The Meaning of Nafs


“As for whoever exceeded the limits and preferred the life of this world, surely his abode will be the Fire; and as for whoever feared to stand before his Lord and restrained the desires of his self, surely his abode will be the Garden.”(79:39-40)

Ibn Kathîr says:

“The Mu’minîn are a people who have been prevented through the Qur’ân from indulging in the pleasures of this world; it comes between them and what might destroy them. The Mu’min is like a prisoner in this world, who tries to free himself from its shackles and chains, placing his trust in nothing in it, until the day he meets his Creator. He knows full well that he is accountable for everything that he hears, sees and says, and for everything that he does with his body.” (Al-Bidâyah wa al-Nihâyah, vol. 9 pg. 276, Cairo 1352)

There are 2 kinds of people, one are those whose Nafs have overcome them and led them to ruin because they yielded to them and obeyed their impulses. The other kinds are those who have overcome their Nafs and made them obey their commands.

Nafs (pl. Anfus or Nufûs) lexically means soul, the psyche, the ego, self, life, person, heart or mind. (Mu’jam, Kassis)

Although some scholars have classified the Nafs up to 7 stages, there is agreement among ‘Ulamâ’ that in the Qur’ân, Allâh (s.w.t.) has described at least 3 main types of the Nafs. And these are in rank from the worse to better: Nafs al-Ammârah Bissu’ (theNafs that urges evil), Nafs al-Lawwâmah (the Nafs that Blames) and Nafs al-Mutma’innah (the Nafs at Peace).

(Chapter 12 v. 53 in the Tafsîr of al-Tabari: Jami‘ al-Bayân fî Tafsîr al-Qur’ân, 30 vols., Bulaq 1323 & also in Imâm Baghawi’s TafsîrLubab al-Tâ’wil fî Ma‘âlam at-Tanzîl, 8 vols. Cairo, 1308)

A summary of these states of the Nafs are given by Imam Tabarî in his Tafsîr of Sûrah Yûsuf verse 53:

  1. Nafs al-Ammâra Bissû’ (The Soul which Commands Evil):

This is the Nafs that brings punishment itself. By its very nature it directs its owner towards every wrong action. No one can get rid of its evil without the help from Allâh. As Allâh refers to this Nafs in the story of the wife of al-Azîz (Zulaikhah) and Prophet Yûsuf (as):

“The (human) soul is certainly prone to evil” (12:53).

Allâh also says:

“And had it not been for the grace of Allâh and His Mercy on you, not one of you would ever have been pure; but Allâh purifies whomever He wishes, and Allâh is Hearing, Knowing.” (24:21)

This Nafs resides in the world of the senses and is dominated by earthly desires (Shahawât) and passions….

Evil lies hidden in the Nafs and it is this that leads it on to do wrong. If Allâh were to leave the servant alone with his self, the servant would be destroyed between its evil and the evil that it craves; but if Allâh grants him success and help, then he will survive. We seek refuge in Allâh the Almighty, both from the evil in ourselves and from the evil of our actions.

  1. Nafs al-Lawwâma (the Soul that Blames):

Allâh refers to this Nafs,

“And I do call to witness the Nafs that blames” (75:2).

This Nafs is conscious of its own imperfections.

Hasan al-Basrî said, “You always see the believer blaming himself and saying things like ‘Did I want this? Why did I do that? Was this better than that?’ ”….

  1. Nafs al-Mutma’inna (the Soul at Peace):

Allâh refers to this Nafs,

“O Self, in complete rest and satisfaction!” (89:27).

This Nafs is tranquil as it rests on the certitude of Allah.

Ibn Abbas (r) said, “It is the tranquil and believing soul”.

Al-Qatâdah (r) said, “It is the soul of the believer, made calm by what Allâh has promised. Its owner is at rest and content with his knowledge of Allâh’s Names and Attributes, and with what He has said about Himself and His Messenger ﷺ, and with what He has said about what awaits the soul after death: about the departure of the soul, the life in the Barzakh, and the events of the Day of Qiyâmah which will follow. So much so that a believer such as this can almost see them with his own eyes. So he submits to the will of Allah and surrenders to Him contentedly, never dissatisfied or complaining, and with his faith never wavering. He does not rejoice at his gains, nor do his afflictions make him despair – for he knows that they were decreed long before they happened to him, even before he was created….”…. (Al-Tabarî: Jami‘ al-Bayân fî Tafsîr al-Qur’ân, vol. 13, Bulaq 1323)

Imâm Baghawi says,

“The Nafs al-Mutma’innah has an angel to help it, who assists and guides it. The angel casts good into the Nafs so that it desires what is good and is aware of the excellence of good actions. The angel also keeps the self away from wrong action and shows it the ugliness of bad deeds. All in all, whatever is for Allah and by him, always comes from the Soul which is at Peace.

The Nafs al-Ammarah Bissu’ has Shaytân as its ally. He promises it great rewards and gains, but casts falsehood into it. He invites it and entices the soul to do evil. He leads it on with hope after hope and presents falsehood to the soul in a form that it will accept and admire.”

Ibn al-Qayyim also mentioned the states of Nafs:

“The Nafs is a single entity, although its state may change: from the Nafs al-Ammârah, to the Nafs al-Lawwâmah, to the Nafs al-Mutma’innah, which is the final aim of perfection….

It has been said that the Nafs al-Lawwâmah is the one, which cannot rest in any one state. It often changes, remembers and forgets, submits and evades, loves and hates, rejoices and become sad, accepts and rejects, obeys and rebels.

Nafs al-Lawwâmah is also the Nafs of the believer….It has also been mentioned that the Nafs blames itself on the Day of Qiyâmah – for every one blames himself for his actions, either his bad deeds, if he was one who had many wrong actions, or for his shortcomings, if he was one who did good deeds. All of this is accurate. (Madârij as-Sâlikîn fî Manâzili Iyyâka Na‘budu wa Iyyâka Nasta‘în, vol. 1 pg. 308)

Sa‘îd Hawwa says regarding these Nafs:

“Depending upon its condition, the Nafs exist in multidimensional. When the Nafs is tranquil because of obeying Allâh, and the soul opposes its desires, this soul is known as Nafs al-Mutma’innah. Regarding this, Allâh has spoken about it in the Qur’ân (89:27-28). But if the soul does not attain peace with itself, rather being exposed to desires, then such soul is known as the Nafs al-Lawwâmah because this soul reproaches its owner due to the owner’s carelessness in fulfilling out Allah’s wishes – Qur’ân (75:2). More so, if the soul submits to lusts and allows itself to be seduced by Shaytân, such a soul is known as Nafs al-Mutma’innah. Allâh tells the story about the wife of al-Azîz (Zulaikha) in Qur’ân (12:53). (Tarbiyatun nar Rûhîyah, pg. 32, Cairo: Dar al- Salam, 1408)

There is a famous Arabic saying:

“O soul. Watch out! Help me with your striving,
in the darkness of the nights;
so that on the Day of Qiyâmah,
you will win a good life on those heights.”

May this be of benefit.

And the last of our prayers,

“Glory to your Lord, the Lord of Honour & Power! He is better from what they ascribe to Him! Peace be upon the Messengers! Praise be to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.” (37:180-182)

The Hardness of the Heart


The servant is not afflicted with a punishment greater in severity than the hardening of the heart and its being distant from Allaah. The Fire was created to melt the hardened heart, this heart which is the most distant of hearts from Allaah. If the heart becomes hardened the eye becomes dry [and finds no joy or tranquillity].

There are four matters, when the limits are transgressed with regards to them, which harden the heart: food, sleep, speech and sexual intercourse. A body afflicted by disease does not derive nourishment from food and water and similarly a diseased heart does not benefit from admonishment or exhortation.

Whosoever desires to purify his heart then let him give preference to Allaah over his base desires.

The heart that clings to its base desires is veiled from Allaah in accordance to the strength of its attachment to them. The hearts are the vessels of Allaah upon His earth, hence the most beloved of them to Him are those that are most tender, pure and resistant to deviation.

“Truly, Allaah has vessels from amongst the people of the earth, and the vessels of your Lord are the hearts of his righteous slaves, and the most beloved of them to Him are the softest and most tender ones”

(As-Saheehah 1691, Hasan)

The transgressors preoccupied their hearts with the pursuit of this world. If only they had preoccupied them with Allaah and seeking the Hereafter then they would have instead reflected upon the meaning of His Words and His Signs that are witnessed in creation. Their hearts would have returned to their owners (in whose chests they reside) bestowing upon them marvellous wisdom and pearls of benefit.

