evil.  For them are Glad Tidings, in the life of the Present and in the Hereafter.  No change can there be in the Words of Allah.  This is indeed the supreme Triumph.”   (Qur’an 10:62-63)

Enmity to Satan: The Accursed

 “O you people! …Do not follow the footsteps of Satan for he is to you an avowed enemy.  For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that you should say of Allah that of which you have no knowledge.”  (Qur’an 2:168-169)

“Satan threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly.  Allah promises you His forgiveness and bounties.  And Allah cares for all and He know all things.”  (Qur’an 2:268)

“Whoever  forsaking Allah, takes  Satan  for  a   friend, has  of a  surety  suffered  a  loss  that  is   manifest.  Satan  makes them promises, and creates in them false desires;  but  Satan’s promises are nothing but deception. They (his dupes) will have their dwelling in Hell,  and from it they will find no way of escape.”    (Qur’an 4:119-121)

 “If a suggestion from Satan assail your (mind), seek refuge with Allah; for He hears and knows (all things). Those who fear Allah, when a thought of evil from Satan assaults them, bring Allah to remembrance, when Loa! they see (aright)!”   (Qur’an 7: 200-201)

“Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: ‘No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you.’ But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels and said: ‘Lo! I am clear of you.  Lo! I see what you see not;  Lo! I fear Allah, for Allah s strict in punishment.’”   (Qur’an 8:48)

“O you children of Adam!  Let not Satan seduce you, in the same manner as he got your parents out of  the garden,  stripping them  of their raiment, to expose their shame: for he and his tribe see you from a position where you cannot see them: We made the Satan’s friends (only) to those without Faith..”  (Qur’an 7:27)

“. . .  For   Satan  is  to  man   an   avowed enemy!”   (Qur’an 12:5)

“When you  read the Qur’an  seek  Allah’s protection  from  Satan the Rejected One.  No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Rabb (Sustainer).  His authority is over those only, who take him as patron and who join partners with Allah.”   (Qur’an 16:98-100)

“O  you who believe follow not Satan’s footsteps.  If any will follow the footsteps of Satan,  he will (but) command what is shameful and wrong: and were it not for the grace and mercy of Allah on you, not one of you would ever have been pure: but Allah does purify whom He pleases: and Allah s One Who hears and knows (all things).”  (Qur’an 24: 21)

“Verily Satan is an enemy to you: so treat him as an enemy.  He only  invites his adherents, that they may become companions of the Blazing Fire.”   (Qur’an 35: 6)

“Did I not enjoin on you O children of Adam, that you should not worship Satan;  for that he was to you an enemy avowed? And that you should worship Me, for that this was the Straight Way? But he did lead astray a great multitude of you. Did you not, then, understand? “   (Qur’an  36:60-62)

 “And if (at any time) an incitement to discord is made to you by the Satan, seek refuge in Allah.  He is the One Who hears and knows all things.”  (Qur’an 41:36)

Uthman bin Abu Al-As  reported that he came to Allah’s Messenger and said: “Allah’s Messenger, the Satan intervenes between me and my prayer and my reciting of the Qur’an and he confounds me.”  Thereupon Allah’s Messenger said: “That is (the doing of the Satan) who is known as Khinzab, and when you perceive its effect, seek refuge with Allah from it and spit three times to your left.”  I did that and Allah dispelled that from me.   (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 5463)

Warning about Satan

“About whom (Satan) it is decreed that whoever turns to him for friendship, him will he lead astray, and he will guide him to the Chastisement of the Fire.”   (Qur’an 22:4)

Cleanliness

O you who believe!  When you prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles.  If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body.  But if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the privy or you have been in contact with women, and you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand (or earth), and rub therewith your faces and hands.  Allah does not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete His favour to you that you may be grateful.   (Qur’an 5:6)

“That this is indeed a Qur’an most honourable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean: a Revelation from the Rabb (Sustainer) of the Worlds.”  (Qur’an 56:79)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The salat (prayer) of a person who does ahdath (passes urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution.”  A person from Hadramout asked Abu Hurairah “What is ahdath?  Abu Hurairah replied, “Ahdath means the passing of wind from the anus.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 137)

(Narrated Humran, the slave of Uthmant):  “I  saw Uthman bin Affant asking for a tumbler of water, (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out.  Then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice.  Then he said: ‘Allah’s Messenger said ‘If anyone performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two Rak’at Salat (prayer) during which he does not think of anything else then his past sins will  be forgiven. ‘”     (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith161)

Abu Said AL-Khudri narrated that  “Allah’s Messenger said: “The taking of a bath on Friday is compulsory for every (Muslim) who has attained the age of puberty.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 4)

Salman Al-Farisi narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Anyone who takes a bath on Friday and cleans himself as much as he can and puts oil (on his hair) or scents himself;  and then proceeds for the prayer and does not force his way between two persons (assembled in the mosque for the Friday prayer);  and prays as much as is written for him and remains quiet when the Imam delivers the Khutba, all his sins in between the present and the last Friday will be forgiven.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 33)

Um ‘Atiyya al-Ansariyanarrated:  “Allah’s Messenger came to us when his daughter died and said: ‘Wash her thrice or five time or more, if you see it necessary, with water and sidr and then apply camphor or some camphor at the end; and when you finish, notify me.’  So when we finished it, we informed him and he gave us his waist-sheet and told us to shroud the dead body in it.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 344)

Salat (Prayers)

“I have created not the jinn and men  except that they should worship Me (Alone). I seek not any provision  from them  nor  do I  ask that  they should feed  Me. Verily, Allah s the All-Provider, Owner of Power, Most Strong.” (Qur’an 51:56-58)

“Verily, I am Allah: There is no god but  I: so serve you Me (only), and establish regular prayer for My remembrance.”   (Qur’an 20:14)

“So glorify the praises of your God and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him).  And worship your God until there comes unto you the Hour that is certain (i.e., death).”    (Qur’an 15:98-99)

“Recite what  is  sent of the Book by inspiration to you, and establish regular prayer: for prayer restrains from shameful and evil deeds; and remembrance of Allah s the greatest (thing in life) without doubt.  And Allah knows the (deeds) that you do.”   (Qur’an 29:45)

Abdullah bin Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The Salat (prayer) in congregation is twenty seven times superior in degrees to the Salat (prayer) offered by a person alone.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 618)

 (For other relevant Qur’anic verse and Hadith, see: 23: 1-11 and Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 506.)

Salah (Prayer )  on Time

“When you have performed the prayers, remember Allah, standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides.  But when you are free from danger, set up regular prayers: for such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times.”  (Qur’an 4:103)

Abdullah bin Mas’ud narrated:  “I asked the Prophet (ﷺ) which  deed   is   the  dearest  to  Allah?”    He r replied,  “To   offer salaat (the prayers) at their early fixed times.” I asked, “What is the next (in goodness)?”   He replied, “To be good and dutiful to your parents.” I again asked, “What is the next (in goodness)?” He replied, “To participate in jihad (religious fighting) in Allah’s Cause.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 505)

“Almighty Allah said: ‘I have made five times prayer obligatory on your people and I made covenant that if anyone observes them regularly at their right times, I shall admit him to paradise.  If anyone does not observe them regularly, there is no such guarantee of Mine for him.’”   (Abu Daud Vol. 1 Hadith 403)

Some Supplications

“In  the Name  of Allah,  Most Gracious,  Most  Merciful.  Praise be to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds:  Most  Gracious, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgement. You do we worship, and Your aid we seek.  Show us the straight way, the way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, those whose (portion) are not wrath.  And who go not astray”.  (Qur’an 1:1-7)

 “Our Rabb (Sustainer)! We have indeed believed: forgive us, then, our sins, and save us from the agony of the Fire.”   (Qur’an 3:16)

“Our Rabb (Sustainer)! Send us not to the company of the wrong-doers.”  (Qur’an 7:47)

 “O my Rabb (Sustainer)!  Bestow on them (my parents) Your Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood.”  (Qur’an 17:24)

“O my Rabb (Sustainer)!  Expand me my breast; ease my task for me; and remove the impediment from my speech, so they may understand what I say.”   (Qur’an 20:25-28)

“O my Rabb (Sustainer)!  Increase me in knowledge.”    (Qur’an 20:114)

“O my Rabb (Sustainer)! Bestow wisdom on me, and join me with the righteous; grant me honourable mention on the tongue of truth among the latest (generations); make me one of the inheritors of the Garden of Bliss”  (Qur’an 26:83-84)

“O my Rabb (Sustainer)! Help me against people who do mischief!”   (Qur’an 29:30)

“O my Rabb (Sustainer)!  Grant me that I may be grateful for  Your favour which You  have  bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and that I may work   righteousness  such  as  You  may approve and be gracious to You and truly do I submit  (to You) in Islam.”  (Qur’an 46:15)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see:  3:8-9,  3:147,  7:126, and 59:10.)

‘Anas bin Malikreported that Allah’s Messenger used to say: “O Allah, I seek refuge in You from incapacity, from indolence, from cowardice, from senility, from miserliness, and I seek refuge in You from the torment of the grave and from the trial of the life and death.”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6535)

Abdullah reported that Allah’s Messenger used to supplicate (in these words); “O Allah  beg of You the right guidance, safeguard against evils, chastity and freedom from want.”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6566)

Zaid bin Arqamreported: “I am not going to say anything but only that which Allah’s Messenger used to say.  He used to supplicate:   ‘O Allah,  I   seek  refuge  in  You  from  incapacity,  from  sloth,   from cowardice, from miserliness, decrepitude and from the torment of the grave.  O Allah, grant to my soul the sense of righteousness and purify it, for You are the Best to Purifier thereof.  You are the Protecting Friend thereof, and Guardian thereof.  O Allah  seek refuge in You from the knowledge which does not benefit, from the heart that does not entertain the fear (of Allah), from the soul that does not feel contented and the supplication that is not responded.’” (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6568)

Zakat/Charity

 “Those who (in charity) spend of their goods by night and by day, in secret and in public have their reward with their Rabb (Sustainer).  On them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.”   (Qur’an 2:274)

“Successful indeed are the Believers, those … who are active in giving zakaah … these will inherit Paradise.  They will dwell therein (forever).” (Qur’an 23:1-4, 10-11)

“Those who establish regular prayer, and give zakaah and have sure faith in the Hereafter.  These are on (true) guidance from their Creator; and these are the ones who will prosper.” (Qur’an 31:4-5)

“And spend something (in charity) out  of the substance which We have bestowed on you, before Death should come to any of you and he should say, ‘O my Rabb (Sustainer)!  Why do you not give me respite for a little while? I  would have then given (largely) in charity, and I should have been one of the doers of good.’”  (Qur’an 63:10)

Abu Hurairah narrated that a man came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and asked, “O Allah’s Messenger which charity is the most superior in reward?” He replied, “The charity which you practice while you are healthy, niggardly and afraid of poverty and wish to become wealthy. Do not delay it to the time of approaching death and then say, ‘Give so much to such and such, and so much to such and such.’ (And it has already belonged to such and such (his heirs).” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  2 Hadith 500)

Abu Musa narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Every Muslim has to give in charity,” The people asked, “O Allah’s Prophet! If someone has nothing to give, what will he do?” He said: “He should work with his hands and benefit himself and also give in charity (from what he earns).” The people further asked, “If he cannot do even that?” He replied, “Then he should help the needy who appeal for help.” Then the people asked, “If he cannot do that?” He replied, “Then he should perform all that is good and keep away from all that is evil and this will be regarded as charitable deeds.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  2 Hadith 524)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses and Ahadith, see: Qur’an  2:270-271, 2:273, 32:15-19, Al-Bukhari Vol.  2 Hadith 478 and Vol.  2 Hadith 492.)

Spending in Allah’s Cause

‘Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Who among you considers the wealth of his heirs dearer to him than his own wealth?” They replied, “O Allah’s Messenger! There is none among us but loves his own wealth more.” The Prophet said: “So his wealth is whatever he spends (in Allah’s cause) during his life (on good deeds) while the wealth of his heirs is whatever he leaves after his death.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  8 Hadith 449)

Sawm (Fasting)

“O you who believe!  Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may (learn) self-restraint.” (Qur’an 2:184)

“Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur’an  as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong).  So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting…. and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance you shall be grateful.”   (Qur’an 2:185)

The Prophet said: “Sawm (fasting) is a shield (or a screen or a shelter from the Hell-fire).  So, the person observing sawm (fast) should avoid sexual relation with his wife and should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should say to him twice, ‘I am observing sawm (fast).’ The Prophet  added, “By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the smell coming out from the mouth of a person observing sawm (fast) is better with Allah than the smell of musk.” (Allah says about the fasting person,) “He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The sawm (fast) is for Me.  So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 118)

Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) was the most generous among the people, and he used to be more so in the month of Ramadan…  (Al-Bukhari Vol.  3 Hadith 126)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whoever does not give up false words and evil actions, Allah s not in need of his leaving his food and drink.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 127)

According to the Prophet (ﷺ) Allah says: “All the deeds of Adam’s sons (people) are for them, except sawm (fasting) which is for Me, and I will give  reward for it.  There are two pleasures for the person observing sawm (fast), one at the time of iftar [breaking his sawm (fast)], and the other at the time when he will meet his Creator; then he will be pleased because of his sawm (fasting). ”    (Al-Bukhari Vol.  3 Hadith 128)

Pilgrimage/Hajj

“For Hajj are the months well known.  If any one undertakes that duty therein, let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj.  And whatever good you do, (be sure) Allah knows it and take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best of provisions is right conduct.  So fear Me, o you that are wise.”   (Qur’an 2:197)

“He who came to this House (the Ka’bah) (with the intention in performing Hajj) without speaking or committing indecencies, would return (free from sin) as on the day his mother bore him.”  (Muslim Vol. 2 Hadith 3129)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whoever perform hajj for Allah’s sake only and does not have sexual relations with his wife, and does not do evil or sins then he will return (after Hajj free from all sins) as if he were born anew.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  2 Hadith 596)

‘Eid Holidays (Ramadan and Hajj)

Al-Bara’ bin Azib narrated: “I heard Allah’s Messenger delivering the Khutba (religious talk). He said: ‘The first (thing) to do on this day is to offer the Salat (prayer) and on returning (from the prayer) we slaughter our sacrifices (animal); and whoever did this he acted on our Sunnah (legal way).’” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  2 Hadith 75)

Abu Bakra narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The two months of ‘Eid i.e., Ramadan and Dhul Hijja do not decrease (in superiority).”  (Al-Bukhari Volume 3 Hadith 136)

(For other relevant Hadith, see:  Al-Bukhari Volume 3 Hadith 87.)

Belief in the Angels

“Behold, two (guardian angels) appointed to learn (his doings) learn (and note them), one  setting  on  the  right  and one  on the left Not a word does he utter but a vigilant Guardian.”  (Qur’an 50:16-17)

Belief in Qadr (Destiny)

“Whatever good, (O man!) happens to you is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to you is from yourself. And We have sent you (O Muhammad) to (instruct) mankind.  And enough is Allah for a witness.”  (Qur’an 4:79)

“And verily your Rabb (Sustainer) knows all that their hearts do hide, as well as that they reveal.  And there is nothing hidden in heaven or earth but is (recorded) in a clear record.” (Qur’an 27:74-75)

“No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence: that is truly easy for Allah n order that you may not despair over matters that pass you by nor exult over favours bestowed upon you.  For Allah loves not any vainglorious boaster.” (Qur’an 57:22-23)

Righteousness

It is not righteousness that you turn your faces toward East or West;  but it is  righteousness to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves;  to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which you have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic.  Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing.  (Qur’an 2:177)

“By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you give (freely) of that which you love; and whatever you give, Allah knows it well.”  (Qur’an 3:92)

“… Help one another in righteousness and piety  but help not one another in sin and rancor.  Fear Allah for Allah s strict in punishment.” (Qur’an 5:2).

Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness:   for these will enter the Garden and will not be wronged in the least  Gardens of Eternity, those which (Allah) Most Gracious has  promised  to His  servants  in the   Unseen:    for  His  promise must (necessarily) come to pass. They will not there hear any vain discourse, but only salutations of Peace.  And they will have therein their sustenance,  morning and evening.  Such is the Garden which We give as an inheritance to those of Our Servants who guard against evil.   (Qur’an 19:60-63)

“O mankind!  We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other (not that you may despise each other).  Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah s (he who is) the most righteous of you.  And Allah has full  knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” (Qur’an 49:13)

Good Deeds in Islam

Abdullah bin Amr narrated that a man asked the Prophet (ﷺ), “Whose Islam is good or what sort of deeds (or what qualities) of Islam are good.” The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, “To feed (others) and to greet those whom you know and those whom you do not know.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  1 Hadith 11; 8:253 and Muslim Vol.  1 Hadith 63)

‘Aishah (Radhiallahu anha) narrated that “The most beloved action to Allah’s Messenger was that whose doer did it continuously and regularly.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  8 Hadith. 469)

‘Aishah  (Radhiallahu anha) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) was asked.  “What deeds are loved most by Allah?”  He said: “The most regular constant deeds even though they may be few.”  He added, “Don’t take upon yourselves, except the deeds which are within your ability.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol.  8 Hadith. 472)

‘Aishah (Radhiallahu anha) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, and receive good news because one’s good deeds will not make him enter Paradise.”  They asked, “Even you, O Allah’s Messenger?”, He said: “Even I, unless and until Allah bestows His pardon and His Mercy on me.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  8 Hadith 474)

Best Manner/Character

‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) never used bad language.  He used to say:  “The best amongst you are those who have the best manners and character.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  4 Hadith 759)

‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  Allah’s Messenger neither talked in an insulting manner nor did he ever speak evil intentionally.  He used to say, “The most beloved to me amongst you is the one who has the best character and manners.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol.  5 Hadith 104)

“Verily Allah s kind and He loves kindness and confers kindness which he does not confer upon severity and does not confer upon anything else besides it (kindness).”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6273)

“Kindness is not to be found in anything but that it adds to its beauty and it is not withdrawn from anything but it makes it defective.”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6274)

Some Good Conducts/Manners:

“Those that turn (to Allah) in repentance; that serve Him, and praise Him; that wander in devotion for the Cause  of Allah; that bow down and prostrate themselves in prayer; that enjoin good and forbid evil; and observe the limits set by Allah,  (these do rejoice.  So proclaim the glad tidings to the Believers.”  (Qur’an 9:112)

Sahl bin Sa’d narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones and  what is between his two legs (i.e., his tongue and his private parts), I guarantee Paradise for him.” (i.e., Whoever protects his tongue from illegal talk e.g. to tell lies or backbiting, etc., and his private parts from illegal sexual acts   (Al-Bukhari Vol.8 Hadith 481)

Abu Hurairah reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “Charity does not in any way decrease the wealth and the servant who forgives, Allah adds to his respect; and the one who shows humility, Allah elevates him in the estimation (of the people).”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith  6264)

Muawiya bin Suwaid  narrated:  “I heard Al-Bara bin’Azib saying, ‘The Prophet ordered us to do seven things and prohibited us from doing seven other things.”  Then Al-Bara mentioned the following: 1. to pay a visit to the sick (inquiring about his health), 2. to follow funeral processions, 3. to say to a sneezer, “May Allah be merciful to you”  (if he says, “Praise be to Allah!”), 4. to return greetings, 5. to help the oppressed, 6. to accept invitations, (and) 7. to help others to fulfil their oaths.’” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  3 Hadith 625)

’Aishah (Radhiallahu anha)  narrated: “Whenever Allah’s Messenger was given a choice of one or two matters, he would choose the easier of the two, as long as it was not sinful to do so, but if it was sinful to do so, he would not approach it. Allah’s Messenger never took revenge (over anybody) for his own sake but (he did) only when Allah’s Legal Bindings were outraged in which case he would take revenge for Allah’s Sake.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  4 Hadith 760)

The Prophet says: “Allah will give shade to seven (types of persons), on the Day when there would be no shade but His.  (These types of persons are) 1. A just ruler, 2. A thought who  has  been  brought  up  in  the worship of Allah  (i.e.,  worships Allah Alone  sincerely from his childhood),  3. A person whose heart is attached to the mosque  (i.e.,  who offers the  five compulsory congregational salaat (prayers)  in the  mosques),  4. Two persons who love each other only for Allah’s sake and they meet and part for Allah’s Cause only, 5. A man who refuses  the call of a charming woman of a noble birth  for illegal sexual intercourse with her and says: ‘I am afraid of Allah.’, 6. A person who gives charitable gifts so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given (i.e., nobody knows how much he has given in charity), and 7. A person who remembers Allah n seclusion and his eyes become flooded with tears.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 629)

Abu Musareported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “The similitude of good company and that of bad company is that of the owner of musk and of the one (iron-smith) iron blowing bellows.  And the owner of musk would either offer you free of charge or you would buy it from him or you would smell its pleasant odour.  And so far as one who blows the bellows is concerned, he would either burn your clothes or you shall have to smell its repugnant smell.”  (Muslim Vol.  4 Hadith 6361)

Abu Dharrreported that Allah’s Messenger said to me: “Do not consider anything insignificant out of good things even if it is  (only) that you meet your brother with a cheerful countenance.” (Muslim Vol.  4 Hadith 6359)

Some Forbidden Conducts:

 “…For Allah loves not the arrogant, the vainglorious, (nor) those who are niggardly, enjoin niggardliness on others, hide the bounties which Allah has bestowed on them; for We have prepared, for those who resist Faith, a punishment that steeps them in contempt; nor those who spend of their substance, to be seen of men, and have no faith in Allah and the Last Day.  If any take the Satan for their intimate, what a dreadful intimate he is!”  (Qur’an 4:36-38)

“And be not like those who forgot Allah; and He made them forget themselves!  Such are the rebellious transgressors!”  (Qur’an 8:19)

“Allah… forbids  all  indecent deeds, and evil and  rebellion.    He instructs you,  that  you  may  receive

admonition.”  (Qur’an 16:90)

“…And seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief.”  (Qur’an 28:77)

“Those who slander chaste, indiscreet and believing women are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter.  For them is a grievous Chastisement.”  (Qur’an 24:23)

“And swell not your cheek (for pride) at men.  Nor walk in insolence through the earth: for Allah loves not any arrogant boaster.”  (Qur’an 31:18)

“O You who believe!  Let not some men among you laugh at others.  It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former).   Nor let some women laugh at others:   It may be that the (latter) are  better than  the (former). Nor defame not be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.  Ill-seeming is a  name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed.  And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong.” (Qur’an 49:11)

“O You who believe!  Avoid suspicion as much  (as  possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin.  And spy not one each other behind their backs.  Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?  Nay, you would abhor it… But fear Allah: for Allah s Most Returning, Most merciful.”   (Qur’an 49: 12)

“Obey not every mean swearer, a slanderer, going about with calumnies, (habitually) hindering (all) good), transgressing beyond bounds, deep in sin, violent (and cruel), with all that of a doubtful birth, because he possesses wealth and (numerous) sons.  Woe to him are rehearsed Our Signs, “Tales of the Ancients”, he cries!  Soon shall We brand (the beast) on the snout!” (Qur’an 68:10-16)

Anas bin Malik narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whenever anyone of you is in prayer, he is speaking in private to his Rabb (Sustainer) and so he should neither spit in front of him nor on his right side but to his left side under his left foot.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 305)

Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “One who takes back his gift which he has already given) is like a dog that swallows its vomit.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 762)

Al-Bara bin ‘Azib narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) forbade us (men) to use seven things.  He forbade using gold rings, silk, Istabraq (kind of silk), Dibaj (also silk), red Mayathir (luxurious cushions), Al-Qassiy (garments decorated with silk), and silver utensils…” (Al-Bukhari Vol.  7 Hadith 753)

Al-Mughira narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Allah has forbidden you to be undutiful to your mothers, to withhold (what you should give) or demand (what you do not deserve), and to bury your daughters alive.  And Allah has disliked that you talk too much about others, ask too many questions (in religion), or waste your property.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 6)

‘Aishah (Radhiallahu anha)  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The most hated person in the sight of Allah s the most quarrelsome person.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 637)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales.  Do not look for the others’ faults and do not spy, and do not be jealous of one another.  Do not desert (cut your relation with) one another.  Do not hate one another.  And O Allah’s worshippers! Be brothers (as Allah has ordered you!)” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 90 and  Muslim 4:6214-6218)

Abu Ayub Al-Ansarinarrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “It is not lawful for a man to desert his brother (Muslim) for more than three nights. (It is unlawful for them that) when they meet, one of them turns away his face from the other, and the other turns his face from the former, and the better of the two will be the one who greets the other first.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith:100)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The strong is not the one who overcomes the people by his strength,    but the strong is the one who controls himself while in anger.”    (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 135 and Muslim 4:6311-6314)

Abu Hurairah  narrated that a man said to the Prophet (ﷺ)  “Advise me!”  The Prophet said: “Do not be angry and furious.” The man asked (the same) again and again, and the Prophet (ﷺ) said in each case, “Do not be angry and furious.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 137)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “If somebody fights (or beats somebody) then he should avoid the face.”  (Al-Bukhari 3:734 and  Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6321)

Abu Mas’ud narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “One of the sayings of the early Prophets which the people have got is: ‘If you don’t feel ashamed, then do whatever you like.’” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 141)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “A believer is not stung twice (by something) of one and the same hole.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 154)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger as saying: “Do you know what is backbiting?” They (the Companions) said: “Allah and His Messenger know best.” Thereupon he r said: “Backbiting implies your talking about your brother in a manner which he does not like.”  It was said to him: “What is your opinion about this that if I actually find (that failing) in my brother which I made mention of?” He said: “If (that failing) is actually found (in him) what you assert, you in fact, backbite him, and if that is not it is a slander.”   (Muslim Vol. 4Hadith 6265)

Abu Hurairah reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “The worst amongst the people is the double-faced one; he comes to some people with one face and to others with the other face.”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith  6300, see also 6301-6302)

Ibn Umar reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “No person should ask another person to stand at his place and then he should himself sit there, but he should simply say: ‘Make room and accommodate.’” (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith5409)

Allah’s Messenger said: “It is not legal for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to mourn for more than three days for any dead person except her husband, for whom she should mourn for four months and ten days.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 370)

Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) cursed effeminate men (those men who are in the similitude (assume the manners) of women and those women who assume the manners of men) and he said: “Turn them out of your houses.”  The Prophet turned out such and such man, and Umar turned out such and such woman.   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 7 Hadith 774)

(For other relevant Ahadith, see: Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith  6351, Muslim Vol. 3,  Hadith 4813 and  Hadith 5237.)

Some Major Sins:

“The Hypocrites, men and women, are alike.  They enjoin evil, and forbid what is just, and tighten their purse’s strings.  They have forgotten Allah: so He has forgotten them.  Verily the Hypocrites are rebellious and perverse. Allah has promised the Hypocrites men and women and the rejecters of Faith, the fire of Hell.  Therein shall they dwell.  Sufficient is it for them.  For them is the curse of Allah and an enduring punishment.”  (Qur’an 9:68-69)

‘Ubada bin As-Samit narrated that Allah’s Messenger said while a group of his companions were around him, “Give me the Bai’a (pledge) for: 1. Not to join anything in worship along with Allah, 2. not to steal, 3. not to commit illegal sexual intercourse, 4. not to kill your children, 5. not to utter slander intentionally forging falsehood, 6. not to be disobedient (when ordered to do all good deeds)  (The Prophet added): “Whoever amongst you fulfils his pledge will be rewarded by Allah and whoever indulges in anyone of these (sins) gets the punishment in this world, that punishment will be an expiation for that sin.  And if one indulges in any of them, and Allah conceals (his sin), it is up to Him to forgive or punish him (in the Hereafter).”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 17)

‘Abdullah bin Amr narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whoever has (these) four qualities is a hypocrite, and whoever has any one of them has one quality of hypocrisy until he gives it up.  These are: whenever he talks, he tells a lie; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it; whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous;  and  whenever he quarrels, he  behaves  impudently  in  an  evil  insulting manner.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 639)

Anas bin Malik narrated from the Messenger about the major sins. He (the Prophet) said… Associating anyone with Allah, disobedience to parents, killing a person and false utterance. (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 159)

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The signs of a hypocrite are three: 1. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie. 2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise). 3. If  you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 32)

Wathila bin Al-Asqa narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said: “Verily, one of the worst lies is to claim falsely to be the son of someone other than one’s real father, or to claim to have had a dream one has not had, or to attribute to me what I have not said..” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 712)

Abu Bakr narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Shall I not inform you of the biggest of the great sins?  We said: “Yes, O Allah’s  Messenger.”  He said “To  join  partners  in worship with  Allah; to be undutiful to one’s parents.”  The Prophet (ﷺ)  sat up after he had been reclining and added, “And I warn you against giving forged statement and a false witness;  I warn you against giving forged statement and a false witness.”  The Prophet  kept on saying that warning till we thought that he would not stop.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 7)

Abdullah bin Mas’ud narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “He who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise. A person (amongst his hearers) said: Verily a person loves that his dress should be fine, and his shoes should be fine. He (the Prophet) remarked: Verily Allah s Graceful and He loves Grace. Pride is disdaining the truth (out of self-conceit) and contempt for the people.”  (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith  164)

Abdullah bin Umar  narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “He who took arms against us is not of us.” (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 179)

Abdullah bin Mas’ud   reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Messenger said: “He who deliberately attributes a lie to me, let him seek his abode in the Hell-fire.”    (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 30)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses and Ahadith, see: (Also 4:142, 145, 8:49, 33:48, 48:6, Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 711, Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 82, Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith189, and Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 5193.)

Good versus Evil

“Whatever good, (O man!) happens to you is from Allah.  But whatever evil happens to you is from yourself and We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a Messenger to (instruct) mankind.  And enough is Allah for a witness.” (Qur’an 4:79)

“Whoever intercedes in a good cause becomes a partner therein.  And whoever recommends and helps an evil cause, shares in its burden.  And Allah has power over all things.”  (Qur’an 4:85)

 “Say: ‘Not equal are things that are bad and things that are good, even though the abundance of the bad may dazzle you.  So fear Allah, O you that understand; so that you may prosper.’” (Qur’an 5:100)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: “The Great and the Glorious Rabb (Sustainer) said (to angels): ‘Whenever My bondsman intends to commit an evil, do not record it against him, but if he actually commits it, then write it as one evil.  And when he intends to do good but does not do it, then take it down as one act of goodness, but if he does it, then write  down ten good deeds (in his record).’” (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 233)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see:, 4:149 and 40:58.)

Virtue versus Vice

Nawwas bin Sim’an Al-Ansari reported: “I asked Allah’s Messenger about virtue and vice. Her said: ‘Virtue is a kind disposition  and  vice is what rankles  in your heart that  you  disapprove that   people should come to know of it.’”  (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith  6195)

Repentance/Asking Allah’s Forgiveness

“Allah accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon afterwards; to them will Allah turn in mercy; for Allah s full of knowledge and wisdom.  Of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil, until death faces one of them, and he says, ‘Now have I repented indeed.’  Nor of those who die rejecting Faith: for them have We prepared a chastisement most grievous.” (Qur’an 4:17-18)

“(And to preach thus), ‘Seek the forgiveness of your Rabb (Sustainer), and turn to Him in repentance; that He may grant you enjoyment, good (and true), for a term appointed, and bestow His abounding grace on all who abound in merit!  But if you turn away, then I fear for you the Chastisement of a Great Day.’”  (Qur’an 11:3)

“O you who believe! Fear, Allah, and believe in His Messenger, and  He will  bestow on you a double portion of  His Mercy:   He will  provide for you a Light by which you shall walk (straight in  your path), and  He will  forgive you  (your past); for Allah s Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an 57:28)

Ibn Abbas narrated that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, “If the son of Adam (the human being) had two valleys of money, he would wish for a third, for nothing can fill the belly of Adam’s son except dust, and Allah forgives him who repents to Him.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 444)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 3: 134-136, 9:104, 57:21and  66:8.)