When the heart is nourished with dhikr, its thirst quenched with contemplation and cleansed from corruption, it shall witness remarkable and wondrous matters and be inspired with wisdom.

Not every individual who is endowed with knowledge and wisdom and dons its robe is from among its people. Rather the People of Knowledge and Wisdom are those who have infused life into their hearts by slaughtering their desires. As for the one who has destroyed his heart and given precedence to his desires then knowledge and wisdom are deprived from his tongue.

The destruction of the heart occurs through possessing a sense of security and negligence. The heart is fortified through fear of Allaah and dhikr. If the heart renounces the pleasures of this world then it will be directed towards pursuing the bliss of the Hereafter and it will be amongst those who call to it. Should the heart become content with the pleasures of this world the bliss of the Hereafter ceases to be pursued.

Yearning for Allaah and meeting Him is like a gentle breeze blowing upon the heart, blowing away the blazing desire for this world. Whosoever causes his heart to settle with his Lord shall find himself in a calm and tranquil condition and whosoever sends it amongst the people shall be disturbed and excessively perturbed. This is because the love of Allaah can never enter the heart which contains love of this world until the camel passes through they eye of a needle.

Therefore the most beloved servant to Allaah is the one who He places in His servitude, who He selects for His Love, who He causes to purify his worship for Him, who dedicates his life to Him, his tongue to His dhikr and his limbs to His service.

The heart becomes sick as the body becomes sick and its cure lies in repentance and seeking protection from evil.

It becomes rusty as a mirror becomes rusty and it is polished through dhikr.

It becomes naked as the body becomes naked and its adornment comes about through taqwaa.

It becomes hungry and thirsty as the body becomes hungry and thirsty and its hunger and thirst is satiated through knowledge, love, reliance, repentance and servitude to Allaah.

The Disease of Envy


Some people said while explaining its meaning: ‘Envy (hasad) is a grievance that befalls one due to knowledge of the good condition of the wealthy.’ So in accordance with this it is not possible that the person upon whom the blessings have been bestowed be jealous of these blessings and is accustomed to them.

A group of people said: ‘It is a desire to have the blessings removed from the one who is envied even if the one who is jealous does not attain the likes of these blessings.’ This is different from ghubta (also meaning envy) because it refers to a desire to possess the blessings bestowed upon the one who is envied but without the desire to see them removed from him.

Strictly speaking, envy (hasad) is hatred and disliking the good condition of the envied one. This of two types:

1) Unrestricted dislike of the blessings bestowed upon the envied. This is the type of jealousy which incurs blame, so when one hates something he is then hurt and grieved by the existence of what he hates, and this becomes a sickness in his heart such that he takes pleasure in removal of the blessings from the envied even if this does not result in any benefit to him except for the single benefit of having the pain that was in his soul removed. But this pain is not removed except as a result of his continuously watching the envied so that the jealous person finds relief when the blessing is removed, but then it becomes more severe as is the case of the one who is sick, for it is possible that this blessing, or one similar to it, returns to the envied. This is why this second group said: ‘It is a desire to have the blessings removed,’ for indeed the one who dislikes the blessings bestowed upon other than him desires to see them removed.

2) That he dislikes the superiority of that person over him, and he desires to be like him or better, so this is jealousy and has been called ghubta, and the Prophet () called it hasad in the hadeeth reported by both al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the hadeethof Ibn Mas‘ood and Ibn ‘Umar, radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa, that he () said: “There is no envy (hasad) except in two cases: a person to whom Allaah has granted wisdom, and he rules by this and teaches it to the people, and a person to whom Allaah has granted wealth and property and along with this the power to spend it in the cause of Truth.”[1]

This being the wording of Ibn Mas‘ood. The wording of Ibn ‘Umar is, “A person to whom Allaah has given the Qur’aan and he recites it night and day, and a person to whom Allaah has granted wealth and property from which he gives in charity night and day.”[2]

Al-Bukhaaree also reports this hadeeth from Aboo Hurayrah and its wording is, “There is no desirable form of jealousy except for two types: a person to whom Allaah has given the Qur’aan and he recites it day and night, so when a person hears him he says, ‘If only I were given the likes of what he has been given so that I may act upon it the way this person is.’ And a person to whom Allaah has bestowed wealth and he spends in the cause of Truth, so a person says, ‘If only  I were given the likes of what he has been given, so that I may act upon it the way this person is.’”[3]

So the Prophet () forbade hasad, with the exception of two cases which are referred to as al-ghubta, meaning that a person love the condition of someone else and dislike that this person be superior in this way (without his wishing that it be removed from that person).

So if it is asked: ‘Then why is this called envy when he loves only that Allaah bestows these blessings upon him?’ It is said, ‘The starting point of this love is his looking towards the favours Allaah has bestowed upon someone else and his disliking that this person be favoured over him. So if this other person were not present then he would not have desired these blessings. So because the starting point of this love is this dislike that someone else be made superior to him, then this is called envy due to the love following the dislike. As for desiring that Allaah bestows favours upon him without consideration of people’s material conditions then this is not envy at all.’

This is why the generality of mankind have been tried with this second type of envy that has also been called al-munaafasah (competition) because two people compete in a single desired matter, both of them trying to attain the same good. The reason for their trying to attain it is that one of them dislikes that the other be blessed with this matter over him just as any one of two competitors dislikes that other beat him.

Competition is not considered blameworthy in general, rather it is considered to be praiseworthy when competing for righteousness, the Exalted said,

Indeed the pious will be in delight. On thrones, looking on. You will recognize in their faces the brightness of delight. They will be given to drink pure sealed wine. The last thereof (that wine) will be the smell of Musk, and for this let those compete who want to compete.[4]

So one is commanded to compete for these delights and not to compete for the delight of this fleeting world. This is in total agreement to the hadeeth of the Prophet (), for he forbade envy except of the one who has been granted knowledge and he acts according to it and teaches it, and the one who has been bestowed wealth and spends it (in the way of Allaah). As for the one who has been granted knowledge but does not act upon this knowledge, or the one who has been bestowed wealth but does not spend this is obedience to Allaah, then such a person is not to be envied and neither is his condition to be hoped for, for he is not in a state of good that is desirable, rather he is being presented with punishment. He also allowed jealousy for the one who has been given a responsibility and he fulfils it with knowledge and justice, and fulfils the trusts of its owners, and judges amongst the people by the Qur’aan and Sunnah.

The station of such a person is lofty but this only comes after a great amount of effort (jihaad) – the same is true of the mujaahid. But the souls do not envy the one who is in severe hardship and this is why the Prophet () did not mention it even though themujaahid, fighting in the Way of Allaah, is superior to the one who is spending wealth. The opposite is true for the teacher and spender for they have no enemy in the physical world, but in the case that there were an enemy that they would have to performjihaad against, then their ranking is more superior (than their station without having an enemy to fight). Similarly the Prophet () did not mention the one who prays, fasts and performs the pilgrimage, because there is no tangible benefit attained from the people for these actions by which the person can be exalted or disgraced, as can be attained in teaching and spending. 

Fundamentally, envy occurs when someone else attains power and authority; otherwise the one who is performing actions is not normally envied, even if this person be blessed with far more food, drink and wives than others, as opposed to these two blessings of power and authority, for they cause a great deal of envy. This is why you find envy directed at the People of Knowledge, who have a following amongst the people that you will not find directed to others who do not have such a following. Similarly for the one who attracts a following due to his spending his wealth, for the people benefit this person by nourishing his heart, and this person brings benefit to them by nourishment of the bodies. Mankind is in need of that which will correct them in both these matters, this is why Allaah, the one free from imperfection, has propounded two parables,

Allaah puts forward the example: a slave under the possession of another, he has no power of any sort, and (the other) a man on whom We have bestowed a good provision from Us, and he spends thereof secretly and openly. Could they be equal? (By no means, not). All the praises and thanks be to Allaah. Nay! (But) most of them know not. And Allaah puts forward another parable of two men, one of them dumb, who has no power over anything, and he is a burden to his master, whichever way he directs him he brings no good. Is such a man equal to one who commands justice, and is himself on the Straight Path?[5]

These two parables were propounded by Allaah for His Own Holy Self and for that which is worshipped besides Him, for indeed the idols are not capable of performing any actions that would be of benefit, and neither of saying anything that would be of benefit. So when a completely powerless slave under the possession of someone is considered, and another to whom Allaah has provided a goodly provision from which he spends in secret and in the open, can this slave, incapable of doing good, and this person capable of doing good for the people in secret and open, ever be equal? And He, free is as He from defect, is able to bestow good upon His servants, and as He is continuously doing so. So how can this incapable slave (i.e. the idol) who cannot do anything, be likened to Allaah to the extent that he is worshipped alongside Him? So this is the parable of one to whom Allaah has bestowed wealth from which he spends day and night.

The second parable: when two people are considered, one of them is dumb, he does not understand nor speak, and is not capable of anything and is in fact a burden upon his master, for whichever way he directs him he brings no good and hence he is of absolutely no use. The other is a just scholar – enjoining justice and acting justly, and is upon the Straight Path. This person is then like the one upon whom Allaah has conferred wisdom and he acts according to it and teaches it. And Allaah has propounded this parable for Himself, for He is All-Knowing, All-Just, All-Powerful, commanding justice, He is maintaining His creation is justice is upon the Straight Way as He, the Exalted said,

Allaah bears witness that there is none worthy of worship but He, and the angels, and those having knowledge; (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice. There is none worthy of worship but He, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.[6]

And He said upon the tongue of Hood,

Indeed my Lord is upon the Straight Path.[7]

This is why the people used to exalt the home of al-‘Abbaas ‘Abdullaah used to teach the people and his brother used to feed them, and so they used to exalt them due to this.

Mu‘aawiyah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, saw the people asking Ibn ‘Umar about the rites of Hajj and Ibn ‘Umar would give them the verdicts, to which Mu‘aawiyah said, ‘By Allaah this is nobility’ or something similar.

The Competition between Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq and ‘Umar

So here is ‘Umar bin al-Khattaab, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, competing with Aboo Bakr, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, with respect to spending in charity as is established in the Saheeh (of al-Bukhaaree) from ‘Umar bin al-Khattaab, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, that he said: “The Messenger of Allaah () commanded us to give in charity, and this coincided with my possessing some wealth. So I said (to myself): ‘If there is a day that I can better Aboo Bakr than it is this one.’ So I went with half of my wealth and the Messenger of Allaah () asked me, ‘What have you left for your family?’ I replied, ‘The same amount.’ Then Aboo Bakr came with everything that he possessed and the Messenger of Allaah () asked him, ‘What have you left for your family?’ He replied, ‘I have left Allaah and His Messenger for them.’ So I said, ‘I will never be able to better you in anything!’”

So what ‘Umar did here was competition and the permitted type of jealousy (ghubta), but the state of as-Siddeeq was better than his, and thus he would generally be the victor in such competition due to his indifference to the condition of others.

Likewise is the case with Prophet Moosa as is mentioned in the hadeeth of Mi‘raaj that he competed and felt jealousy towards the Prophet () to the point that he, “Cried due to the extent to which the Prophet () has surpassed him. So it was said to him,‘Why are you crying?’ He replied, ‘I am crying because there is a servant who shall be sent after me, and more of his nation shall enter Paradise than mine.” [Reported by both al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

This hadeeth is also reported in other than the Saheeh with a different wording, “We passed a person while he was saying in a loud voice, ‘You have blessed him and honoured him (over me).’ So we were raised to him and gave him our salaam, he replied to our salaam and said, ‘Who is this with you O Jibraa’eel?’ He said, ‘This is Ahmad.’ He said, ‘Welcome O Illiterate Prophet who has conveyed the Message of his Lord and sincerely advised his nation.’ Then we moved on and I said, ‘Who was this O Jibraa’eel?’ He replied, ‘That was Moosa bin ‘Imraan.’ I said, ‘And who was he censuring?’ He replied, ‘He was censuring your Lord with regards to you.’ I said, ‘He was raising his voice to His Lord?’ He replied, ‘Indeed Allaah knew his truthfulness.’”

So in this ‘Umar resembled Moosa, and the condition of our Prophet () was superior to that of Moosa for he did not possess any of this permissible jealousy.

Similar to this from amongst the Sahaabah were Aboo ‘Ubaydah bin Jarraah and those like him who were free from these types of concerns and due to this they were of a more exalted rank than those who would compete and display jealousy (ghubta) even though it was permitted. This is why Aboo ‘Ubaydah deserved to be called, ‘The trusted one of this Ummah.’[8] For if the one trusted does not have any rivalry and desire in his self for the things that he is entrusted with, then he is the most deserving of having the trust placed in him. The one who is known to possess no rivalry in greater matters in entrusted with the smaller matters, and the one is known to have no reason to steal from the wealth is entrusted with the wealth. As for the one who finds in himself treachery that resembles that of a wolf entrusted with sheep, then he is not able to discharge the trust placed in him due to his having in his heart a desire for what he is entrusted with.

It is reported in the Musnad of Ahmad from Anas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, that he said, “We were sitting in the presence of the Messenger of Allaah () one day and he said, ‘A person is about to arrive from this mountain path who is from the people of Paradise.’ So a person from the Ansaar arrived, his beard dripping with the water of wudoo and holding his sandals in his left hand, and he gave us the salaam. The next day the Prophet () said words of similar import and the same person appeared in the same condition. On the third day the Prophet () again said words of similar import and again this person appeared in the same condition, so when the Prophet () left, ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Amr al-Aas followed this person and said, ‘indeed I have abused my father and I swore that I would not go to him for three days so if you would let me stay with you until those three days expire, I would do so.’ He replied, ‘Yes.’”

Anas continued saying, “So ‘Abdullaah told us that he spend three nights with this person yet he did not see him stand for the night prayer at all. All he did was when he turned sides on his be he would mention Allaah and make takbeer and would do this until he stood for the Fajr prayer. ‘Abdullaah said, ‘Except that I never heard him speak except good’. So when the three days wee over I was eager to make little of his actions. I said, ‘O servant of Allaah there was no hatred or disassociation between my father and me but I heard the Messenger of Allaah () saying on three occasions, “A person is about to arrive who is from the people of Paradise,” and you arrived on those three occasions, so I wished to stay with you so that I may look at your actions and emulate them. But I have not seen you perform a great deal of actions, so what is it that has reached you to make the Messenger of Allaah () say what he said?’ He replied, ‘It is nothing more than what you have seen, except that I do not find in myself any disloyalty of any of the Muslims, and neither do I find any jealousy for the wealth that Allaah has bestowed upon them.’ Abdullaah said, ‘This is that which has reached you and is something that we cannot endure.’”[9]

So in the saying of ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Amr to him, ‘This is something that has reached you and something that we cannot endure’ lies an indication of his lack of jealousy and his being secure from all types of jealousy. This is why Allaah praised the Ansaar with His saying,

And have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given (the muhaajiroon), and give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that.[10]

Meaning that which has been given to their brothers from the Muhaajiroon. The scholars of tafseer have stated: “They do not find in their breasts jealousy and hatred for what has been given to the Muhaajiroon”. Then some of them said, “What has been given to them from the war booty.” And others said: “What has been given to them of precedence and blessings” – so they find no need of that which has been given the Muhaajiroon of wealth and rank even though jealousy arises over these sorts of things.

Between the Aws and the Khazraj there existed competition in matters of religion, such that if one tribe were to do something for which they were regarded favourably by Allaah and His Messenger then the other tribe would desire to do the same. So this is competition in that which would bring them closer to Allaah. Allaah says,

Then for this let those who compete, compete![11]

As for the jealousy that is totally blameworthy then Allaah has said with regards to the Jews,

Many of the People of the Book wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their own selves even after the truth has become clear to them.[12]

‘They wish’ meaning that they hope to make you apostasies from your religion out of jealousy. So jealousy was the deciding factor behind their wish even after the Truth has been made clear to them. This is because when they saw you attain what you attained of blessings – in fact they saw you attain that which they themselves had never attained – they became jealous of you. Similarly this is mentioned in another verse,

Or do they envy men for what Allaah has given them of His bounty? Then We have already given the family of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great kingdom. Of them were (some) who believed in him (Muhammad) and of them were some who averted their faces from him, and enough is Hell for burning (them)…[13]

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Daybreak. From the evil of what He has created. And from the evil of the darkening (night) as it comes with its darkness. And from the evil of the witchcrafts when they blow in the knots. And from the evil of the envier when he envies.[14]

A group of scholars of tafseer mentioned that this soorah was revealed due to the jealousy of the jews harboured towards the Messenger of Allaah () to the extent that they performed magic on him. The magic was done by the Jew, Labeed bin al-A‘sam.[15]

So the one who is jealous, hating the favours bestowed by Allaah upon someone else is an oppressor, going beyond bounds due to this. As for the one who dislikes that someone else be blessed and wishes to be blessed in the same way, then this is forbidden for him except in that which will bring him closer to Allaah. So if he were to wish for something that has been given to someone else which would help bring him closer to Allaah then there is no problem in this. However, his wishing for it in his heart, without looking to the condition of someone else is better and more excellent.