Obligation to Acquire and Teach Islamic Knowledge

“. . . Read, therefore, of the Qur’an as much as may be easy (for you)… Read … and establish regular Prayer and give zakat  and loan to Allah a Beautiful Loan.  And whatever good you send forth for your souls, you shall find it in Allah’s Presence. Yeah, better and greater, in Reward . . .”    (Qur’an 73:20)

“Those to whom We have given the Book study it as it should be studied: they are the ones that believe therein: those who reject faith therein  the loss is their own.”  (Qur’an 2:121)

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘This is my Way; I do invite unto Allah with a certain knowledge.  I  and whoever follows me (must also invite others to Allah, Oneness of Allah with sure knowledge). Glory to Allah! and I am not of the polytheists.’”  (Qur’an 12: 108)

 “…Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and have been granted Knowledge.  And Allah s well-acquainted with all you do.”  (Qur’an 58:11)

“He grants wisdom to whom He pleases; and he to whom wisdom is granted receives indeed a benefit overflowing; but none will grasp the Message but  men of understanding.”  (Qur’an 2: 269)

Mu’awiya narrated in a sermon that he heard Allah’s Messenger  saying, “If Allah wants to do good to a person, He makes him comprehend the religion.  I am just a distributor, but the grant is from Allah.  (And remember that) this nation (true Muslims) will keep on following Allah’s teachings strictly and they will not be harmed by any one going on a different path till Allah’s order (Day of Judgement) is established.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 71)

‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Do not wish to be like anyone except in two cases.  (The first is) A person whom Allah has given wealth and he spends it righteously; (the second is) the one whom Allah has given wisdom (the Holy Qur’an) and he acts according to it and teaches it to others.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 73 and 255)

Uthman bin Affan reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “The most excellent amongst you is he who acquires knowledge of the Qur’an  and then passes it on (to others).”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 212)

Ali bin Abu Talib t  reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “Whoso recites the Qur’an  commits it to his memory and complies with it, Allah will enter him in the Paradise, and will grant him His intercession regarding ten members of His household, all of them deserving the Hell-Hire.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 216)

Ibn Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “One single scholar of Religion is more formidable against the Devil than one thousand devout persons.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 222)

Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Goodness is a (natural) habit while the evil is a stubbornness.  To whomsoever Allah wills to show goodness, He favours him with the understanding in the Religion.”   (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 221)

Anas bin Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “Seeking of knowledge is incumbent upon every Muslim and he who imparts knowledge to the persons who do not deserve it, is like him who puts on a necklace of pearls, jewels and gold around the necks of swine.”  (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 224)

Abdullah bin Qatada reported on his father’s authority that Allah’s Messenger said: “The best of what a man leaves behind (after his death) are three things:  A pious son who invokes blessings upon him; a sadaqa (charity), which continues (even after his death) and its rewards benefits him; and the knowledge that is acted upon after him.”    (Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 241)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verse, see: 39:18, 17:36, Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 75), Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 223 and Ibn Majah Vol. 1 Hadith 239.)

Enjoining the Right and Forbidding the Wrong

“You (the Muslims) are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.”    (Qur’an 3:110)

 “Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that  is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: they are the ones to attain felicity.”  (Qur’an 3:104)

“O my son! (said Luqman)! Establish regular prayer, enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong: and bear with patient constancy whatever betide you; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs.”  (Qur’an 31:17)

“Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity. Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear Signs; for them is a dreadful Chastisement.”  (Qur’an 3:104-105)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Whoever guides somebody to what is good will have a reward similar to the rewards of the doer of that good deed to whom he has guided to it.”  (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6470, Abu Daud and Tirmidhi)

“Be patient till you face them (i.e., the infidels) and invite them to Islam and inform them of what Allah has enjoined upon them by Allah.  By Allah!  If a single person embraces Islam at your hands (i.e., through you) that will be better for you than the red camels.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 192 and Vol. 5 Hadith 51)

Balance Between Material and Spiritual Life

“It is no crime in you if you seek of the bounty of your Rabb (Sustainer) (during pilgrimage).  Then when you pour down from (Mount) Arafat, celebrate the praises of Allah at the Sacred Monument, and celebrate His praises as He has directed you even Though, before this you went astray.”  (Qur’an 2:198)

“Our Rabb (Sustainer)! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter.  And save us from the torment of the Fire!”  (Qur’an 2:201)

“But seek with   the wealth which Allah has bestowed on you, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget your portion in this World: But do good, as Allah has been good to you, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief.”  (Qur’an 28:77)

“And when the prayer is finished, then may you disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and remember Allah frequently that you may prosper.”    (Qur’an 62:10)

‘Abdullah bin Jabir narrated that he heard Allah’s Messenger said: “There is an hour during the night in which no Muslim individual will ask Allah for good in this world and the next without His giving it to him; and that applies to every night.”  (Muslim Hadith 1654)

‘Abdullah bin As-Sa’ib narrated that he heard Allah’s Messenger said: “Between the two corners, ‘O Allah, bring  us a blessing  in this  world  and a blessing  in  the next  and  guard us from punishment of Hell.’” (Abu Dawud 1887)

Eternal Life in the Hereafter Versus the Temporary Life in this World

 “Nothing is the life of this world but play and amusement, but best is the Home in the Hereafter, for those who are righteous, will you not then understand?”  (Qur’an 6:32)

“Allah does enlarge, or grant by (strict) measure, the sustenance (which He gives) to whom so He pleases — (the worldly) rejoice in the life of this world.  But the life of this world is but little comfort compared to the Hereafter.”  (Qur’an 13:26)

Mujahid narrated that according to Abdullah bin Umar Allah’s Messenger took hold of his shoulder and said: “Be in this world as if you were stranger or a traveller.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 425)

 (For other relevant Qur’anic verses and Hadith see: Qur’an 3:14-19,  57:20 and Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 425.)

Death and the Dead

“Every soul shall have a taste of death:  and on the Day of Judgement shall you be paid your full recompense.  Only he who is saved far from the Fire and admitted to the Garden will have succeeded: for the life of this world is but goods and chattels of deception.”  (Qur’an 3:185)

“Wherever you are, death will find you out, even if you are in towers built up strong and high! …”  (Qur’an 4:78)

“O you who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take) witnesses among yourselves when making bequest,    two just men of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside if you are journeying through the earth, and the chance of death befalls you (thus)…”  (Qur’an 5:106)

’Aishah (Radhiallahu anha)  narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Don’t abuse the dead, because they have reached the result of what they forwarded.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 476)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Allah says ‘I have nothing to give but Paradise as a reward to my believer slave, who, if I cause his dear friend (or relative) to die, will be patient (and hope for Allah’s Reward).’”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 432)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “None of you should long for death, for if he is a good- doer, he may increase his good deeds, and if he is an evil-doer, he may stop the evil deeds and repent.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 341)

Day of Judgement

“We shall set up scales of justice for the day of Judgement, so that not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least.  And if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed, We shall bring it (to account).  And enough are We to take account.”  (Qur’an 21:47)

“And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne (Divine) on all sides, singing Glory and Praise to their Rabb (Sustainer).  The decision between them (at Judgement) will be in (perfect) justice, and the cry (on all sides) will be, ‘Praise be to Allah, the Rabb (Sustainer) of the Worlds!’”  (Qur’an 39:75)

“The Day wherein they will (all) come forth.  Not a single thing concerning them is hidden from Allah.  Whose will be the Dominion that Day?  That of Allah, the One, the Overpowering!  That Day will every soul be requited for what it earned; no injustice will there be that Day, for Allah s Swift in taking account.”  (Qur’an 40:16-17)

“Verily that which are promised is true; and verily Judgement and Justice will surely come to pass.”  (Qur’an 51:5-6)

‘Abdullah bin Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “When anyone of you dies, he is shown his place both in the morning and in the afternoon.  If he is one of the people of Paradise; he is shown his place in it.  And if he is from the people of the Hell-Fire; he is shown his place therein..  Then it is said to him, ‘This is your place till Allah resurrect you on the day of Resurrection.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 461)

Prophet’s Intercession on the Day of Judgement

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: ”The luckiest person who will have my intercession will be the one who said sincerely from the bottom of his heart “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.”. (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 98)

Paradise versus Hell-Fire

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The (Hell) Fire is surrounded by all kinds of desires and passions, while Paradise is surrounded by all kinds of disliked undesirable things.” (i.e., Inordinate desires and animalistic passions lead to the Fire while self-control, perseverance, chastity and all other virtues, and the obedience to Allah and His Messenger lead to Paradise.  What leads to Hell is easy to do while what leads to Paradise is difficult to do.”   (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 Hadith 494)

Hell-Fire 

“Those who reject Our Signs, We shall soon cast into the Fire; as often as their skins are roasted through. We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the Chastisement: for Allah s Exalted in Power, Wise.”   (Qur’an 4:56)

 “And you will see the Sinners that day bound together in fetters   their garments of liquid pitch, and their faces covered with Fire; that Allah may requite each soul according to its deserts.  And verily, Allah s Swift in calling to account.”    (Qur’an 14:49-51)

“. . . But those who deny (their God)    for them will be cut  out  a garment of Fire: over their heads will be poured out boiling water. With it will be scalded what is within their bodies, as well as (their) skins.  In addition there will be maces of iron (to punish) them.  Every time they wish to get away there from, from anguish, they will be forced back therein, and (it will be said), ‘Taste you the Penalty of Burning!’”   (Qur’an 22:19-22)

“As to those who are rebellious and wicked, their abode will  be  the Fire:  every time they wish  to   get  away  therefrom,   they  will   be forced  thereunto,  and it will  be said  to them: ‘Taste you the Penalty of the Fire, the which you were wont to reject as false.’”   (Qur’an 32:20)

“. . . But for the wrongdoers will be an evil place of (final) Return!  Hell! They will burn therein  an evil bed (indeed to lie on)!  Yea, such!– Then shall they taste it  a  boiling fluid, and a fluid dark, murky, intensely cold and other Penalties of a similar kind, to match them!”   (Qur’an 38:55-58)

Anuman ibn Bashir narrated that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying,  “The least punished person of the people of the (Hell) Fire on the Day of Resurrection will be a man under whose arch of the feet two smouldering embers will be placed.  Because of which his brain will boil just like Al-Mirjal (copper vessel) or a Qum-qum (narrow-necked vessel) is boiling with water.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 8,Hadith 567)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Your (ordinary) fire is one of 70 parts of the (Hell) Fire.”  Someone asked, “O Allah’s Messenger!  This (ordinary) fire would have been sufficient (to torture the non-believers).” Allah’s Messenger said: “The (Hell) Fire has 69 parts more than the ordinary (worldly) fire, each part is as hot as this (worldly) fire.”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 487 and Muslim)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 14:16-17, 36:63-64, 39:32 and 39:71-72.)

Paradise

“But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness.  We shall soon admit them to Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath, to dwell therein forever.  Allah’s promise is the truth, and whose word can be truer than Allah’s?”  (Qur’an 4:122)

“Allah has promised to Believers, men and women, Gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein and beautiful mansions in Gardens of everlasting stay but the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allah: that is the supreme triumph.” (Qur’an 9:72)

“But Allah does call to the Home of Peace: He does guide whom  He  pleases to a  Way that is straight.    To those who do right is a goodly (reward)  Yea, more (than in measure)!  No darkness nor shame shall cover their faces!  They are Companions of the Garden; they will abide therein (for aye)!”   (Qur’an 10:25-26)

“The righteous will be amid Gardens and fountains of clear-flowing water. (Their greeting will be): ‘Enter you here in Peace and Security.’  And We shall remove from their departure any lurking sense of injury: (they will be) brothers (joyfully) facing each other on raised couches.”    (Qur’an 15:45-47)

Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness:   for these will enter the Garden and will not be wronged in the least   Gardens of Eternity, those which (Allah) Most Gracious has promised  to His  servants  in the Unseen: for  His  promise must (necessarily)   come to pass.  They will not there hear any vain discourse, but only salutations of Peace: And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and evening.  Such is the Garden which We give as an inheritance to those of Our Servants who guard against evil.   (Qur’an 19:60-63)

“Verily the Companions of the Garden shall that Day have joy in all that they do.  They and their associates will be in pleasant shade, reclining on raised couches; (every) fruit will be there for them; they shall have whatever they call for; ‘Peace!’  a Word (of salutation) from a Rabb (Sustainer) Most Merciful.”   (Qur’an 36:55-58)

“As to the Righteous (they will be) in a position of Security, among Gardens and Springs; dressed in fine silk and rich brocade, they will face each other; moreover, We shall wed them to maidens with beautiful, big, and lustrous eyes.  There can they call for every kind of fruit in  peace and security; nor will they there taste Death,  except the first Death;    and He will preserve them from the Chastisement of the Blazing Fire  as a Bounty from your Rabb (Sustainer)! That will be the supreme achievement!”   (Qur’an 44:51-55)

And  the  Garden  will  be  brought  nigh to the Righteous,  no  more  a  thing  distant.     (A voice will say:) ‘This is what was promised for you for every penitent heedful one, who feared the Most Gracious unseen, and brought a heart turned in devotion (to Him): Enter you therein in Peace and Security; this is a Day of Eternal Life!’  There will be for them therein all that they wish’ and there is more with us.  (Qur’an 50:31-35)

And those foremost (in Faith) will be foremost (in the Hereafter).  These will be those nearest to Allah   in the Gardens of Bliss:  a number of people from those of old, and a few from those of later times.  (They will be) on couches encrusted   (with gold and precious stones), reclining on them facing each other.  Round about them   will   (serve) thoughts   of perpetual (freshness), with goblets, (shining) beakers, and cups (filled) out of clear-flowing fountains.  No after-ache will they receive there from, nor will they suffer intoxication: and with fruits, any that they may select; and  the flesh of fowls, any that they may desire.  And (there will be) Companions with beautiful, big, and lustrous eyes  like unto Pearls well guarded  a Reward for the Deeds of their past (Life).  No frivolity will they Hear therein, nor any mischief, only the saying ‘Peace! Peace.’   (Qur’an 56:10-26)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “The first group of people who will enter Paradise will be glittering like the full moon, and those who will follow them, will glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky.  They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions.  Their combs will be of gold, and their sweat will smell like musk.  The aloes-wood will be used in their censers…”  (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 544)

Conclusion

This compilation, although far from being complete, proves that Islam as the perfect religion for the whole mankind is indeed complete.  Allah the Almighty has chosen Islam as the only religion acceptable to Him.   Islam is the best way of life for all. It guides mankind in all aspects of life be it physical, material or economic, social, cultural, educational, political, legal, religious and spiritual, and the like. It serves as the best solution to all sorts of problems no matter how perplexing they are.   Islam is the absolute answer to those who go for a perfect religion and a complete way of life.    It guides us to a well-balanced life, one that makes us happy and contented in this world  and most especially  in the life Hereafter.   It is the right way to supreme success in the everlasting world to come.   In short, Islam as the complete way for all  is  Allah’s  mercy to the whole mankind.

Article By: By Mamarinta Omar Mababaya and Dr. Norlain Dindang

Authentic Proofs of the Excellence of Islam

islams-excellence

All followers of different religions claim that their religion is the right or true religion. However, only the Muslims have the divine proofs for such claim. Only the Muslims have the Qur’an and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad’s Tradition) to prove that Islam is the true religion from Allah, the Only True God.   Both the Qur’an and the Sunnah, the two Divinely Revealed Islamic Sources of knowledge and guidance, explicitly make clear to us the excellence of Islam.