Then if this person were to act, dictated by this jealousy, he would be an oppressor going beyond bounds, deserving of punishment unless he repents. So the one who is affected by the one who is jealous is oppressed and should be enjoined to patience andtaqwaa. He should be patient of the harm afflicted upon him by the one who is jealous, and he should forgive and overlook, just as Allaah said,

Many of the People of the Book wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their own selves even after the truth has become clear to them. But forgive and overlook until Allaah brings about His Command.[16]

Indeed Yoosuf, ‘alayhis salaam, was tried by the jealousy of his brothers:

When they said: Truly, Yoosuf and his brother are loved more by our father than we.[17]

So they were envied due to their father favouring them over the rest of the brothers, which why Ya‘qoob said to Yoosuf,

O my son! Relate not your vision to your brothers, lest they arrange a plot against you. Indeed! Satan is an open enemy to man![18]

They went on to oppress him by discussing his murder and throwing him in the well, and his being sold as a slave by the ones who took him to the land of the disbelievers, and his subsequently being owned by these disbelieving people. Then after being oppressed, Yoosuf was tried by the one who invited him to an indecent deed and attempted to seduce him, and she sought aid from anyone who would help her in this but he was preserved from this. Instead he chose to be imprisoned rather than perform this indecent deed, preferring the punishment of this world rather than the Displeasure of Allaah (in the Hereafter). Hence he was oppressed by the one who desired him due to her base desires and her corrupt objective. So this love with which she desired him arose as a result of her succumbing to the vain desires of her heart, and its happiness or sadness lay in his accepting or rejecting the temptation. He was also oppressed by those who hated him with a hatred that led to his being thrown in the well, then his becoming captive and owned without his choice, therefore these people removed him from the absolute freedom that he enjoyed to becoming forced into slavery to the false worshippers. This forced him to seek refuge in the prison out of his own free will, thereby making his trial greater.

His patience on this occasion arose out of his own volition coupled with his fear of Allaah, thus differing from his patience at their oppression, which was having patience at the onset of calamities, and if one were to be patient at the likes of these then he would take to the way of mere animals.

This second type of patience, arising from one’s free will, is the more excellent of the two. This is why Allaah said,

Indeed he who fears Allaah, and is patient, then surely Allaah makes not the reward of the doers of good to be lost.[19]

Likewise when the believer is harmed due to his faith; and disbelief, transgression and disobedience is sought from him – and if he were not to accept this then he would be harmed and punished – then he should choose this harm and punishment over renegading from his religion – even if it results in imprisonment or banishment from his land – just as was done by the Muhaajiroon in their choosing to leave their settlements rather than leave their religion for which they were harmed and punished. The Prophet () was harmed in a number of different ways but he was patient through-out this with a patience that arose out of his own volition, and indeed he was harmed in this way only that he may do what he did out of his own choice. So this patience of his was greater than the patience of Yoosuf, for only an indecent action was sought from Yoosuf, and he was only punished by imprisonment when he did not comply. But disbelief was sought from the Prophet () and his Companions, and when they did not do this – then they were punished by being slaughtered and other such harms – the least of which was imprisonment, for the polytheists imprisoned him and Banee Haashim for a time in a mountain pass. Then when Aboo Taalib died they became more severe against him, and when theAnsaar gave him the pledge of the allegiance and when the polytheists came to know of this they tried to prevent him from leaving (for Madeenah) and tried to detain him and his Companions. Then all of them emigrated secretly except for ‘Umar bin al-Khattaab and those like him.

So what befell the believers came about as a result of their choosing obedience to Allaah and His Messenger and it was not from the afflictions that occur without the servant’s choice of the type that Yoosuf was tried with, and neither of the type of his being separated from his father. So this patience endured by the believers was the nobler of the two types of patience, and its possessors are greater with respect to ranking. Thus, even though the one who is tried without his will shall be rewarded for his patience and his contentment with the decree of Allaah, and his sins will be expiated. As for the person who is tried and harmed for choosing obedience to Allaah, then he will be rewarded for the actual trial and it shall be written as a righteous action for him. Allaah, the Most High, said,

That is because they suffer neither thirst nor fatigue, nor hunger in the Cause of Allaah, nor do they take any step to raise the anger of disbelievers nor inflict any injury upon an enemy but it is written to their credit as a righteous deed. Indeed Allaah wastes not the reward of the doers of good.[20]

Thus contrasting with the case of the one who is tried without his choice, such as being sick, or death, or a thief stealing from him – this person shall be rewarded for his patience only, not for the actual trial itself and what results from it. As for those who are harmed due to their faith in Allaah and obedience to Him and His Messenger, and as a result of this they are in pain, or are sick, or are imprisoned, or are forced to leave their land, or their property and family is taken from them, or are beaten and abused, or their position and wealth is diminished, then in this they are upon the way of the Prophets and those that followed them such as the Muhaajiroon. So these people shall be rewarded for what has harmed them, and a righteous action shall be written for them due to it just as the mujaahid shall be rewarded for the hunger, thirst and fatigue that afflicts him, and for enraging the disbelievers even if these effects are not something he has physically set out to do, but they are resultant from his action (of performing jihaad) that he has chosen to do. The people have differed over this: can it be said that these resultant effects are actions of the actor of the reason for these effects, or are they Actions of Allaah, or is there no actor of the reason and the (Actor of the) totality of the reasons, and this is why a righteous action is written for him.

The purpose behind this discussion is that jealousy is one of the sicknesses of the soul, and it is an illness that afflicts the generality of mankind and only a few are secure from it. This is why it is said: “The body is never free from jealousy, but debasement brings it out, and nobility hides it.” It was said to al-Hasan al-Basree, “Can a believer be envied?” He replied, “What has made you forget Yoosuf and his brothers, have you no father?” But you should keep (this envy should it occur) blinded in your heart, for you cannot be harmed by that which you did not act upon in speech or action.”

So the one who finds that he harbours jealousy in his soul towards someone else, then it is upon him to treat it with patience and taqwaa of Allaah, and dislike it being in his soul. Many religious people do not take a stance against the one who is envied and neither do they help the one who would oppress him, but neither do they establish what is obligatory with respect to his rights. Rather when someone censures the one who is envied they do not agree with or aid him in the censure but neither do they mention his praiseworthy qualities. Likewise if someone were to praise him they remain silent. So these people are responsible for their leaving what is commanded with respect to the rights of the envied, and they have exceeded the proper bounds in this even though they may not have taken a stance against him. The reward of these people is that their rights in turn will be neglected and on some occasions they will not be treated fairly, and neither will they be helped against the one who oppresses them, just as they did not aid the envied who was oppressed. As for the one who actually takes a stance against the envied, either with words or actions then he will be punished for this, and the one who fears Allaah and is patient and does not become one of the oppressors – Allaah will benefit him for his taqwaa.

This is what occurred with Zaynab bint Jahsh, radiyallaahu ‘anha, for she used to be one who would vie with ‘Aa’ishah from the wives of the Prophet (). The jealousy displayed by some women to others is great, and is especially true of those who are married to one husband. The woman will go to great extents to get her allotted time from him for sometimes some of her allotted time will be missed due to his sharing with other wives. This jealousy commonly occurs amongst those that share authority or property[21] in the case when some of them take a share from it and others are left with none. It also occurs between those that debate, due to their hatred that their opponent gets the better of them, such as the jealousy of the brothers of Yoosuf, or the jealousy of the two sons of Aadam one to the other for in this case the brother was envied by the other due to Allaah accepting his sacrifice and not the other’s, this leading to his murder. Also, the jealousy displayed towards the Muslims by the Jews. It was said, “The first sins by which Allaah was disobeyed were three: covetousness, arrogance and jealousy. Covetousness was displayed by Adam, arroagance by Iblees, and jealousy from Qaabeel when he killed Haabeel.”[22]

In the hadeeth there occurs: “There are three sins from which no one can be saved: jealousy, suspicion and omens. Shall I tell you of what would remove you from this: when you envy then do not hate, when you are suspicious then do not actualize your suspicions, and when you see omens then ignore them.”[23] Reported by Ibn Abee ad-Dunyaa from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah.

In the Sunan from the Prophet (), “You have been afflicted with the illness of the nations that came before you – jealousy and hatred. They are the shearers, I do not mean shearers of the hair, rather they are shearers of the religion.”[24]

So he called jealousy an illness just as he called miserliness an illness in his saying, “And what illness is worse than miserliness.”[25]

And in another hadeeth“I seek refuge with You from the evil morals and manners, vain desires and illnesses.” Mentioning illnesses alongside with manners and vain desires. Manners are those things that the soul becomes accustomed to such that they become its nature and disposition. Allaah said in this regard,

And indeed you are upon an exalted standard of character.[26]

Ibn ‘Abbaas, Ibn ‘Uyaynah and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, radiyallaahu ‘anhum, said in commentary to this: “Meaning ‘upon a great religion.’” And in a variant wording of Ibn ‘Abbaas: ‘The religion of Islaam’. This was similarly stated by ‘Aa’ishah, radiyallaahu ‘anha, “His manners were the Qur’aan,” and Hasan al-Basree, “The manners of the Qur’aan is ‘the exalted standard of character.’”

As for ‘vain desires’ then they are temporary anomalous conditions, and ‘illness’ is sickness – this is an affliction that harms the heart and corrupts it. In the first hadeeth jealousy was mentioned along with hatred. This is because the envier, first of all dislikes the bounty bestowed by Allaah upon the one who is envied, and then begins hating this person. This is because the hatred of the thing being bestowed leads to hatred of the one upon whom it is bestowed, for when the blessings of Allaah are bestowed upon an individual, he would love that they go away, and they would not go away except by the one who is envied going away, therefore he hates him and loves that he not be there.

Jealousy necessarily leads to desire and hatred just as Allaah informed us those that came before us that they differed,

After their came to them knowledge out of mutual hatred and desire.[27]

So their differing did not arise due to the lack of knowledge, rather they knew the Truth, but it was due to some of them hating others, just as the envier hates the envied.

In Saheehs of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, Anas bin Maalik, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, reports that the Prophet () said, “Do not envy each other, do not hate each other, do not oppose each other, and do not cut relations, rather be servants of Allaah as brothers. It is not permissible for a Muslim to disassociate from his brother for more than three days such that they meet and one ignores the other, and the best of them is the one who initiates the salaam.”[28]

He () said, in the hadeeth that is agreed to be authentic, reported by Anas also, “By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, none of you believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.”[29]

Allaah, the Most High, said,

There is certainly among you he who would linger behind (from fighting in the Way of Allaah). If a misfortune befalls you, he says: ‘Indeed Allaah has favoured me in that I was not present among them.’ But if a bounty comes to you from Allaah, he would surely say – as if there had never been any ties of affection between you and him – ‘Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.’[30]

So these people who lingered behind did not love for their brother Muslims what they loved for themselves, rather if the Muslims were afflicted with a calamity, they were overjoyed that it only afflicted them, and if they met with blessings they were not happy for them, rather they wished that they too had a portion of this blessing. So they would not become happy except if they received something of this world or some evil of this world was diverted from them. This was due to them not loving Allaah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, for if this had been the case they would have loved their brothers, and loved what they had received of His blessings and they would have been hurt by the calamity that had afflicted them.

As for the one who is not made happy by what has made the Muslims happy, and is not grieved by what has made the Muslims grieve then he is not of them. In the Saheehs of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from ‘Aamic ash-Sha‘bee who said: “I heard an-Nu‘maan bin Basheer delivering a sermon and saying: I heard the Messenger of Allaah () saying, ‘The similitude of the believers with respect to their mutual love, mutual mercy and mutual kindness in like that of one body. When a part of it suffers, the whole body suffers with fever and sleeplessness.’[31]

In the Saheehs of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the hadeeth of Aboo Moosa al-Ash‘aree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said: “The Messenger of Allaah () said, ‘The Muslim to another Muslim is like a building, one part of it strengthens another’ and he interlaced his fingers.”[32]

Greed is a sickness as is miserliness, and jealousy is worse than miserliness as occurs in the hadeeth reported by Aboo Daawood[33] from the Prophet () that he said, “Jealousy eats away at good deeds, just as fire eats away at firewood, and giving charity extinguishes sins just as water extinguishes fire.”

This is because the miser only stops himself from having good but the envier dislikes the favours of Allaah bestowed upon His servants. It is possible that a person give to those lesser than him who would help him achieve his objectives and yet display jealousy to those of the same level as him just as it is possible for him to be miserly without displaying envy to others. Greed is the basis for this as Allaah said,

And whosoever is saved from his greed, such are they who are successful.[34]

In the Saheehs of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim[35] the Prophet () said, “Beware of greed for it destroyed those that came before you: it commanded them to be miserly and they were, it commanded them to be oppressive and they were and it commanded them to break the ties of kinship and they did.”[36]

‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin ‘Awf[37] used to frequently say in his supplication while make Tawaaf, “O Allaah! Save my soul from greed.” So a person said to him, “Why is this your most frequent supplication?” He replied, “When I safeguard myself from greed, I safeguard myself from greed, miserliness and from severing the ties of kinship.” And jealousy necessarily leads to oppression.


[1] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/62 no. 73], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 2/389 no. 1779].

[2] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 6/500 no. 543], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 2/388 no. 1777].

[3] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 6/501 no. 544].

[4] Soorah al-Mutaffifeen (83):22-26.

[5] Soorah an-Nahl (16):75-76.

[6] Soorah Aal ‘Imraan (3):18.

[7] Soorah Hood (11):56

[8] Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim

[9] Its isnaad is saheeh.

[10] Soorah al-Hashr (59):9.

[11] Soorah al-Mutaffifeen (83):26.

[12] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):109.

[13] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):54-55.

[14] Soorah al-Falaq (113):1-5.

[15] As is reported by al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and Ahmad. Refer to the tafseer of Ibn Katheer (4/584).

[16] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):109

[17] Soorah Yoosuf (12):8.

[18] Soorah Yoosuf (12):5.

[19] Soorah Yoosuf (12):90.

[20] Soorah at-Tawbah (9):120.

[21] Or those that share knowledge, this is why the scholars of hadeeth do not accept the reports of scholars criticizing their contemporaries.

[22] Da‘eef, reported by Abu ash-Shaykh and atTabaraanee from Hasan al-Basree as a mursal report.

[23] Reported by Ahmad (1412, 1430) and at-Tirmidhee (2512). Its chain of narration contains unknown narrators, but the hadeeth has witnesses reported by Aboo ad-Dardaa and Aboo Hurayrah that strengthen it. Rather to Mujma az-Zawaa’id (10/8) whose authors also refer this hadeeth to al-Bazzaar. Al-Mundhiree said that is isnaad is good.

[24] Reported by at-Tirmidhee, at-Tabaraanee an al-Haakim who said that it was saheeh and it as he said.

[25] Reported by Ahmad, Haakim and others. It is saheeh. Refer to: Saheeh al-Jaami‘ [no. 7104] and the notes of Shu‘ayb al-Arna‘oot upon Sharh Muskil al-Aathaar of at-Tahaawee [14/151-154]. [Translator’s Note]

[26] Soorah Qalam (68):4.

[27] Soorah Aal ‘Imraan (3):19.

[28] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 8/58 no. 91], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 4/1360 no. 6205, 6210].

[29] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/19 no. 12], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 1/31 no. 72, 73].

[30] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):72-73.

[31] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 8/26 no. 40], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 4/1368 no. 6258].

[32] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 8/34 no. 55], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 4/1368 no. 6257].

[33] This is an error from Ibn Taymiyyah, for the hadeeth in this complete form with this wording is reported by Ibn Maajah (4210). As for Aboo Daawood then he reports only the first sentence and in the isnaad of this hadeeth there is an unknown narrator.

[34] Soorah al-Hashr (59):9.

[35] This is also an error from Ibn Taymiyyah for this hadeeth has not been reported by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, rather it has been reported by Aboo Daawood and al-Haakim (1/11) and its isnaad is saheeh.  

[36] Sunan Aboo Daawood [Eng. Trans. 2/445 no. 1694].

[37] As far as I know from what is preserved is that it was Sa‘d bin Abee Waqqaas.


Islamic Ruling on Voting


Question: What is the ruling regarding the statement that Democracy and Voting are equivalent to the Islamic Shooraa (Counsel)?

The Answer:

 بـــــــــــــــسم الله الرحمـــــــــــــــــن الرحيـــــــــــــــــم 

By Allah, if we did not fear that the ignorant would be influenced by the likes of these words then it would be obligatory to avoid even responding to this (statement).

But before we delve into an explanation of the recklessness regarding this comparison (between Democracy and Voting alongside the Islamic Shooraa) I would like to remind these people of two great narrations both being statements of the Messenger (may the peace & blessings of Allah be upon him):

Whoever says: I am free from Islaam, and if he is a liar then he is as he has said, and if he is truthful: he is not considered in Islaam to be trustworthy.
Related by an-Nisaa’ee, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim from the narration of Buraydah.