This brief work is a compilation of some verses from the Qur’an and the authentic Ahâdîth  (Teachings of Prophet Muhammad, (ﷺ)) that show concrete proofs  to elucidate  the excellence of Islam.   We, the whole humanity, especially non-Muslims, must reflect and ponder upon the veracity of the divine proofs.  In this way, we give due importance to the True Religion and live according to its divine teachings; and thus, attain success, especially ultimate success in the eternal life Hereafter.

This compilation on the authenticity of the excellence of Islam, far from being complete, is brief, yet comprehensive enough to cover the important aspects of the true and unique Religion and Way of Life, Islam.  All the Qur’anic Ayât (Verses) and authentic Ahadîth  enumerated in this work serve as concrete proofs for the excellence of Islam.  The divine teachings are direct and simple — clearly or explicitly stated.  They do not need further explanations, non-Muslims who read them with objective minds and hearts will, by Allah’s Grace, embrace the True Religion.  Let the following  words of Allah and His Messenger (ﷺ) guide and inspire all of us to the excellence of Islam:

  1. Islâm Teaches (Tawheed) Absolute Oneness of Allâh(سبحانه و تعالى):The Unique God, Who Alone is Worthy of our True Worship:

“To Him (Allâh) is due the true prayer…for the prayer of those without Faith is nothing but vain prayer.”  (Qur’an 13:14) 

“Verily, I am Allâh: There is no god but I: So serve Me (only), and perform regular prayers for My remembrance.”   (Qur’an 20:14) 

“If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been ruin in both!   But glory to Allah, the Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) of the Throne:  (High is He) above what they attribute to Him.” (21: 22)

 “No son did Allah beget nor is there any god along with Him: (if there were many gods) behold each god would have taken away what he had created and some would have overcome others! Glory to Allah (He is free) from the (sort of) things they attribute to Him!”    (23:91)

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Truly am I a Warner: no god is there but the One Allâh Supreme and Irresistible, the Rabb (Only God and Sustainer) of the heavens and the earth and all between Exalted in Might Able to enforce His will forgiving again and again.’  Say: ‘That is a message supreme (above all) from which you do turn away!’”   (Qur’an 38:65-68)

“Say: ‘He is Allâh the One. The Eternally besought of all.  He begets not nor was He begotten and there is none comparable unto Him.’”    (Qur’an 112: 1-4)

  1. Clarifies the Purpose of Our Creation

“I have created not the jinn and men except that they should worship Me (Alone). I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allâh is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, Most Strong.”  (Qur’an 51:56-58)

“So glorify the praises of your Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him).  And worship your Rabb until there comes unto you the Hour that is certain (i.e., death).”    (Qur’an 15:98-99)

  1. Gives High Status to Human Beings as Allah’s Prime Creation and Born Sinless or Pure

“We have indeed honored the children of Adam; spread them in the land and the sea, provided them with good things; and preferred them in esteem over many things that We have created.”  (Qur’an, 17: 70)

“We have certainly created man in the best of stature.” (Qur’an, 95:4)

“Say: ‘Shall I seek for (my) Rabb (only God and Sustainer) other than Allah; when He is the Cherisher of all things (that exist)?  Every soul draws the need of its acts on none but itself: no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.  Your return in the end is toward Allah:  He will tell you the truth of the things wherein you disputed’.”   (Qur’an, 6:164)

“And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And if a heavily laden soul call (another) to (carry some of it) its load, nothing of it will be carried, even if he should be a close relative.  You can only warn those who fear their Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) unseen and have estabished prayer.  And whoever purifies himself only purifies himself (for the benefit of ) his soul.  And to Allah is the (final) destination.” (Qur’an, 35:18)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) said, “No child is born except on Al-Fitra (Islam) and then his parents make him Jewish, Christian or Magian, as an animal produces a perfect young animal: do you see any part of its body amputated?” Then he recited: ‘The religion of pure Islamic Faith (Hanifa)–(i.e. to worship none but Allah)– the pure Allah’s  Islamic nature with which He (Allah) has created mankind. Let There be no change in Allah’s  religion (i.e. to join none in Allah’s  worship). That is the straight religion; but most of men know not…’  (30:30).” (Bukhari, Vol. 6, Hadith 298; Vol. 2, Hadith 467 and Muslim)
 
4. Everlasting rewards in Islâm are based on Three Divine Conditions:

a) Belief in One God

“…But if they had joined in worship others with Allâh, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.” (Qur’an 6:88)

“And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad), as it was to those (Allâh’s Messengers) before you: “If you join others in worship with Allâh, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers.”   (Qur’an 39:65)

b) Sincerity of purpose (Ikhlas)  or doing good deeds for the pleasure of Allâh (سبحانهوتعالى)

“And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allâh, offering Him sincere devotion, being True  (in Faith); establish regular prayer;  and  to give Zakat. And that is the Religion Right and Straight.”  (Qur’an 98:5)

 “Say: ‘Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allâh, the Rabb (Only Cherisher and Sustainer) of the Worlds.’”  (Qur’an 6:162)

‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab (رضي الله عنه) said: I heard Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying, “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended….” (Bukhâri, 1/1 and Muslim3/ 4692)

c) Deeds must be in accordance with the Qur’ân andSunnah.

 “O you who believe! Obey Allâh, and obey the Messenger (Muhammad) and render not vain your deeds.” (Qur’an 47:33)

  1. Based on authentic revealed sources (Qur’ân andthe Sunnah)

“For We had certainly sent unto them a Book (the Qur’ân)  based on knowledge, which We explained in detail a guide and a Mercy to all who believe.”   (Qur’an 7:52)

Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr (رضي الله عنه) radhi Allahu anhu reported that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Knowledge consists of three things: the decisive verses (Qur’ân), authentic Ahadîth and prescriptions rightly deduced from the two. What is beside them is superfluous.” (Ibn Mâjah 1/54)

‘Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Al-As (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Knowledge has three categories; anything else is extra; a precise verse, or an established Sunnah (practice), or a firm obligatory duty.”   (Abu Dawud 2879)

Jâbir ibn ‘Abdullâh (رضي الله عنه) reported that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “The best of affairs is the Book of Allâh (the Qur’ân) and the best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad (ﷺ) (i.e., Prophet’s Sunnah).” (Muslim 1885 and Ibn Mâjah 1/45)

  1. Rational and Well Documented Based on Knowledge, Proofs, and Certainty

 “Read! In the name of your Rabb and Cherisher, Who created — created man, out of a leech-like clot: Read! And your Rabb is Most Bountiful. He Who taught (the use of) the Pen, taught man that which he knew not.”  (Qur’an 96:1-4)

 “And they say: ‘None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.’  Those are their (vain) desires.  Say: ‘Produce your proof if you are truthful.’”  (Qur’an 2:111)

“…Say: ‘Bring the Torah and recite it, if you are men of truth.  If any, after this invents a lie and attributes it to Allâh, they are indeed unjust wrong-doers.’”   (Qur’an 3:93-94)

“Or have they taken for worship (other) gods besides Him?  Say, ‘Bring your convincing proof: this is the Message of those before me.’  But most of them know not the Truth, and so turn away.” (Qur’an 21:24)

“Allâh!  There is no god but He: of a surety He will gather you together on the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt.  And whose word can be truer than Allâh’s?”  (Qur’ân, 4:87)

  1. Universal in scope (the religion for the whole mankind)

“Say: ‘I seek refuge with the Rabb and Cherisher of mankind, the King (or Ruler) of mankind, the God (or Judge) of mankind  — from the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper) (the same) who whispers into the hearts of mankind   — among Jinn and among men.’”  (Qur’an 114:1-6)

 “O mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Rabb Who created you from a single person, created of like nature his mate and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women.  Reverence Allâh through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and (reverence) the wombs (that bore you): for Allâh ever watches over you.”    (Qur’an 4:1)

 “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allâh upon you! Is there a Creator other than Allâh to give you Sustenance from heaven or earth? There is no god but He: how then are you deluded away from the Truth?”   (Qur’an 35:3)

“O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other (not that you may despise each other).  Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allâh is (he who is) the most righteous of you.  And Allâh has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).”   (Qur’an 49:39)

 “Whatever good (O man) happens to you is from Allâh; but whatever evil happens to you is from your (own) soul.  And We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a Messenger to mankind: and enough is Allâh for a witness.”  (Qur’an 4:79)

“We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but as a universal (Messenger) to the whole mankind giving them glad tidings and warning them (against sin) but most of mankind understand not.”   (Qur’an 34:28)

“O mankind!  The Messenger (Muhammad) has come to you in truth from Allâh: believe in him: it is best for you.  But if you reject faith to Allâh belong all things in the heavens and on earth: and Allâh is All Knowing, All-Wise.”  (Qur’an 4:170)

  1. Practical and easy

 “…Allâh intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties…”  (Qur’an 2:185)

“But whoever believes and works righteousness he shall have a goodly reward and easy will be his task as We order it by Our command.”  (Qur’an 18:88)

Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Make things easy for the people, and do not make it difficult for them, and make them calm (with glad tidings) and do not repulse (them).” (Bukhâri,8/146)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said, “Religion is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will not be able to continue in that way. So you should not be extremists, but try to be near to perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded; and gain strength by worshipping in the mornings and the nights.”(Bukhari 1/38)

Anas (bin Malik) (رضي الله عنه) narrated We were with ‘Umar and he said, “We have been forbidden to undertake a difficult task beyond our capability…”   (Bukhari 9/396)

Abu Musa  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that when Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) sent him and Mu’adh Bin Jabal to Yemen, he said to them, “Facilitate things for the people (treat the people in the most agreeable way), and do not make things difficult for them.   Give them glad tidings, and let them not have aversion (i.e. to make the people hate good deeds).  And you should both work in cooperation and mutual understanding and obey each other.”  (Bukhari 8/145)

  1. Avoidance of Bid’ah or Innovation in Religion

Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah  (رضي الله عنه)  narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said,  “The best speech is that embodied in the Book of Allâh, and the best guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. The most evil affairs are their innovations (in religion); and every innovation is an error.”  (Muslim1885)

Ali ibn Abu Talib (رضي الله عنه) said:  (According to Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)), “…If anyone introduces an innovation (in religion), he will be responsible for it. If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in religion), he is cursed by Allâh, by His angels, and by all the people.”    (Abu Daud, 4515)

Yahya ibn. Abu Muta (رضي الله عنه) said, “I heard Irbad bin Sariya (رضي الله عنه) as saying, “One day Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said, ‘… it is incumbent upon you to adhere strictly to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Caliphs.  Hold fast that with teeth and pursue not the affairs of innovation (in religion) for every innovation is straying from the Right Path.’”   (Ibn Majah 1/42, Abu Daud 4950, and Tirmidhi)

  1. Moderation and Consistency

Abû Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “The deeds of anyone of you will not save you (from Hell-Fire).” They said, “Even you, (will not be saved by your deeds), O Allâh’s Messenger?” He said, “No, even I, unless and until Allâh bestows His Mercy on me. Therefore, do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, and worship Allâh in the forenoon and in the afternoon and during a part of the night, and always adopt a middle, moderate, regular course whereby you will reach your Target (Paradise).” (Bukhâri 8/ 470)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Religion (Islâm) is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will not be able to continue in that way. So you should not be extremists, but try to be near to perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded; and gain strength by offering the prayers in the mornings, afternoons and during the last hours of the nights.” (Bukhâri  1/38)

  1. Complete/comprehensive

 “…He it is Who has sent unto you the Book, explained in detail. They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it has been sent down from your Rabb in truth. Never be then of those who doubt.” (Qur’an 6:114)

“For We had certainly sent unto them a Book based on knowledge, which We explained in detail  —   a guide and a mercy to all who believe.” (Qur’an 7:52)

“…(This is ) a Book with verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning)  —   further explained in detail  —   from One Who is Wise and Well-Acquainted (with all things).” (Qur’an 11:1)

  1. Well-balanced life

 “But seek the wealth which Allâh has bestowed on you, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget your portion in this World. But do good, as Allâh has been good to you, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land;  for Allâh loves not those who do mischief.”  (Qur’an 28:77)

“And when the prayer is finished, then may you disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allâh: and remember Allâh frequently that you may prosper.”   (Qur’an 62:10)

“Our Rabb! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter.  And save us from the torment of the Fire!”  (Qur’an 2:201)

  1. Enjoins Universal Brotherhood and Unity Among the Believers

“Verily, this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Rabb (the Only God, Cherisher and Sustainer): therefore serve Me (and no other).  But (later generations) cut off their affair (of unity), one from another: will they all return to Us.”   (Qur’an 21: 92-93)

“Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity.  Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty.”  (Qur’an 3:104-105)

And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allâh (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves.  And remember with gratitude Allâh’s favor on you; for you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His grace, you became brethren; and you were on the brink of the pit of fire, and He saved you from it.  Thus does Allâh make His signs clear to you: that you may be guided. (Qur’an 3:102-103)

“Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear Signs; for them is a dreadful Chastisement.”  (Qur’an 3:105)

An Numan Bin Bashir  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said,  “You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves, showing love among themselves, and being kind, resembling one body;  so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it.”    (Bukhari 8/40 and Muslim)

Abu Musa (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “A faithful believer to a faithful believer is like the bricks of a wall, enforcing each other.” While (saying that) the Prophet (ﷺ) clasped his hands, by interlacing his fingers. (Bukhari 1/468)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The believer is the believer’s mirror, and the believer is the believer’s brother who guards him against loss and protects him when he is absent.” (Abu Dawud 4900)

  1. No Racial and Gender Discrimination, Superiority is Based on Righteousness and Piety

“O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other (not that you may despise each other).  Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allâh is (he who is) the most righteous of you.  And Allâh has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).”  (Qur’an 49: 13)

“And whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer — those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged….” (Qur’an, 4:124)

“The believers, men and women, are protectors one of another.  They enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil.  They observe regular prayers practice regular charity and obey Allâh and His Messenger.  On them will Allâh pour His mercy: for Allâh is Exalted in power Wise. Allâh has promised the believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein and beautiful mansions in gardens of everlasting bliss.  But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allâh: that is the supreme success.”  (Qur’an 9:71-72)

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)  said: “The whole mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action.  Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly.  Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.  Remember, one day you will appear before Allâh and answer for your deeds.  So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.   O People no Prophet or Messenger will come after me and no new Faith will be born.  Reason well therefore, O People and understand words, which I convey to you.  I leave behind me two things, the Qur’ân and my example the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.”  (Muslim)

Abu Dharr  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said to him, “You are not better than people with red or black skins unless you excel them in piety.”   (Tirmidhi 5198 and Ahmad)

  1. Enjoins Fulfillment of One’s Accountability

“To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth.  Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it, Allah calls you to account for it.  He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases, for Allah has power over all things.”  (Qur’an, 2:285)

Abdullah ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) reported that he heard the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) saying: “Every one of you is a guardian, and responsible for what is in his custody.  The ruler is a guardian of his subjects and responsible for them; a husband is a guardian  of  his  family  and  is responsible for it;  a lady is a guardian of her husband’s house and is responsible for it, and a servant is a guardian of his master’s  property and is responsible for it.  A man is a guardian of his father’s  property and is responsible for it so all of you are guardians and  responsible   for  your  wards  and  things under your care (trust).” (Bukhari, 2/592, 3/73, 7/128 and Muslim Hadith 4496)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Malih that Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad (رضي الله عنه) visited Ma’qil ibn Yasar in his illness.  Ma’qil said to him:  I am narrating to you a Hadith which I would have never narrated to you had I not been in death -bed.  I hear Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) say:  “A ruler who has been entrusted with the affairs of the Muslims, but he makes no endeavors (for the material and moral uplift) and does not sincerely mean (their welfare) would not enter Paradise along with them.”  (Muslim, 1/ 264)