And likewise the statement of the Messenger (may the peace & blessings of Allah be upon him):

Indeed the servant who speaks without evidence will remain in the Hellfire farther than the distance between the East and the West.
Agreed upon from the narration of Aboo Hurayrah.

So in these two narrations is an advice to the one who speaks against Allah Mighty & Majestic without either knowledge or guidance nor with an illuminating book.

At any rate Democracy and Voting is not combined with the Islamic Shooraa that Allah has legislated, not in the fundamentals of the religion nor its subsidiary branches, neither in totality nor in part, not in meaning or in foundation, and the evidence for these issues is the following:

First: Who legislated the idea of Democracy? The answer to this would be the disbelievers. Who legislated the Islamic Shooraa? The answer to this would be Allah. Does the created have the right to legislate? The answer to this would be no. Is his legislation accepted (by Allah)? The answer to this would be no.

The legislator of Democracy is the created whereas the Legislator of the Islamic Shooraa is Allah the Glorified. The God of the Islamic Shooraa and its adherents is Allah the Mighty & Majestic while the god of Democracy and its adherents is the disbelievers and their desires. So do we have any other god besides Allah?! Allah Most High says:

Say: Shall I seek a judge other than Allah?

Say: Shall I take as a helper any other than Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth? And it is He Who feeds but is not fed. Say: Verily, I am commanded to be the first of those who submit themselves to Allah (as Muslims). And do not be like the pagans.

Say: Shall I seek a lord other than Allah, while He is the Lord of all things?

This is the complete distinction between Democracy and Voting and between the IslamicShooraa.

Second: The distinguished Shooraa is that which pertains to the administration and guidance of the Ummah and is established by the People of resolve and structure from amongst the ‘Ulamaa, the Righteous and the Sincere but Democracy (on the other hand) is established by the People of disbelief and crimes and from the ignorant of both men and women, so when the Muslims or the ‘Ulamaa enter alongside with them then it is only to play with the Muslims.

Is it permissible to equate the good, righteous and believing Muslim, the one whom Allah has chosen and selected, alongside the criminal whom Allah has distanced Himself from and detested?!! The Most High says:

Shall We make the Muslims (comparable) to the criminals? What is the matter with you and how do you judge.
Soorat-ul-Qalam: 35-36

And the Glorified says:

Do those who do evil deeds think that We will make them equal alongside those who believe and do righteous deeds whether dead or alive? Evil is the judgment they hold.
Soorat-ul-Jathiyah :21

And the Glorified says:

Shall We make those who believe and do righteous good deeds as those who commit crimes upon the earth? Or treat the Pious as wicked?
Soorah Sad: 28

Third: The people who make up the general body of the Shooraa do not make the Haraam(the prohibited in Islam) permissible nor do they make the Halaal (the permissible in Islam) impermissible, they do not hold falsehood to be true or hold the truth to be false which is in opposition to the followers of Democracy who allow the Haraam and forbid the Halaal and hold the truth to be false and assist in falsehood. So the people on the Shooraa consult with one another regarding those issues that have occurred from the issues of truth and they implement it, they are followers and people who emulate but they do not come together with rulings that oppose the Rule of Allah. Those who innovate and make falsehood obligatory legislate by other than what Allah has revealed and Allah the Glorified says:

Or do they have partners alongside Allah who have legislated for them a religion which Allah has not permitted?
Soorat-ush-Shura :21

And the Glorified mentions:

And if any of them say: I am a god besides Him then that one We will recompense with Hell. Thus We recompense those who do wrong.
Soorat-ul-Anbiya :29

And the Glorified says:

They have no Protector other than Him, He does not share His Rule alongside anyone.
Soorat-ul-Kahf :26

Fourth: The Shooraa is not assembled except in rare instances so whatever Allah has ruled with and His Messenger (may the peace & blessings of Allah be upon him) and that ruling is evident then there is no Shooraa needed. As for Democracy then it opposes the Rulings of Allah, the Most High says:

Do they desire the judgment from the Days of Ignorance? And who is better in judgment than Allah for a people who have firm Faith.

And the Glorified says:

And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are disbelievers.

And whosoever does not judge by that which Allah has revealed then they are wrong doers.

And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed then they are the sinful.

Fifth: The Shooraa is not a religious duty nor is it obligatory in every instance; rather it differs based on the various circumstances and conditions. In one instance it may be obligatory and in another it is not. And this is why the Messenger (may the peace & blessings of Allah be upon him) would assemble the Shooraa to set in motion some of the battles and raids and other times he would not, it all differs based on the various conditions.

As for Democracy then it makes it (the setting up of a Shooraa) compulsory on its followers and doesn’t allow any person from the Rulers and Leaders to ever abandon it, and that it must implement it and apply it upon the people, but whosoever has obligated upon the people what Allah has not made compulsory then he has coerced the people and Allah the Most High says:

Do the disbelievers think that they can take My slaves as protectors besides Me? Indeed We have prepared Hell for those who disbelieve.

Sixth: Democracy rejects the Divine Islamic legislation and accuses it of deficiency and non-righteousness whereas the Shooraa establishes the strength of Islam and its effectiveness for every time and place.

Seventh: The Shooraa came at the time that Islam was revealed while Democracy came to the Muslim lands just as recently as the last two centuries – the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries after the Hijrah – so does this mean that the Messenger (may the peace & blessings of Allah be upon him) was a Democrat? Likewise what about the Companions and all of the Muslims?

Eighth: The meaning of Democracy is: (the Rule of the people by the people). As for theShooraa then it means to consult with one another mutually, it does not contain the fabrication of rulings that are not from the fundamentals of the Divine Legislation rather it is to cooperate upon the understanding of truth and refutes the particulars in favor of the majority and the new issues in favor of the original affairs.

And Allaah knows best. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

وآخر دعواهم أن الحمد لله رب العالمين


The Manners and Etiquette of Dawah

The Attributes of a Successful Caller



 بـــــــــــــــسم الله الرحمـــــــــــــــــن الرحيـــــــــــــــــم

All praise is due to Allaah the Lord of the worlds and peace and blessings upon His servant and His Messenger our prophet and messenger Muhammad and his family and companions and those that follow him until the of judgement.

After which follows:

The subject of calling to Allaah swt is an important one. The call to Allaah means inviting (others) to enter into the religion of Allaah. Allaah created the creation for His worship

Allaah says:

And I (Allaah) created not the Jinn and Mamkind except that they should worship Me (alone). I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allaah is the All-Provider, the owner of power, the most strong. [Surah daariyat:56/57]

The benefit of those worshipping Allaah returns to them for they are the ones in need of the worship of Allaah. As for Allaah, the most high, then He is not in need of them and He is self sufficient from their worship.

Allaah says:

“If you disbelieve you and all those in the earth together, then verily, Allaah is Rich (free of all needs) the Owner of all praise. [Surah Ibrahim:8]

In a hadeeth qudsi Allaah says:

Oh my servants, if the first and the last of you, the Men of you and the Jinn of you were to be the most pious (heart of) one man then that would not increase My kingdom in anything. Oh my servants, if the first of you and the last of you, the men of you and the jinn of you were to be the worst (heart of) a man amongst you that would not decrease anything from My kingdom. Oh my servants, it is your actions that I account you for then I will show it to you so whoever finds good then let him praise Allaah and whoever finds other than that then let him blame no one but himself.[Saheeh Muslim 4/1994 related by Abi Dar].

So the worshippers are the ones in need of worshipping Allaah so that they acquire the pleasure of Allaah and His forgiveness and mercy. This so that they may enter His paradise and save them from His punishment. This is why Allaah created them. However, it was decreed from His wisdom that He will test them and test them so that there would be a distinction between the people of obedience and the people of sin.

Satan and his party call the people away from worshipping Allaah to the disobedience of Allaah and to the following of desires and lusts. This is why Allaah sent messengers calling people to that which is good. The devils call them to evil.

And Allaah calls to paradise and forgiveness by His will and He makes His signs clear to mankind that they may remember. [Surah al Baqara:221]

And Allaah calls to the dar sallam and He guides whomsoever He wills to the straight path.

He calls you that He may forgive you your sins and He delays it until an appointed time.

So Allaah calls His servants that they may worship Him and that they may have repentance towards Him, that they ask forgiveness. He has sent the Messengers calling the people to that and He has given the scholars (inheritors of the Prophets) the responsibility of calling to Him for the benefit of His servants and profit.

The call to Allaah has been established ever since what happened between Adam and satan and when satan took it upon himself to lure whoever he was able from the children of Adam and misguide them.

Indeed satan is an enemy so take him as an enemy, and he calls his party to be of the companions of the fire. [Surah al Faatir:6]

No doubt there are callers to that which is good and there are callers towards wrong amongst the devils from the Jinn and the men. This being wisdom from Allaah, the most High, a trial and test for His servants from the time He created the creation until the end of the world. Conflict continues between the truth and falsehood and between the callers to good and the callers to evil. Allaah has praised the callers towards Allaah.

Allaah says:

And who is more better in speech than one who calls to Allaah (says: My Lord is Allaah believes in His oneness) and does good deeds and says I am indeed from amongst the Muslims. Good and bad are not equal, Push forward with one which is better. [Surah Fusuliat: 33,34]

So Allaah has mentioned that the callers to Allaah are the best people in speech. He has also described the callers as those who practice what they call the people to. So the caller must first be practicing what he is calling to in terms of obedience and worship until he becomes a good example such that his saying and actions are truthful. This is why Prophet shuayb said:

I do not wish, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you. I only desire reform to the best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allaah in Him I trust and to Him I repent. [Surah Hud:88]

Allaahs saying I am indeed from amongst the Muslims means that he belongs to Islam and the Muslims and the group of Muslim. He does not belong to any others except Muslims.

Then Allaah the most high shows that the caller to Allaah will meet some harm from the people but He advised (the caller) to push forward with one that is better.

If anyone has wronged him then he should meet this wrong with righteousness. For this will result in the acceptance of his call.

And good and bad are not equal, push forward with one which is better. [Surah Fusuliat: 34]

So when the caller is harmed, he doesnt consider what is said or done against him. He meets the wrong with that which is good. So he is good to whoever has harmed him so that he brings people to good because he doesnt want to be victorious himself but rather he wants good for the people. This is why the Prophet saws never gave victory to his own self. Rather he became angry and took revenge if the sanctuaries of Allaah were violated. As for himself then he was harmed and it was said of him (this and that) and they spoke against him but he never sought victory for himself rather he wanted the reward from Allaah. This is from the essential fundamentals of the call, having righteousness to the ones being called even if they fall into error. This will bring them to goodness and attract them to good as for meeting them with bad then this will push them away.

Push forward with one which is better. [Surah Fusilat: 34]

Then Allaah showed the fruits of this and said:

But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of happiness in the hereafter i.e. paradise and of a high moral character) in this world. [Surah Fusilat: 35]

Then He showed that this attribute is dear, meaning that the person should be patient and should endure (harms) and he should answer bad things with good. This is a good attribute which Allaah said:

And none shall reach it except those who are patient. [Surah Fusilat: 35]

This requires patience and it is to imprison the soul from wanting revenge and being victorious. Settling down the soul and this is what protects him from his human enemy, with goodness towards him until you invite him by love and he comes to the truth. As for the satanic enemy then Allaah has shown how to protect oneself from them.

And if an evil whisper from satan tries to turn you away (from doing good) then seek refuge in Allaah, He is the All Hearer, the All Knower. [Surah Fusilat: 36]

The caller to Allaah will face the human devils and the Jinn devils. As for the human devil then he should face him with goodness upon their error and forgiveness upon their errors and not to pay attention to what they say. As for the jinn from amongst the devils then one is protected by seeking refuge. This is the way for the successful caller. That he continues to call to the way of Allaah and that he should not weaken such that his effort decreases due to a person harming him or that he(the person) spoke against him. The reason being is that he is not calling to himself and he is not looking to give victory to himself rather he is calling to Allaah, the most high. So the call to Allaah means inviting others to enter the religion of Allaah who is the one who has created this creation for that purpose, the one who gives their happiness, and improves them and gives them success.

The caller to Allaah doesnt want from the people to look towards himself by rewarding him. Rather he seeks the reward from Allaah. The caller to Allaah does not seek promotion and to be prestigious in the land. He looks to the benefit of the people and to take the people out of darkness into light. This is what the successful caller seeks as for the one opposite to that, seeking to be seen or praise from the people, no doubt that he returns to the beginning of the path when he meets the first obstacle. As for the one who calls to Allaah then he is not put off but he continues his dawa.

Say: I do not seek from you reward. [Surah Al -An’am: 90]

All of the Prophets said to their nation: I do not ask from you any reward. What we want is to benefit you and bring good, if you accept then that is the intention sought. If you do not accept then we have left the responsibility (to Allaah) and have established the proof upon you.

The call to Allaah precedes Jihaad (strive in the cause of Allaah) because the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam used to send his army to call the people to Islam before they fight them.

They start with the call to Allaah so if they (the disbelievers) accept then all praise is due to Allaah but then if they did not respond to the call then they are fought and jihaad is proclaimed against them in order to raise the word of Allaah.

1. So the disbelievers are called to enter Islam.

2. Those Muslims who have misguidance in Aqeedah are called to the correct Aqeedah.

3. Those Muslims who have correct Aqueedah but they have some sins and wrongness are called to repent and to leave of sins and disobedience.

So the call to Allaah is required and it varies according to the need. So it is a must to have this call to Allaah. It is the work of the Prophets, the Messengers and their followers from amongst the righteous scholars until the hour comes and it is not allowed to leave it. Allaah says praising this nation:

You are the best nation who have come out to the people, you enjoin good and forbid the evil and you believe in Allaah. [Surah Imran:110]

Allaah says:

Let there arise from amongst you a nation who call to that which is good and they enjoin that which is good and forbid that which is evil. They are the successful ones. [Surah Imran:104]

The aim of this nation is the call to Allaah so that the people are taken out of darkness into light. Allaah ordered His prophet with the call to Allaah:

Call to the way of Allaah with wisdom and beautiful exhortations and argue with them in ways that are better.[Surah Nahl:125]

This is an order from Allaah to His Prophet saws. Then He has shown him the methodology that he should follow in his call.

Say: this is my way, I call to Allaah, upon knowledge, I and whoever follows me, and subhanallaah and I am not from the polytheist. [Surah Yusuf:108]

In these two verses the ruling of calling to Allaah is clarified for us that it is obligotary since Allaah ordered the Messenger saws. He has also mentioned that His followers must also call to Allaah as the Prophet saws called to: Say: this is my way, I call to Allaah, upon knowledge, I and whoever follows me.

Th methodology of the call must be in accordance to what Allaah has legislated and not a methodology that is left for the people (to make up), such that they make a methodology for themselves. Rather the methodology is that Which Allaah clarified and that which the Messenger saws has implemented in his pure life. Those that followed him were upon the methodology of the Messenger saws in his call. Any one who brings a new methodology other than the methodology of the Messenger saws, and that is the way of the Quran and the Sunnah, then they will be wrong and the consequences are that his call will not be successful.

So we should follow the footsteps of the Messenger saws and take his methodology from the Quran and the sunnah. In the above two verses it clearly shows this. First and foremost the caller to Allaah must have sincere intention and the aim of this caller must be to seek reward from Allaah and to establish His religion and to improve the ways of those being called upon in a righteous way. He does not want a gain from the gains of this world nor to be highly honoured in the land nor to show off and to be famous neither a worldly greed. Rather he seeks the face of Allaah. He seeks to take out the people from darkness into light, from misguidance into guidance, from disbelief into (correct) belief and from disobedience into obedience. This is what is sought.

From the saying of Allaah to Allaah. Is a clarification of sincerity. Sheikh Muhamad Abdul Wahhab said regarding this verse I call to Allaah is a clarification of sincerity, because many people call to themselves.[Fath al majeed sharh kitaab tawheed 1/185]

I say: Nor does one call to a group or party or person other than Muhammad saws. Nor to a madhab other than the Islamic religion neither to a group except to the group of Muslims Ahlu sunnah wal Jamaah (and he says I am from amongst the Muslims).

It is upon the caller to invite to Allaah and not to call to himself because many people call to themselves. This is why if some harm, deficiency or obstacle from the obstacles befalls him, it affects him because this affects his personallity. As for the one who calls to Allaah then he is not concerned with the praise of the people or whether they do not praise him. The reason is that he seeks the face of Allaah, the most high. If any harm befalls him then he is upon the path of Allaah.

The second attribute of this methodology is that the condition for the one who calls to Allaah that he is upon knowledge. He has knowledge with what he is calling to. Upon him is to learn the knowledge first and foremost which will allow him to call the people to Allaah, the most high.