Abu Dhar (رضي الله عنه) narrated: “I said to the Prophet: Messenger of Allah, will you not appoint me to a public office?   He stroked my shoulder with his hand and said: “AbuDharr, you  are weak and authority is a trust, and on the Day of Judgment it is a cause of humiliation and repentance except for one who fulfils its obligations and (properly) discharges the duties attendant thereon.”  (Muslim, 1/ 4491)

Abu Musa (رضي الله عنه) narrated  that Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) said: “When a slave (A believer) falls ill or travels, then he will get written to his accounts (the reward) similar to that he used to get for his good deeds practiced at home when in good health.”   (Bukhari, 4/ 239)

Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Your servants are your brothers whom Allah the most High has placed under your authority. Therefore, a person who has a brother under his authority, should feed him out of that which he eats himself and should dress him with the same kind of clothes which he wears himself; he should not assign work to him which is beyond his capacity, and if you do so, then help him in his work.”   (Bukhari)

  1. Commands Law of Equality and Justice

“O you who believe! The law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman.  But if any remission by the brother of the slain;  then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude.  This is a concession and a mercy from your Rabb (only God and Sustainer).  After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.” (Qur’an, 2:178)

“In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) life to you, O you men of understanding that you may restrain yourselves.”  (Qur’an, 2:179)

“Allah does command you to render back your trusts to those to whom they are due; and when you judge between people that you judge with justice.  Verily how excellent is the teaching,  which He gives you!  For Allah is He Who hears and sees all things.”  (Qur’an, 4:58)

 “O you who believe!  Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. So follow not the lusts (of your passion), lest you swerve and if you distort (justice) or decline to do justice, then lo!  Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.”  (Qur’an, 4:135)

“O you who believe!  Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice.  Be just: that is next to piety.  And fear Allah for Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.”   (Qur’an, 5:8)

“Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and giving to kith and kin. And He forbids all indecent deed, and evil and rebellion. He instructs you that you may receive admonition.”  (Qur’an, 16:90)

“Nor take life  which Allah has made sacred  except for just cause.  And if anyone is slain wrongfully, we have given his heir authority (to demand Qisas or to forgive): but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped by the (Law).”   (Qur’an, 17:33)

Anas ibn Malik (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet(ﷺ) said, “The prescribed Law of Allah is the equality in punishment (i.e., Qisas) (in cases of murders, etc.).”  (Bukhari, Vol. 6, Hadith 26; Vol. 9, Hadith 20)

‘Abdullah ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) said: Behold!  The Dispensers of Justice will be seated on the pulpits of light beside God, on the right side of the Merciful, Exalted and Glorious. Either side of the Being is the right side both being equally meritorious. (The Dispensers of Justice are) those who do justice in their rules, in matters relating to their families and in all that they undertake to do.”  (Muslim, 4493)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s   Messenger (ﷺ) said, “There is a Sadaqa to be given for every joint of the human body; and for every day on which the sun rises there is a reward of a Sadaqa (i.e. charitable gift) for the one who establishes justice among people.”   (Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith 870)

`Amir ibn Al-`As (رضي الله عنه) narrated Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: “When a judge gives a decision, and he tries his best to decide correctly and is right (in his decision), there are two rewards for him.  And if he gave judgment and did his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.”  (Ibn Maja, Vol. 3, Hadith 2314; Muslim, Vol. 3, Hadith 4261)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet  (ﷺ) said: “If anyone seeks the office of judge among Muslims till he gets it and his justice prevails over his tyranny, he will go toParadise; but the man whose tyranny prevails over his justice will go to Hell.”  (Abu Dawud, 3568)

  1. Prohibits Suicide

“O you who believe!  Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but  let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah has been to you Most Merciful.” (Qur’an, 4:29)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell-fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-fire (forever).”  (Bukhari, Vol. 2, Hadith 446)

Jundab  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “A man was inflicted with wounds and he committed suicide, and so Allah said:  `My slave has caused death on himself hurriedly, so I forbid Paradise for him.’”   (Bukhari, Vol. 4, Hadith 445)

  1. Prohibits Fighting/Murder and Other Crimes

Never should a Believer kill a Believer; except by mistake, and whoever kills a Believer by mistake it is ordained that he should free a believing slave.  And pay blood-money to the deceased’s  family, unless they remit it freely.  If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a Believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is enough).  If he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, blood-money should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed.  For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah: for Allah has all knowledge and all wisdom.   (Qur’an, 4:92)

“If a man kills a Believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever): and the wrath and curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful chastisement is prepared for him.”  (Qur’an, 4:193)

Abu Bakrah (رضي الله عنه) narrated “I heard Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) saying, “When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered  will go to Hell-fire.”  I said, “O Allah’s  Messenger!. It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?  Allah’s  Messenger replied, “He surely had the intention to kill his companion.”  (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Hadith 30)

Ibn Umar  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) said, “A faithful believer remains at liberty regarding his religion, unless he kills somebody unlawfully.”  (Bukhari, Vol.9, Hadith 2)

Abdullah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,  “Whoever carries arms against us, is not from us.”  (Bukhari, Vol. 9, Hadith 13)

Ibn Abbas  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The most hated persons with Allah are three: 1) a person who deviates from the right conduct (i.e., an evil-doer), in the Haram (sanctuaries of Makkah and Madinah); 2. a person who seeks that the traditions of the period of ignorance should remain in Islam; 3. and a person who seeks to shed somebody’s  blood without any right.”  (Bukhari, Vol. 9, Hadith21)

  1. Prohibits Oppression, Tyranny, Transgression and Persecution

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors. And slay them wherever you catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out; for persecution is worse than slaughter.  But fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them.  Such is the punishment of those who reject faith.  But if they cease, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more persecution and the religion becomes Allah’s.  But if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression.   (Qur’an, 2:192-193)

“The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a Chastisement grievous.”  (Qur’an, 42:42)

Anas ibn Malik  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is an oppressed one. People asked, “O Allah’s  Messenger! It is all right to help him if he is oppressed, but how should we help him if he is an oppressor? The Prophet said, “By preventing him from oppressing others.” (Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith 624); (see also Muslim Vol. 4, Hadith 6254)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever has oppressed another person concerning his reputation or anything else, he should beg him to forgive him before the Day of Resurrection when there will be no money (to compensate for wrong deeds).  But if he has good deeds, those good deeds will be taken from him according to his oppression which he has done, and if he has no good deeds, the sins of the oppressed person will be loaded on him.” (Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith 629)

Abbas  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) sent Muadh to Yemen and said: “Beware, from the curse of the oppressed as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah.”  (Meaning, Allah will respond to his invocation and punish the oppressor sooner or later. (Qastalani, V.4, p.258)    (Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith 628)

Ibn Umar  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said: “Oppression will be a darkness on the Day of Resurrection.”  (Bukhari, 3:627; Muslim, Vol.4, Hadith 6249)

Abu Dharr  (رضي الله عنه) reported Allah’s  Messenger (ﷺ) as saying that Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said:  “My servants, I have made oppression unlawful for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another…”  (Muslim, Vol. 4, Hadith 6246)

Abu Hurairah  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s  Messenger  (ﷺ) said, “He who has been ruler over ten people will be brought shackled on the Day of Resurrection till justice loosens his chains or tyranny brings him to destruction.”  (Tirmidhi, Hadith 3697 and Darimi)

A’idh ibn Amr (رضي الله عنه), who was one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), called on Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad  (رضي الله عنه) and said (to him): O my son, I have heard the Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)  say: “The worst of guardians is the cruel ruler. Beware of being one of them…” (Muslim, Hadith 4504)

  1. Regulates Conditions forJihad(Fighting in the Cause of Allah)

“Fight  in the Cause of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.”  (2:190)

“To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily Allah is Most Powerful for their aid.  (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they say, “Our Rabb (only God and Sustainer) is Allah”… they are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give zakat, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.”   (Qur’an, 22:39-41)

“And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill treated (and oppressed); men, women and children, whose cry is:  “Our Rabb (only God and Sustainer)! Rescue us from this town; whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect; and raise for us from You one who will help!”  (Qur’an, 4:75)

“Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who reject Faith fight in the cause of Evil; so fight against the friends of Satan.  Feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.”  (Qur’an, 4:76)

  1. Enjoins Peace and Reconciliation

Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with departure restraining them from fighting you or fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.  Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead send you (guarantees of) peace, then Allah has opened no way for you (to war against them).  (Qur’an, 4:90)

“We  ordained therein for them a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and a ( similar) retribution for wounds.  But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself.  And if any fail to judge by what Allah has revealed, they are wrongdoers.” (Qur’an, 5:45)

“Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; and turn away from the ignorant.”   (Qur’an, 7:199)

“But if the enemy incline toward peace, do (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is the One that hears and knows (all things).”  (Qur’an, 8:61)

“. . . Let them forgive and overlook.  Do you not wish that Allah should forgive you?  For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an, 24: 22)

 “The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for Allah loves not those who do wrong.”  (Qur’an, 42:40)

“Tell  those who believe, to forgive those who do not hope for the Days of Allah; it is for Him to  recompense  (for good or ill)  each  people according to what they have earned.” (Qur’an, 45:14)

If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make you peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the command of Allah; but if it complies, then make peace between them with justice, and be fair:  for Allah loves those who are fair (and just). The believers are but a single Brotherhood: so make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers: And fear Allah, that you may receive Mercy.  (Qur’an, 49:9-10)

  1. Eternal Effects and Supreme Success

“Nothing is the life of this world but play and amusement. But far better is the Home in the Hereafter for those who are pious. Will you not then understand?” (Qur’an 6:32)

 “Allâh does enlarge, or grant by (strict) measure, the Sustenance (which He gives) to whom so He pleases. They rejoice in the life of this world: but the life of this world is nothing but little comfort compared to the Hereafter.” (Qur’an 13:26)

“The believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers practice regular charity and obey Allâh and His Messenger.  On them will Allâh pour His mercy: for Allâh is Exalted in power Wise. Allâh has promised the believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein and beautiful mansions in gardens of everlasting bliss.  But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allâh: that is the supreme success.” (Qur’an 9:71-72)

Verily, the Righteous (they will be) in a position of Security, among Gardens and Springs; dressed in fine silk and in rich brocade they will face each other; and We shall join them to Companions with beautiful big and lustrous eyes. There can they call for every kind of fruit in peace and security; nor will they there taste death except the first death.  And He will save them from the Torment of the Blazing Fire as a bounty from your Rabb (Only Cherisher and Sustainer)!  That will be the supreme success!”  (Qur’an 44: 51- 57)

  1. The Right and True Religion

“Verily, this is My Way leading straight: follow it, and follow not (other) paths.  They will separate you (away) from His Path.  This He has ordained for you that you may become righteous (pious).” (Qur’an 6:153)

“Truly the Religion before Allâh is Islâm (submission to His Will).  Those who were given the Scripture (the Jews and the Christians) did not differ except out of mutual jealousy, after knowledge had come to them.  But if any denies the Signs of Allâh, Allâh is swift in calling to account.”   (Qur’an 3:19)

“Whatever you worship apart from Him is nothing but name which you have named  —   you and your fathers, for which Allâh has sent down no authority.  The command is for none but Allâh.  He has commanded that you worship none but Him.  That is the Right Religion, but most of mankind do not know.”  (Qur’an 12:40)

 “So set your face steadily and truly to the Faith: (Establish) Allâh’s handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allâh. That is the True Religion: but most among mankind understand not.”  (Qur’an 30:30)

  1. No Compulsion in Religion

“Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error…”  (Qur’an 2:256)

 “…And say to the People of the Book and to those who are unlearned: ‘Do you (also) submit yourselves?’  If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, your duty is to convey the Message; and in Allâh’s Sight are (all) His servants.”   (Qur’an 3:20)

“If it had been Your Rabb’s Will, they would all have believed,  —   all who are on earth!  Will you then compel mankind, against their will, to believe?” (10:99)

“Say: ‘O you that reject Faith!  I worship not that which you worship, nor will you worship that which I worship.  And I will not worship that which you are worshipping nor will you worship that which I worship. To you be your religion and to me my religion.”  (Qur’an  109:1-6)

  1. Divine Guidance

“This is the Guidance of Allâh.   He gives that guidance to whom He wills, of His servants if they were to join other gods with Him, all that they did would be vain for them.”  (Qur’an 6:88)

 “Whom Allâh does guide, he is on the Right Path.  Whom He rejects from His Guidance, such are the persons who lose.”  (Qur’an 7:178)

  1. Teaches Righteousness and Forbids Evil Deeds

“The Believers, men and women, are protectors, one to another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil….”  (Qur’an 9:71)

“Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good (i.e., Islâm), enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: they are the ones to attain felicity.” (Qur’an 3:104)

Abû Sa ‘id Al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه) narrated that he heard Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying, “He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has no strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue.  And if he has no strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart and that is the least of faith.”   (Muslim79)

‘Abdullâh ibn Mas‘ud (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “…By no means, I swear by Allâh, you must enjoin what is good and prohibit what is evil, prevent the wrong-doer, bend him into conformity with what is right, and restrict him to what is right.”  (Abû Dâwûd  4322)

  1. Adheres to Truth and Forbids Falsehood

“O you who believe! Fear Allâh and be with those who are truthful.” (Qur’an 9:119)

 “That Allâh may reward the people of Truth for their Truth, and punish the Hypocrites if He wills, or turn to them in Mercy; for Allâh is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Qur’an 33:24)

“Who does more wrong than those who invent a lie against Allâh? They will be turned back to the Presence of their Rabb and the witnesses will say, ‘These are the ones who lied against their Rabb!’ Behold! The curse of Allâh is on those who do wrong!”   (Qur’an 11:18)

 “Shall I inform you (o people) on whom it is that the evil ones descend? They descend on every lying wicked person (into whose ears) they pour hearsay vanities and most of them are liars.”  (Qur’an 26:221-223)

‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “If you have four characteristics, whatever worldly advantage passes you by does not matter to you: keeping a trust, speaking the truth, a good character, and abstemiousness in food.”  (Tirmidhî  5222, Ahmad and Bayhaqi)

Abû Umamah Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqâs (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “A believer is stamped with all the characteristics except treachery and falsehood.”  (Tirmidhî, 4860 and Ahmad)

  1. Fights or Shows Enmity to Satan

“O mankind!  Eat of what is on earth, lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of Satan for he is to you an avowed enemy.  For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that you should say of Allâh that of which you have no knowledge.”  (Qur’an 2:168-169)

 “O you children of Adam! Let not Satan seduce you, in the same manner as he got your parents out of the Garden, stripping them of their raiment, to expose their shame: for he and his tribe see you from a position where you cannot see them. We made Satan’s friends (only) for those without Faith.”  (Qur’an 7:27)

 “Verily, Satan is an enemy to you: so treat him as an enemy.  He only invites his adherents, that they may become companions of the Blazing Fire.”   (Qur’an 35: 6)

  1. Enjoins good character and moral development by making the Prophet (ﷺ) as the best model for mankind

“Indeed in Allah’s Messenger (Muhammad) you have an excellent example to follow for him who hopes in (meeting with) Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.”  (Qur’an 33:21)

“And indeed you (Muhammad) are of great moral character.”   (Qur’an 68:4)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said,  “I have been sent (as a Messenger) in the best of all generations of Adam’s offspring since the Creation.”  (Bukhari 4/757)

Abdullâh  Ibn Amr (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said  “…The best amongst you are those who have the best manners and character.”  (Bukhâri 4/759)

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said, “Among the Muslims the most perfect, as regards his faith, is the one whose character is excellent, and the best among you are those who treat their wives well.” (Tirmidhi  628)

Abu Darda (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)   said, “There is nothing heavier than good character put in the scale of a believer on the Day of Resurrection.”  (Abu Dawud  4781)

Abu Darda (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Nothing is weightier in the scales of a believer on the Day of Judgment than his good behavior.  Allâh treats with displeasure a person who is given to loose and vulgar talk.”   (Tirmidhi  626)

Abu Umamah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said  “I guarantee a house in the surroundings of Paradise for a man who avoids quarrelling even if he were in the right, a house in the middle of Paradise for a man who avoids lying even if he were joking, and a house in the upper part of Paradise for a man who made his character good..”   (Abu Dawud  4782)

Abdur Rahman Ibn Ghanam (رضي الله عنه) and Asma bint Yazid narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ)  said, “The best servants of Allâh are those who, when they are seen, cause Allâh to be remembered. The worst servants of Allâh are those who go about slandering, who separate friends, and seek to distress the upright.”    (Tirmidhi  4871 and Ahmad)

  1. Enjoins us to practice the good teachings we teach to others

“Do you enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget (to practice it) yourselves, and yet you study the scripture? Will you not understand?”  (Qur’an 2: 44)

“O you who believe! Why say you that which you do not? Grievously hateful is it in the sight of Allâh that you say that which you do not.”   (Qur’an 61: 2-3)

Ziyad ibn Labid  (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allâh’s Messenger (ﷺ) spoke of something and said. “It will happen when knowledge will be no more. I said, “Allâh’s Messenger, how will knowledge vanish despite the fact that we will be reciting the Qur’ân and teaching its recitation to our children and our children will teach its recitation to their children up to the Day of Resurrection?” Thereupon he said, “Ziyad, may your mother weep over you. I was of the opinion that you were one of those who have greatest understanding of religion in Medina. Do these Jews and Christians not recite the Torah and the Bible but not act according to what is contained in them?”  (Tirmidhi  277,  Ahmad and  Ibn Majah)

  1. Promises everlasting rewards in the Hereafter to those who believe and do deeds of righteousness

“But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness  —  We shall soon admit them to Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath  —  to dwell therein forever. Allâh’s promise is the truth, and whose word can be truer than Allâh’s?” (Qur’an 4:122)

 “This is the Way of your Rabb, leading straight. We have detailed the Signs for those who receive admonition. For them, will be a Home of Peace in the presence of their Rabb. He will be their Friend, because they practiced (righteousness).”  (Qur’an 6:126-127)

But Allâh does call to the Home of Peace. He does guide whom He pleases to a Way that is straight. To those who do right is a goodly (reward)  — Yea, more (than in measure). No darkness or shame shall cover their faces. They are Companions of the Garden; they will abide therein (for aye).” (Qur’an 10:25-26) 

“Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness, for these will enter the Garden and will not be wronged in the least  —  Gardens of Eternity, those which (Allâh) Most Gracious has promised to His servants in the Unseen, for His promise must (necessarily) come to pass. They will not there hear any vain discourse, but only salutations of Peace. And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and evening. Such is the Garden which We give as an inheritance to those of Our Servants who guard against evil.” (Qur’an19:60-63)

 “Verily, the Companions of the Garden shall that Day have joy in all that they do; they and their associates will be in pleasant shade, reclining on raised couches; (every) fruit will be there for them. They shall have whatever they call for; Peace!  — a Word (of salutation) from a Rabb Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 36:55-58)

  1. Warns the unbelievers of the Hell-Fire as their final and eternal abode for denying the Truth and rejecting Islam:

“But whosoever turns away from My Message, verily for him is a life narrowed down, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Judgment.” (Qur’an 20:124)

“…But those who deny (Allah)  —  for them will be cut out a garment of Fire. Over their heads will be poured out boiling water. With it will be scalded what is within their bodies, as well as (their) skins. In addition, there will be maces of iron (to punish) them. Every time they wish to get away there from, from anguish, they will be forced back therein, and (it will be said), ‘Taste you the Penalty of Burning!’” (Qur’an 22:19-22)

“This is the Hell of which you were promised! Embrace the (Fire) this Day, for that you (persistently) rejected (the Truth).” (Qur’an 36:63-64)

 “Who, then, does more wrong than one who utters a lie concerning Allâh and rejects the Truth when it comes to him? Is there not in Hell an abode for the Unbelievers?” (Qur’an39:32)

“The Unbelievers will be led to Hell in-groups: until, when they arrive there, its gates will be opened. And its Keepers will say, ‘Did not Messengers come to you from among yourselves, rehearsing to you the Verses of your Rabb, and warning you of Meeting of this Day of yours?’ The answer will be: ‘Yes, but the Decree of Chastisement has been proved true against the Unbelievers!’ (To them) will be said: ‘Enter you the gates of Hell, to dwell therein; and evil is (this) abode of the arrogant.’” (Qur’an 39:71-72) 

  1. Perfect

“…This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islâm as your religion.”   (Qur’an 5:3) 

  1. The Only Religion Acceptable to Allâh (سبحانهو تعالى)

“If anyone desires a religion other than Islâm (submission to Allâh), never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).”  (Qur’an 3:85) 

  1. Enjoins the believers to believe in the whole of the Qur’an  and enter into Islâm wholeheartedly

“…Then is it only a part of the Book that you believe in. And do you reject the rest? But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this but disgrace in this life? And on the Day of Judgment they shall be consigned to the most grievous chastisement for Allâh is not unmindful of what you do. These are the people who buy the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. Their chastisement shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.” (Qur’an 2:85-86)

“O you who believe! Enter into Islâm wholeheartedly; and follow not the footsteps of the Evil One, for he is to you an avowed enemy.”  (Qur’an 2:208)

“O you who believe! Fear Allâh as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islâm that you may be guided.”  (Qur’an 3:102-103)

Conclusions and Recommendations

All the above concrete proofs from the two Revealed Sources of knowledge and guidance (i.e., the Qur’an and the Sunnah) show that indeed, Islam is the True Religion from Allah. We Muslims must be thankful to Allah the Almighty for guiding us to the Right Path.  Islam is His Grace to whom He pleases.  Being Muslims, being guided to the Perfect Religion and Way of Life,  is really the greatest blessing from our Creator.  It is something that makes us outstanding over other peoples of other religions.

For our success, we need to strive hard to know the following four important lessons: 1) to acquire authentic  knowledge of  Islam according to the Qur’an and the Sunnah; 2)  practice  it correctly and live according to its Teachings;  3) join together to share our knowledge of Islam with others in order to call or invite them to Islam; and 4) be patient as Muslims.  We  Muslims need to know more about Islam in order to worship our Creator the way He likes us to worship Him and perform other forms of worship — all for His Pleasure.  We need to know how to live and practice the Islamic way of life according to the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).  Likewise, we need to know how to share authentic knowledge of Islam to others according to the Qur’an and the Sunnah.  Last but not the least, we need to know how to be patient in the acquisition of Islamic knowledge, in the application of Islam to our daily lives, and in conveying the Message of Islam to others. Let us strive hard to know more about Islam according to the Qur’an and authentic Sunnah.  Let us adhere to its teachings. Let us help one another, join together to invite non-Muslims to the Right Way to Success.  Let us be patient in all our ways hoping for Allah’s Supreme Rewards, which He promises to those who believe and do righteous deeds in Islam.  Let us remember that, indeed, Islam as the True Religion from Allah has all the concrete proofs of EXCELLENCE!

(Article by: Dr. Norlain bint Muhammad Dindang and Dr. M. Omar Mababaya) 

Important Lessons for the Muslim Ummah

lessons-for-ummah

All Praise is due to Allâh, we praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allâh, the Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whomsoever has been guided by Allâh, none can misguide him, and whomsoever has been misguided by Allâh, none can guide him. I bear witness that there is no true god worthy of being worshipped except Allâh, alone, without partner or associate. I further bear witness that Muhammad is His true slave and Messenger. May Allâh, the Exalted, bestow His peace and blessings on the final Prophet Muhammad, upon his good and pure family, and upon all of his noble companions.

“O ye who believe! Fear Allâh (by doing all that He ordered and abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared, and die not except in the state of Islâm(as Muslims with complete submission to Allâh)” (the Holy Qur’ân 3:102)

“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from him He created his wife, and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allâh through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and (do no cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allâh is ever an All Watcher over you” ( Qur’ân 4:1).

“O ye who believe ! Keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth, He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allâh and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great success” (Qur’ân 33:70-71).

Know that the most truthful speech is that of Allâh’s Book (the Qur’ân), and that the best of guidance is that of Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The worst of evils are innovations (foreign to the true teachings of Islâm), and every innovated matter (in religion) is a Bid’ah, and every Bid’ah is a misguidance, and every mean of misguidance is in the Fire of Hell.

CONTENTS

The First Lesson – Memorise the Small Chapters of the Qur’ân

The Second Lesson – The Conditions of the Shahadaa

The Third Lesson – The Six Fundamentals of Faith

The Fourth Lesson – What is Tawheed and Shirk?

The Fifth Lesson – The Five Pillars of Islâm

The Sixth Lesson – The Nine Conditions of Prayer

The Seventh Lesson – The Basic Elements of Prayer

The Eighth Lesson – The Obligatory Acts of Prayer

The Ninth Lesson – The Contents of at-Tashahud

The Tenth Lesson – The Sunan Acts of Prayer

The Eleventh Lesson – Invalidation of the Prayer

The Twelfth Lesson – The Conditions for Ablution

The Thirteenth Lesson – The Obligatory Elements of Ablution

The Fourteenth Lesson – The Six Nullifying Acts of Ablution

The Fifteenth Lesson – Recommend Morals

The Sixteenth Lesson – Islâmic Decencies

The Seventeenth Lesson – Warning Others

The Eighteenth Lesson – The Funeral Prayer

The First Lesson:

Memorizing the opening Surah (Chapter) of the Qur’ân: Al-Fatiha (the Opening) and some short passages and Surahs from No. 99 (Az-Zalzalah) to 114 (An-Naas) Every Muslim must make an effort to memorize, recite and understand passages and/or Surahs from the Noble Qur’ân.

The Second Lesson:

Knowing the meaning and the conditions of the declaration of Ash-Shahadataan that: “there is no true God except Allâh, and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is the Messenger of Allâh”. The phrase that “there is no true God” negates anything or anyone that is being worshipped other than Allâh, and the phrase: “except Allâh” confirms that all forms of worship, submission and adoration must be for Allâh alone, without setting up rivals with Him. The conditions needed to fulfill the meaning of Ash-Shahadataan are:

Knowledge about what it means.

Certainty about its meaning which dispels doubts and suspicions.

Sincerity that purifies its declarer from any form of shirk (association).

Honesty which negates hypocrisy.

Love and attachment to the declaration of Ash-Shahadataan, which leads to the dispel of uneasiness, dislike, or hate to what it implies.

Adherance: conducting what Allâh has decreed regarding His worship.

Accepting to obey Allâh by this declaration.

Dissociating from anything or anyone being worshipped other than Allâh.

The Third Lesson:

The six fundamental articles of faith are:

Believing in Allâh (His Oneness), His Angels, all of His Messengers, all of His Scriptures (in their original and unaltered forms), in the Last Day (of Judgment), and Fate and Divine Decree (whether good or bad), which Allâh Has measured and ordained according to His previous Knowledge and as deemed suitable by His Wisdom.

The Fourth Lesson:

Tawheed (Faith in the Unity of Allâh) is divided into three articles:

First, believing in the Oneness of Allâh in the sense of His being the only Creator, Preserver, Nourisher,…etc. This belief is called Tawheed Ar-Ruboobeeyah.

Second, acknowledging that Allâh alone is the One and Only true God who deserves to be worshipped and thus abstaining from worshipping any other being or thing. This belief is called Tawheed Al-Ulooheeyah.

Third, having faith and belief in the Oneness of Allâh’s Names and Attributes. This belief is called Tawheed Al-Asmaa was-Sifat.

As for Shirk (associating anything or anyone in worship with Allâh), it is divided into three types:

First: Major Shirk (Ash Shirk Al Akbar) which Allâh does not forgive. Allâh says regarding Shirk:

“But if they had joined in worship others with Allâh, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them” (Qur’ân 6: 88).

“It is not for the Mushrikeen (polytheists) to maintain the Mosques of Allâh (i.e. to pray and worship Allâh therein, to looking after their cleanness and their building,…etc.), while they witness against their own-selves of disbelief. The works of such bear no fruit, and in fire shall they dwell.”(Qur’ân 9:17).

The one who associate others with Allâh and dies on this shirk will not be forgiven and Jannah (Paradise) is forbidden to him, as Allâh, Most Mighty and Honored says:

“Verily, Allâh forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives anything else, to whom He pleases; and whoever sets up partners with Allâh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.” (Qur’ân 4:48).

“Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allâh, then Allâh has forbidden the Jannah for him.” (Qur’ân 5:72).

Asking the dead or idols for help, slaughtering for them and making vows for them are examples of this Shirk.

Second: Minor Shirk (Ash-Shirk Al-Asgar) which is stated in the Qur’ân or in the Prophet’s tradition but is not the same as Major Shirk.

Riya (showing off) and swearing by other than Allâh are examples of this kind of Shirk. Prophet Muhammad, salla Allâh u alihi wa sallam, said:

“Of which I fear for you the most is Minor Shirk “.When he was asked what was it, he said,“Riya”.

He, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, also said: “He who swears by anything other than Allâh commits Minor shirk “.

The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, also warned:

“Do not say: ‘had Allâh and such and such (person) willed’, but say: ‘had Allâh then such and such (person) willed’ “. This kind of Shirk does not necessarily lead to disbelief from Islâm or an eternal stay in Hell. It negates, however, the completeness of faith.

The Third kind of shirk is the hidden Shirk.

Prophet Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, explained:

“Shall I not tell you of which I fear for you more than I fear of the Anti-Christ?” They said: “Yes, O Messenger of Allâh”, and he said, “The hidden Shirk, where one beautifies his way of praying only because another one is looking at him”.

Alternatively, Shirk could be divided into two kinds:

Major and Minor. In this case, the Hidden Shirk encompasses both the Major and Minor kinds depending upon the act committed. It is Major if it is the same as the Shirk of the hypocrites who hide their false beliefs while showing off Islâm out of fear. It is Minor if it is the same as Riya.

The Fifth Lesson :

The five pillars of Islâm are:

Ash-Shahadataan: bearing witness that there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allâh and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger; establishing prayers; paying the alms (Zakaah); fasting the month of Ramadhan; and performing pilgrimage (Hajj) if one can afford it.

The Sixth Lesson:

The nine conditions of prayers are as follows:

Islâm, sanity, maturity, performing the ablution (wudu), cleanliness from impurities (on the body, clothes, and place of prayer) dressing properly, having the intention of prayers, facing the right direction of Qibla (direction of Ka’aba at Makkah), and the praying at the proper time.

The Seventh Lesson:

The fourteen Basic Elements (Arkan) of prayers:

Standing (if one is able); saying “Allâh u Akbar”, which means: “Allâh is the Greatest”; reading the opening Surah of the Qur’ân (Al-Fatihah); lowering the head and back down at the right angle (Ruku); resuming the initial standing position; prostrating with the toes of both feet, both knees, both hands and the forehead touching the ground (Sujud); rising in a sitting position; a short rest in a sitting posture between the two prostrations; tranquility in all actions; performing the Basic Elements of prayer in order, the last Tashahud (the second part); sitting for the last Tashahud; exalting the Prophet Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; and turning the face to the right side and to the left one saying “Assalamu Alaykum wa Rahmatu Allâh” (“Peace and Mercy of Allâh be upon you”) one time on each side.

(Note: Salaah is invalid if any of the above is missing.)

The Eighth Lesson:

The eight obligatory acts of the prayer are:

All the occasions of saying “Allâh u Akbar” other than Takbeerat Al-Ihram (which is basic); saying “Sami Allâh u liman hamidah” (“Allâh accepts any who are thankful to Him”) by the Imâm as well as the one who is praying alone, and saying “Rabbana wa laka Alhamd” (“Our Lord, praise be to You”) for both the Imâm and the individual; saying “Subhana Rabbi Al-Atheem” (“Glory to my Lord, the Most Great” ) in Ruku; saying “Subhana Rabbi Ala’la” (“Glory to my Lord, the Most High”) in Sujud; saying “Rab Ighfir li” (“Oh my Lord, grant forgiveness to me”) between the two prostrations; the first part (At-Tashahud Al-Awwal); and sitting for it.

(Note: if any of the above is missing, the Muslim need to make sujud al sahw).

The Ninth Lesson:

Knowing the contents of At-Tashahud:

First Part: “Attahiyyato li Allâh i wassalawatu wattayyibat. Assalamu alayka ayyuha annabi wa rahmat u Allâh i wa barakatuh, Assalamu alayna wa ala ibadi i Allâh i assalihin, Ashadu an la ilaha illa Allâh, wa ashadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa Rasuluh.”

“Greetings, prayers ant the good things of life belong to Allâh . Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the Mercy of Allâh and His blessings. Peace be upon us all and on the righteous servants of Allâh. I bear witness that there is no true God worthy of worship but Allâh alone, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His true slave and Messenger.”

Second Part: “Allâhumma Sallee ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad kama Sallaita ala Ibrahima wa ala aali Ibrahim. Wa barik ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad, kama barakta ala Ibrahima wa ala aali Ibrahim, Innaka Hamidon Majid.”

“Oh Allâh! Exalt Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you did exalt Ibrahim (Abraham ) and the family of Abraham. And bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you did bless Abraham and the people of Abraham, verily You are the Most Praised, The Most Glorious.”

Following the reciting of the Tashahud, the slave asks Allâh’s protection from the torment of Hell, the torment of the grave, the trials in life-time and after death, and from the impostor Anti-Christ. After that he may supplicate and ask Allâh whatever he wishes, especially the type of invocation said by the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, :

“O Allâh help me to perform remembrance of You and to give all due thanks to You and allow me to worship you in the good way (i.e. as ordained by Allâh and His Messenger). O Allâh I have inflicted a great deal of wrong upon myself and there is none other than You who can offer forgiveness. Grant me forgiveness from You and grant me your Mercy. You are the All-Merciful, The Oft Forgiving. “

The Tenth Lesson:

The Sunnan (supererogatory) acts of the prayer:

The opening call of the prayer.

Placing the right hand over the left one with both over the chest while in the standing position.

Raising the hands up to the level of the shoulders or near the ears with the fingers being close together (not separated) when saying “Allâh u Akbar” at the beginning of the prayer, when performing the Ruku, when resuming the standing position after Ruku, and when standing to begin the third unit of the prayer.

Saying “Subhana Rabbi Al-Adheem” and “Subllana Rabbi Al- A’la” more than once in Ruku and Sujud, respectively.

Saying “Rab Ighfer li warhamni wahdini warzuqni wa’afni, wajburni” (“Allâh, my Lord, grant me forgiveness, have mercy on me, guide me, provide me with your blessings and console me”) more than once between the two prostrations.

Bowing down, making the head and back on one level. This is the position of Ruku.

While prostrating, the arms should not be brought close to the sides nor the abdomen to the thighs or the thighs to the legs.

Raising the arms in Sujud.

Praying for the Prophet and the family of Muhammad, Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim (as in Tashahud).

Performing the early morning prayer and the first two units of the sunset and the evening prayer with an audible voice.

Sitting between prostrations on the outer side of the left foot (i.e. laying it flat) keeping the right foot erected with the internal parts of the toes touching the ground. The same position is to be taken while sitting in the first part of Tashahud.

Taking the position of Tawartruk during the recitation of the full Tashahud: The person sits on his left foot laid down with his right foot erected.

Making Du’a (to invoke Allâh) following the recitation of the last Tashahud.

Whispering the recitation in the Dhuhr (noon), Asr (late afternoon), the third raka’ of Maghrib (sunset) prayer, and the last two raka’at of the Isha’ (evening) prayer.

Reciting another passage from the Holy Qur’ân after the opening Surah of Al-Fatiha.

The Eleventh Lesson:

Invalidation of the prayers:

Any prayer is invalid and nullified if any of the following acts are committed:

Intentional talking. Laughing. Eating. Drinking. Uncovering the parts of the body of which are not allowed to be uncovered during prayer. Excessive alteration in the direction towards the Qibla. Excessive moving outside the regular acts and movements of prayer, without a proper reason. Nullifying the ablution.

The Twelfth Lesson:

The ten conditions for performing ablution are:

Islâm.

Sanity.

Maturity.

Intention and …

… its continuity (i.e. the person should not intend to discontinue his ablution before its completion).

If one performs Istinja’ (cleaning the areas of natural discharges with water) or with stones, tissues, leaves etc. (Istijmar) before ablution.

Water must be pure and Mubah (i.e. it is not stolen or taken by force).

The removal of all things that prevent water from reaching the parts of ablution such as mud.

Those who continually lose their ablution (for example due to release of gas, urine, or any reason that nullifies ablution), must make prior to prayers.

Causes that requires ablution (e.g. urine, eating camel meat, sleep, etc.)

The Thirteenth Lesson:

The obligatory elements of ablution are:

Washing the face, including rinsing out the mouth with water and cleansing the nostrils of the nose.

Washing the two hands up to and including the elbows.

Wiping the whole head including the two ears.

Washing the two feet including the heels.

Doing the ablution in the prescribed sequence, without delays.

The Fourteenth Lesson:

The six nullifying acts of the ablution are:

Natural excretion, such as urine, feces, gas,…etc.

Any unclean substance excessively discharged from the body.

Losing one’s reason due to sleep, loss of consciousness or otherwise.

Eating camel meat (because the Prophet, salla Allâh u alihi wa sallam, ordered so).

Rejection of Islâm.

Touching the sexual organs with hand (without any barrier: clothes and so on).

Notice: Washing the dead does not nullify the ablution except for that the washer’s hand touches (without any barrier) the sexual organs. Kissing women with or without desire does not nullify ablution because the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, once kissed one of his wives and prayed without performing ablution. This holds as long as there is no associated sexual excretions (e.g. semen). As for the saying of Allâh, Most Glorified:

” … or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations) … “(Qur’ân 4: 43)

The contact with women is the involvement in a full sexual relation as related by Ibn Abbass (companion) and others, and it is the correct opinion.

The Fifteenth Lesson:

The recommended morals for every Muslim are:

Truthfulness, honesty, abstinence, modesty, courage, generosity, loyalty, refraining from everything that Allâh had made unlawful, being a good neighbor, helping the needy, and other morals stated either in the Holy Qur’ân or in the Prophet’s, salla Allâh u alihi wa sallam, tradition.

The Sixteenth Lesson:

Islâmic decencies:

Greeting, cheerfulness, eating and drinking with the right hand, adhering to the Islâmic conduct in entering and leaving homes and mosques and while traveling, dealing kindly with parents, relatives, neighbors, the old man and the young; congratulating, lamenting, and other Islâmic ethics.

The Seventeenth Lesson:

Warning against Shirk (association) and against other wrongdoing such as witchcraft, murdering, taking the money of the orphan, dealing with interest (riba), escaping on the day of Jihad (war), speaking evil of faithful women, disobeying parents, breaking up with one’s relatives, false witnessing, harming neighbors, committing outrage upon others, and other warnings as declared by Allâh and His messenger, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

The Eighteenth Lesson:

Washing the dead body and performing the funeral prayer:

  1. a) Washing the dead:

When a Muslim is confirmed dead his eyes must be closed and his jaws brought together.

When washing the dead body, the whole body beginning with the exposed parts of ablution must be washed. The abdomen is gently squeezed and followed by washing of the anus and the sexual organs using a wet piece of cloth. Normal ablution will then be performed. The body is washed starting with the head and beard using water mixed with the leaves of Sidr (lote tree, if available). The right side must be washed before the left side and the body must be washed three times. Each time the abdomen is squeezed as above. The mustache and the nails are clipped, and when the body is clean, it is wrapped in three white cotton sheets covering all parts of the body and perfumed with incense. If the body is still unclean, ablution must be extended to 5-7 times after which the body is dried with a clean cloth. Men’s hair should not be combed while that of a woman is to be braided into three chains and left hanging down behind her (as done to the Prophet’s daughter).

It is preferred to shroud men with three white sheets without a gown or Amamah (head cover); children in one up to three sheets and women in five sheets, these sheets are:

Dir’: a loose outer garment with sleeves slit in front.

Khimar: covering head and face.

Izzar: a sheet wrapped around the waist, and

Two overall wrapping sheets.

Young girls can be wrapped with a gown and two sheets.

Dir’: a loose outer garment with sleeves slit in front.

Khimar: covering head and face.

Izzar: a sheet wrapped around the waist, and

Two overall wrapping sheets.

Young girls can be wrapped with a gown and two sheets.

The one who has the most right to wash the dead body of a man is his chosen guardian (if any) then his father, his grandfather, then the closest of his relatives. The woman is best washed by her chosen female then the mother, the grandmother, then the closest one of her female relatives. The husband can wash the body of his wife and vice versa because Abu Bakr, may Allâh be pleased with him, was washed by his wife; and Ali bin Abi Taleb, may Allâh be pleased with him, washed his wife, Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet, may Allâh be pleased with her.

  1. b) The funeral prayer (Salaah-Aljanaza):

Saying Takbeer: “Allâh u Akbar” four times. Reciting Al-Fatiha after the first Takbeer. Following the second Takbeer, one prays for the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as he does in Tashahud. Then after saying “Allâh u Akbar” for the third time, one recites what is usually said in other prayers like asking Allâh to forgive all Muslims or any supplications he knows, preferably this:

“Allâhumma Ighfir li hayyina wa mayyitina, wa shahidina wa ghaibina wa sagheerina wa kabeerina wa thakarina wa unthana. Allâhumma man ahyaytahu minna fa ahyihi ala al Islâm, wa man tawaffaytah u minna fa tawaffahu ala al eeman. Allâhmma la tahrimna ajrah, wa la taftinna baadah”.

“O Allâh, grant forgiveness to our living and to our dead, and to those who are present and to those who are absent, and to our young and our old folk, and to our males and our females. O Allâh, whomsoever you grant to live, from among us, help him to live in Islâm and whomsoever of us you cause to die, help him to die in faith. O Allâh, do not deprive us of the reward for patience on his (her, their) loss and do not make us subject to trial after him….”

Or one could say:

“Allâhumma Ighfir lah u warhamhu wa’afihi wa’fu anhu, wa’akrim nuzulahu wa wassi’ madkhalahu, wa’ghsilhu bi l mae wathalgi walbarad, wanaqihi mina al-thunoubi walkhataya kama unaqa athawbo alabiado mina addanas, wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi, wa ahlan khairan miin ahlihi, wa adkhilhu al Jannah, wa aidhu min adhabi al qabr, wa adhabi an Narr; wafsah lahu fee qabrihi, wanawir lahu fehi. Allâhumma la tahrimna ajrahu, wa la tudhlilna ba’dahu.”

“O Allâh forgive him (her, them) and have your Mercy upon him; protect him and pardon him, receive him with honor and make his grave spacious; wash him with water, snow and hail, and clean him from sins and wrong-doings as is cleaned a white garment from impurity; requite him with an abode more excellent than his, and with a mate better than his mate. Admit him to the Garden, and protect him from the torment of the grave and the torment of the Fire; widen his space in his grave and bring him light therein. O Allâh don’t deprive us from his reward and don’t let us go astray after him.”

Then after saying “Allâh u Akbar” for the fourth time one turns his head to the right (making tasleem) and thus ending the funeral prayer.

It is best to raise one’s hand while saying “Allâh u Akbar”

In the case when the dead is a child or an infant, the following Du’a is made:

“Allâhumma ejalhu dhiktan liwalidayehi, washafeean mujaban. Allâhuma thaqil bihi mawazeenahuma wa a’dhun bihi ujorahuma wa alhiqhu bi salih el Mumineen, waj’alhu fee kafalati Ibrahim aleihi As-Salam, waqihi bi rahmatika adhaba al Jaheem.”

“O Allâh make him a preceding reward and a reserve treasure (on the Day of Judgment) for his parents; a one whose intercession would be granted. O Allâh make of him an excess in the measures and in the rewards (granted by Allâh) to his parents. Let him join the company of the righteous believers and make him under the care of Abraham (may the peace of Allâh be upon him), and protect him, by Your Mercy, from the torment of the blazing Fire “.

The Position of the Imâm in the Funeral Prayer:

The tradition is for the Imâm to stand right next to the head of the body if it is a man, and to the middle of the body if it is a woman. If the dead were many, men, women, male and female children in one funeral, the following positions are to be taken:

The men right in front of the Imâm. The women further towards the Qibla. The male children are between the men and women and more towards the men while the female children follow women further down in the direction of Qibla (all of the dead bodies are to be laid parallel to those praying). The bodies are to be arranged such that the head of the male child lies next to that of a man while the middle of a woman lies next to the head of a man. The head of the female child lies next to the head of a woman.

The followers of Imâm are to stand behind him just as in other prayers. It is acceptable for one to stand to the right of the Imâm if he finds no place behind him.

All praise is due to Allâh and His blessings and peace be upon His Prophet, his family and his companions

(A lesson given by Shaykh Abdul ‘Azeez bin ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz

Original translation by Khalid A. Al-Awadh)

The True Meaning of Taqwa

taqwa“O you who believe! fear Allah as He should be feared and die not except in a state of Islam.” [TMQ 3:102]

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) in the Quran emphasises the concept of Taqwa to us many times in the Quran.

Taqwa is one of the most profound concepts in Islam. Taqwa is an avenue by which Muslims relate to one another in society and a means to channel their actions. Because of the great importance of taqwa, it has been referred to numerous times in the Qur’an and Sunnah in order to emphasise its relevance and significance to the Muslims.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) strongly emphasises the rewards of people with taqwa in this life and the Hereafter. It is these muttaqeen that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) grants assistance, victory and provides for. Thus, understanding the concept of taqwa is vital and mandatory for every Muslim.

Unfortunately, this is the very concept which some of us have left behind, as a result of intellectual decline. The disbelievers in the distant past, as well as in present times, have understood the importance of taqwa and the Islamic creed, and how it could jeopardise their interests. They realised how taqwa and the Islamic creed (‘aqeedah) were the roots of power to the Muslims. Today we see a campaign to destroy the concept of Taqwa by making us divide the Deen from the Dunya, to secularise our understanding of Islam such that we limit it to personal Ibadat and akhlaq (morals) and detach from any other aspect of life such as economics, politics or social affairs. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) warned us in the Quran about their continuous attempts to extinguish his light i.e. Islam, He (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

“They wish to extinguish Allah’s Light with their mouths, but Allah will not allow but that His Light is perfected even though the kuffar may detest it.” [TMQ 9:32]

Unfortunately due to the influence of the idea of separating the Deen and Dunya, we can see many misunderstandings amongst us as to who is defined as the Mutaqqi. A picture of a person who over emphasises prayer, fasting, and things such as donating to the masjid, while living a secluded and isolated life would be the one with taqwa, even though the same person would deal with usury, lie and do nothing towards reviving the Ummah.

Due to this idea, people look to Islam as a religion like the other religions who are not complete Deen’s that have come with solutions to every aspect of life. So if I were to ask anyone from amongst the general population of Muslims, ‘what are the rules of Salah?’ I am sure most people would be able to answer this question. But if I was to ask ‘what is the ruling or economic system of Islam?’, ‘what are the Shariah rules relating to contracts and company structures’ or ‘what is our shar’iah responsibility towards the Muslims around the world who are being attacked such as in Iraq and Palestine?’ then I think many people would not know the answers to these questions, we must ask why? Didn’t Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) reveal to us a complete Deen covering all aspects of life? Didn’t Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) say in the Quran:

“And We have sent down to you the Book as an explanation of everything, a guidance, a mercy and glad-tidings for those who submitted themselves to Islam.” [TMQ 16:89]

So let us understand the true meaning of Taqwa. In contrast to the distorted picture that people have today, the Qur’an and Sunnah defines the idea of taqwa as protecting oneself from the Hellfire by following the orders of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) by doing what He has commanded and avoiding what He has forbidden. Many ayat in the Qur’an point to this:

“And unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. And, verily, We have recommended to the people of the Scripture before you, and to you (O Muslims) that you (all) fear Allah, and keep your duty to Him, But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and Allah is Ever Rich, Worthy of all praise.” [TMQ An-Nisa’ 4: 131]

Taqwa comes from the word ‘waqiya‘, which means to protect. It is protection from the Anger of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His punishment. This is why Taqwa is used to describe the performing of actions, which pleases Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and abstaining from all actions that displeases Him.

Taqwa in essence means god consciousness, being conscious of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) in all our actions and affairs.

Also, in the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) last khutbah he said, “I ask you to fear Him (سبحانه و تعالى), listen to Him, and obey.” Both the ayah, as well as the hadith, are commanding Muslims to have taqwa. A person should have taqwa as a barrier between himself and the Anger and Displeasure of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Through taqwa, the Muslim strives to obey Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and abstains from His prohibitions.

The son of ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه), Al-Hasan (رضي الله عنه) once said, “The people who have taqwa (al-muttaqoon) are the people who avoided whatever Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has prohibited and have done whatever Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has ordained.”

‘Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (رضي الله عنه) once said, “Taqwa is not by fasting the day and not by praying the night. And its not by mixing between the two of them. But taqwa is leaving what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has made Haram and by doing what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has made Fard. After one has done this, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will provide good things for that person.”

Ibn Juzayy said in his dictionary of terms from the introduction to his tafsir: “Taqwa’s meaning is fear, clinging to obedience to Allah and abandoning disobedience to Him. It is the sum of all good.”

A true muttaqoon is a person who strives to possess a solid understanding and knowledge of the rulings of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) through the Qur’an and Sunnah. Without proper knowledge of the Islamic rulings, a person would not know what is asked of him/her. Therefore, it is a must to understand Islam properly as well as to have the proper intention of pleasing Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) in carrying out these actions.

Imam Ahmad mentions a hadith, narrated by a Sahabi, whereby a person once asked, “Oh Messenger of Allah, give me some advice.” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) responded, “I advise you to fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) because it is the head of everything.” In another occasion the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) replied, “Fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) because it is the collection of all goodness.” Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) also promises to be with those who have taqwa. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says,

“Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him, keep their duty unto Him, and those who are muhsinun (doers of good for Allah’s sake only).” [TMQ An-Nahl 16:128]

Also taqwa constitutes a reason, that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has provided, in order to help one who is experiencing hardship and distress. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) promises,

“Whoever fears Allah, Allah will grant him a way out of hardship.” [TMQ At-Talaq 65:2]

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) had also promised forgiveness of sins to those people who are muttaqoon.

“And whoever fears Allah, and keeps his duty to Him, He will forgive his sins from him and will enlarge his reward.” [TMQ At-Talaq 65:5]

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has given the glad tidings for those who have taqwa. The news of paradise is assured to such people, giving hints at the vast rewards to those who take Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) as their Lord in their actions.

“Verily those who are fearful of Allah (have taqwa ) are the people who, when an evil thought comes to them from Shaitan, they remember Allah and indeed they then see aright.” [TMQ Al-A‘raf 7:201]

“And he (Muhammad) who has brought the truth and those who believe therein, those are al-muttaqoon (the pious and the righteous).” [TMQ Az-Zumar 39:33]

Hence, from what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has outlined through the wahi, we can see that a person who possesses taqwa is not one who lives an isolated life, only praying, fasting and maintaining good character alone. Instead, the muttaqoon are those who fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and look to what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has ordained in carrying out his actions to avoid His (سبحانه و تعالى) displeasure and anger. These people are involved with the Ummah, active in his/her life, concerned with the affairs of the Muslims, while at the same time praying, fasting, spending in Allah’s cause, having good morals and are forgiving. All these descriptions can be attributed to a person who has taqwa.

The Deen has come to regulate the Dunya, not be separated from it. There is no concept of monasticism in Islam i.e. being like a monk. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “There is no monasticism in Islam.”

Umar ibn al Khattab once looked at those praying and said, “The great number of times any of you raises and lowers his head does not deceive me. The [real] deen is being cautious and meticulous in the deen of Allah, and refraining from what Allah has forbidden, and acting according to what Allah permits and forbids.”

Narrated Abu Huraira, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “The dunya is a prison for the believer and Paradise for the kafir (disbeliever),” [Sahih Muslim, vol.4, #7058]

This means that we live within the prison of the Shariah, that every single action we undertake is based upon the revelation of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). This means we must accept Islam completely and all of its rules including the rules relating to society, economics and Khilafah. This does not mean that we deny the world and that seeking material development and advancement according to the rules of Shariah is wrong.

In fact once when Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani, a famous scholar in the past who died in 852 AH, who wrote the commentary of Sahih al Bukhar entitled ‘Fath al Bari’, was walking with his grand entourage through the town, they came upon a miserable, poor and dejected Jew. When the Jew recognized Ibn Hajar, he called out to him, “O scholar of Islam! Is it not true that your Prophet has said that this life is a prison for the believer and Paradise for the kafir? How is it that you are living in lavish wealth being a so-called believer, and yet I live this meagre and miserable existence?” Ibn Hajar responded, “What you say of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) of what he has said is true. You should know that this opulence you see me living in, is a prison compared to what awaits for me in the Hereafter. And, you should know that what you are living is Paradise compared to what Allah has prepared for you in the akhira.”

We must realise that that every Muslim is obliged to believe in the Islamic Shari’ah as a whole otherwise we would be Kafir. Therefore the concept of secularism i.e. to separate the Deen from the Dunya is a Kufr concept. It is Kufr to deny the Ahkam Shari’ah as a whole, or any definite (qat’ai) detailed hukm of them. This is the case whether these ahkam (rules) are connected with worships (ibadaat), transactions (mu’amalaat), punishments (uqoobaat), foodstuffs, etc. So the rejection of the verse:

“So establish regular prayer”[Al-Baraqah:43]

Is the same as rejecting the verses:

“But Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury,”[Al-Baraqah:275]

“As to the thief, male or female, cut of f his or her hands,”[Al-Ma’idah:38]

And is the same as rejecting the following verse calling the believers brothers regardless of their colour, language or ethnic origin – thus prohibiting nationalism i.e. to believe that we are better than others based upon our ethnic origin. So the Muslims in Iraq, Palestine and Iraq are our brothers just as the Muslims in Delhi, Bangkok or Jakarta:

“The believers are nothing else but brothers” [TMQ Al-Hujurat: 10]

Or the verses to do with ruling by what Allah has revealed, which we see the rulers in the Muslim world today ignoring, such as:

“And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the Zaalimun (unjust, oppressors).” [TMQ 5:45]

“And rule between them by that which Allah revealed to you, and do not follow their vain desires away from the truth which came to you.” [TMQ 5:48]

In fact Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has explicitly told us in the Quran that we are not believers unless we accept all of the rules of Islam. He (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

“But no, I swear by your lord (Allah), they will have no Iman, until they make you, (o Prophet) rule between them in whatever they dispute amongst themselves, and then they find no resistance in their souls from what you have decided, instead they submit with absolute submission”. [TMQ An Nisa: 65]

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) warned us of only taking Islam partially, He (سبحانه و تعالى) has condemned us if we think that politics is not part of Islam or that economics is not part of Islam, or that Islam has nothing to say about the current world situation. We must accept Islam as an Aqeeda and a system. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

“So do you believe in some part of the Book and disbelieve in some. The penalty awaiting those who do this is nothing but humiliation in this life and the severest of punishment on the day of Judgement.” [2:85]

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has revealed to us the best system to regulate the affairs of the Dunya so why are many of us even unaware of it?

Let us look at some examples of Taqwa from the Sahaba:

Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Ibn Abi Awfa (رضي الله عنهم) who said:

“We were struck by extreme hunger on the nights of Khaybar. On the day of Khaybar we found some domestic Asses so we slaughtered them. When the pots began to boil the caller of the Messenger of Allah called out to us and said: overturn your pots and do not eat anything of the meat of donkeys. ‘Abd Allah said: we said that the Prophet forbade them because the Khumus (i.e. a fifth of the spoils) had not been taken out of it. He said others said that he has prohibited them completely. I asked Sa’eed b. Jubayr who said, he has prohibited them completely.”

On authority of Anas b. Malik: “I was serving drinks to Abu Talha al-Ansari, ‘Ubaidah b. al-Jarrrah and Ubayy b. Ka’b prepared from unripe dates and fresh dates when a visitor came and he said: Verily liquor has been prohibited. Thereupon, Abu Talha said: O Anas! Stand up and break this pitcher. I stood up and (took hold) of a pointed stone and struck the pitcher with its lower part until it broke into pieces.”

Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of ‘Ayisha (رضي الله عنها) who said: “We have been told also that when Allah revealed the order that the Muslims should return to the pagans what they had spent on their wives who emigrated (after embracing Islam) and that the Muslims should not keep unbelieving women as their wives, ‘Umar divorced two of his wives.”

Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of ‘Ayisha (رضي الله عنها) who said:

“May Allah have mercy on the Muhajir women. When Allah revealed the verse:

“And let them draw their headscarfs all over necks and bosoms” [TMQ An-Nur:31]

they tore their wrappers and concealed themselves with them.”

Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Safiyyah bint Shaybah who reported on the authority of ‘Ayisha (may Allah be pleased her) that:

She (‘Ayisha) mentioned the women of Ansar, praised them and said good words about them. She then said: “When Surat an-Nur came down, they took the curtains, tore them and made head covers of them.”

Ibn Ishaq said: “…Al-Ash’ath b. Qays came to the Messenger of Allah as part of the Kindah delegation. Az-Zuhri informed to me that he came with eighty riders from Kindah. They entered the mosque of the Messenger of . They had long hair and put kohl (in their eyes). They wore Jubbahs with silk hems. When they entered the presence of Allah’s Messenger he said to them: did not you embrace Islam ? They said: Yes. He asked: ‘then what is this silk put around your necks? So they tore the silk and threw it away.”

Hanzalah b. Abi ‘Aamir (رضي الله عنه) who was bathed by the angels heard the call to the battle of Uhud. He hurriedly responded to the call. He was martyred on the day of Uhud. Ibn Ishaq said: The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said:

“Your companion is being bathed by the angels, ask his family what happened to him?” His wife was asked. She had been a bride on that night. She said he went out in a state of impurity when he heard the call. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “That is why the angels have bathed him”.

So let us be the ones who have Taqwa in its true meaning. Let us take Islam completely. Let us take heed from the words of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and may He (سبحانه و تعالى)
strengthen us so that we can follow what He has said.

“O you who Believe! Enter into the Fold of Islam completely. And follow not the footsteps of Satan, for he is to you a clear enemy” [TMQ 2: 208]

Today, as followers of those great Imams, we should respect their understandings, because they are qualified scalars. Also we should not use our affiliation to any of them as a reason to divide ourselves. We have a right to follow what we believe is correct, in the same time we should not prevent other Muslims from following what they believe is right.

I pray to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to join our hearts and unite our community and Muslim ummah on the right path. Ameen

 

The Muslim Woman: Her Status in the Ummah

muslim-islamic-womanThe status of the Muslim woman in Islaam is a very noble and lofty one, and her effect is very great in the life of every Muslim. Indeed, the Muslim woman is the initial teacher in the building of a righteous society, providing she follows the guidance from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Since adherence to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah distances every Muslim male or female from being misguided in any matter. The misguidance that the various nations suffer from, the path of Allaah the Most Perfect, the Most High, and from what His Prophets and Messengers, may Allaah’s peace and prayers be upon them all, came with. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I am leaving behind two matters, you will not go astray as long as you cling to them both, the Book of Allaah and my Sunnah [1].

The great importance of the Muslim woman’s role – whether as wife, sister or daughter, and the rights that are due to her and the obligations due from her have been explained in the noble Qur’aan, and further details of this have been explained in the purified Sunnah.

The secret of her importance lies in the tremendous burden and responsibility that is placed upon her, and the difficulties that she has to shoulder. In terms of responsibilities, some of which not even a man can bear. This is why from the most important obligations upon a person is to show gratitude to the mother, and kindness and good companionship with her. And in this matter, she is to be given precedence over and above the father. Allaah the Most High, says:

“And We have enjoined upon man to be dutiful and good to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness upon weakness and hardship upon hardship, and his weaning is in two years. Show gratitude and thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.” [Al-Qur’aan 31:14]

Allah the Most High, said:

 “And We have enjoined upon man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship, and she brings him forth with hardship. And the bearing and the weaning of him is thirty months.” [Al-Qur’aan 41:15].

A man came to Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: O Messenger of Allaah! Who from amongst mankind warrants the best companionship from me? He replied: “Your mother.” The man asked: Then who? So he replied: “Your mother.” The man asked: Then who? So the Prophet replied again: “Your mother.” The man then asked: Then who? So he replied: “Then your father.” So this necessitates that the mother is given three times the likes of kindness and good treatment than the father [2].

As regards the wife, then her effect in making the soul tranquil and serene, has been clearly shown in the noble aayah (verse), in His – the Most High’s – saying:

“And from amongst His Signs is this: That He created for you wives from amongst yourselves, so that you may find serenity and tranquility in them, And He has put between you love and compassion. Indeed, in this are signs for those who reflect.” [Al-Qur’aan 30:21]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer (d.774H) – rahimahullaah – said, whilst explaining the terms mawaddah and rahmah which occur in the above verse. “Al-mawaddah means love and affection, and ar-rahmah means compassion and pity, since a man takes the hand of a woman either due to his love for her, or because of compassion and pity for her; by giving to her a child from himself… [3].”

And the unique stance that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s wife Khadeejah – radiallaahu ‘anhaa – took, had a huge effect in calming and reassuring Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, when the angel Jibreel – ‘alayhis-salaam – first came to him in the cave of Hiraa. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayi wa sallamreturned to Khadeejah with the first Revelation and with his heart trembling and beating severely, saying to her,“Cover me! Cover me!” So she covered him until his fear was over, after which he told Khadeejah – radiallaahu ‘anhaa – everything that had happened, and said: “I fear that something may happen to me.” She said to him: “Never! By Allaah! Allaah will never  disgrace you. You keep good ties with relations, you help the poor and  the destitute, you serve your guests generouly and assist those who have been affected with calamities.

And do not forget about ‘Aaishah – radiallaahu ‘anhaa – and her immense contribution. Even the eminent Sahaabah (Companions) used to take knowledge of Hadeeth from her, and many of the Sahaabiyaat (female Companions) learnt the various rulings pertaining to women’s issues from her [4].

And I have no doubt that my mother (may Allaah shower His mercy upon her) had a tremendous effect upon me, and has a great excellence over me, in encouraging me to study, and she assisted me in it. May Allaah greatly increase her reward and reward her with the best of rewards for what she did for me. And there is no doubt also, that the house in which there is kindness, gentleness, love and care, with the correct Islaamic tarbiyah (education and cultivation) will greatly affect the man. So he will become, if Allaah wills, successful in his affairs and in any matter whether it be seeking knowledge, trading, earning a living, etc. So it is Allaah alone that I ask to grant us all success and to guide us all to that which He loves and is pleased with. And may the prayers and peace of Allaah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon his Family, his Companions and his followers.

(Article By Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azeez Ibn Baaz رحمه الله)

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1. Hasan: Related by Maalik in al-Muwatta (2/899) and al-Haakim (1/93), from Ibn ‘Abbaas radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah(no.1871).
2. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 5971) and Muslim (7/2), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu.
3. Tafseer Qur’aanul-‘Adheem (3/439) of Ibn Katheer.
4. Related by al-Bukhaaree (1/22) and Muslim (1/139), from the lengthy narration of ‘Aa’eshah radiallaahu ‘anhaa.