The ignorant one is not good for calling (people)even if his intention is good and even if his aim is to call to Allaah. If he doesnt have knowledge then he is unfit for dawa (calling people) because he is not Islamically qualified. The one calling to Allaah is in need to show for the people the wrong from the right in aqueedah (belief), in worship, in interactions, in manners, in etiquette, in personal life, and in many of things in the legislation in need of showing them these things. If he doesnt have the knowledge then how will he clarify to them. Will he say it with ignorance and make halal haram and make haram halal. This is a great catastophe. He will misguide the people even if his intention is good. Until without realising it misguides the people and make haram halal and make halal haram and gives a wrong fatwa. He is not fit for dawa except for the one equipped with Islamic knowledge taken from the book of allaah and the sunna.

وآخر دعواهم أن الحمد لله رب العالمين

A Message to the non-Muslims after which they are not excused by ignorance


Dear Reader

The purpose of this message is to invite you to think of and contemplate about the real purpose of your life on this earth and where you will end up in the Hereafter.  Will you end up in Paradise or in Hell-Fire?  Please, take note, that when you have read this message, you are considered to have legislatively been given proof and been informed of the admonition of all messengers, and after which you will not be excused by ignorance:

Take note that Allah the Almighty is the One and Only God. He is Eternal. He is Absolute. He has not begotten and has not been begotten and no one is like Him.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysSay (O Muhammad): He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; and there is none like unto Him. Surah No.112, Verses 1-4.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysHe (Allah) is the Creator of the heavens and the earth: He has made for you pairs from among cattle: by this means does He multiply you: there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees. Surah No. 42, Verse No.  11.

Learn that Allah the Almighty is the Creator of all creatures.   There is no god for this universe and what it holds but Allah.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Allah is the Creator Of all things, and He is the Guardian and Disposer of all affairs. Surah No.39 Verse 62.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysSuch is Allah, your Lord, The Creator of all things, there is no god but He: Then how you are deluded away from the Truth! Surah No.40, Verse No.62.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and earth: To Allah do all matters return. Surah No.3 Verse No. 109.

Be informed that Allah the Almighty has created you for one single purpose which is to worship Him alone.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me. Surah No.51 Verse No. 56.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true (in faith); to establish regular prayer; and to give zakat (i.e. charity given to the needy); and that is the Religion Right and Straight.Surah No.98, Verse No. 5.

Understand that it is out of sincerity and purity of worship to Allah to avoid worshipping the created whoever and whatever they may be.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Certainly they disbelieve who say: “(Allah) is Christ the son of Mary.” But said Christ: “O Children of Israel!  Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.”  Whoever joins other gods with Allah, – Allah will forbid him the Garden, and the Fire will be his abode.  There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.  Surah No. 5, Verse No.  72.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Say (O Muhammad): “I do no more than invoke my Lord, and I join not with Him any (false god).”  Surah No 72, Verse No. 20.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Say (O Muhammad): “I am but a man like yourselves, (but) the inspiration has come to me, that your God is one God: whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner.  Surah No.  18, Verse No. 110.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Those to whom We have given the Book rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee: but there are among the clans those who reject a part thereof.  Say (O Muhammad): “I am commanded to worship Allah, and not to join partners with Him.  Unto Him do I call, and unto Him is my return.  Surah No.  13, Verse No.  36.

Learn that he, who worships Allah joining with Him another whoever or whatever it may be, has associated partners with Allah and consequently his deeds will turn fruitless and he will be among the losers.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: But it has already been revealed to thee, – as it was to those before thee, – “if thou wert to join (gods with Allah), truly fruitless will be thy work (in life), and thou wilt surely be among the losers.  Surah No. 29, Verse No. 65.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysThis is the Guidance of Allah: He giveth that guidance to whom He pleaseth, of His servants if they were to join other gods with Him, all that they did would be vain for them.  Surah No. 6, Verse No.88.

Take note that Allah the Almighty sent all Prophets and Messengers to reinforce and remind people that there is no god but Allah.  That is nothing is worthy of being worshipped but Allah.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “For we assuredly sent amongst every people a Messenger, (with the command), “serve Allah, and eschew Evil”: of the people were some whom Allah guided, and some on whom Error became inevitably (established).  So travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who denied (the Truth).  Surah No.16, Verse No. 36.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysNot a messenger did We send before thee without this inspiration sent by Us to him: that there is no god but I; therefore worship and serve Me.”  Surah 21 Verse 25.  There is no prophet who said to his people but: We sent Noah to his people.  He said: “O my people!  Worship Allah!  Ye have no other god but Him.  I fear for you the Punishment of a dreadful Day!  Surah No. 7, Verse No. 59.

Be informed that having faith and believing in all Prophets and Messengers is a must.  If anyone rejects faith or doesn’t believe one Prophet  or Messenger of Allah’s the Almighty, they are rejecting faith in Allah and disbelieving Him and all His   Prophets and Messengers.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith, each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His Messengers.  “We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of his Messengers.”  And they say: “We hear, and we obey: (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.”  Surah No. 2, Verse No. 285.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “‘Verily it has been revealed to us that the Chastisement (awaits) those who reject and turn away.”  Surah No. 20, Verse No. 48.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or rejects the Truth when it reaches him?  Is there not a home in Hell for those who reject Faith?”  Surah No.29, Verse No. 68.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Those who reject the Book and the (revelations) with which we sent Our messengers: but soon shall they know.  Surah No. 40, Verse No. 70.

Be informed that  Muhammad bin Abudullah  (Peace and Blessings of Allah Be Upon Him) is the Messenger of Allah, who was sent by Allah as mercy to the worlds, giving glad tidings and warnings and that he is the seal of all Prophets and messengers and there is no Prophet after him.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Muhammad is no more than a Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before him.  If he died or were slain, will ye then turn back on your heels?  If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.  Surah No. 3, Verse No. 144.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet whom they find mentioned in their own (Scriptures),-in the Taurat and the Gospel; – for he commands them what is just and Forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure):  He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them.  So it is those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the Light which is sent down with him, – it is they who will prosper.”  Surah No. 7, verse No. 157.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says:  “Say (O Muhammad): “O men!  I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah, to who belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death.  So believe in Allah and His Messenger.  The unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allah and His words, follow him that (so) ye may be guided.  Surah No. 7, Verse No. 158.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Now hath come to you a Messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that you should suffer, ardently anxious is he over you: to the Believers is he most kind and merciful”.  Surah No. 9, Verse No. 128.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysMuhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets.  And Allah has full knowledge of all things.  Surah No. 33, Verse No. 40.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysMuhammad is the Messenger of Allah…  Surah No 48, Verse No. 29.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysAnd remember, Jesus, the Son of Mary, said: “O Children of Israel!  I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Taurat (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.  But when he came to them with Clear Signs, They said, “This is evident sorcery!  Surah No.61, Verse No.6.

Take note that Allah the Almighty revealed to Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) the Holy Quran which is the word of Allah and which contains Guidance and Light for the worlds.  It has also explanation of everything.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down The Qur’an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong) so every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spent it in fasting, but if anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later.  Allah intends every facility for you: He does not want to put you to difficulties.  (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.  Surah No.2, Verse No.185.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) SaysSay: “What thing is most weighty in evidence?” say (O Muhammad): “Allah is witness between me and you; this Qur’an hath been revealed to me by inspiration.  That I may warn you and all whom it reaches.  Can ye possibly bear witness that besides Allah there are other gods?” say (O Muhammad): “Nay!  I cannot bear witness!  Surah No. 6, Verse No. 19.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Verily this Quran doth guide to that which is most right (or stable), and giveth the glad tidings to the Believers who work deeds of righteousness, that they shall have a magnificent reward.  Surah No. 17, Verse No. 9.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “We send down (stage by stage) of the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe: to the unjust it causes nothing but loss after loss.”  Surah No. 17, Verse No. 82.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “As for thee, thou receives the Quran from One All-Wise, All-Knowing.” Surah No. 27, Verse No. 6.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: And We have explained to man, in this Quran, every kind of similitude:  yet greater part of men refuse (to receive it) except with gratitude!  Surah No. 17, Verse No. 89.

Appreciate that the Holy Quran, which was revealed to Allah’s Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), has been the Greatest Evident Miracle Ever.  It is continuing and everlastingly challenging all mankind gathered together to produce something like it or like one of its Surahs.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says:  “Say (O Muhammad): ‘if the whole of mankind and Jinns were to gather together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support.’  Surah No. 17, Verse No. 88.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witness or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if ye are truthful.  Surah No. 2, Verse No. 23.

Be informed that Allah has ordered all mankind no matter what their colours, sexes; languages may be to believe in Muhammad the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), follow him and obey him. He who obeys the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) obeys Allah and consequently he will be on the right path; and; he who disobeys the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), disobeys Allah and consequently he will be on the wrong path.   

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Say (O Muhammad): “Obey Allah and His Messenger”: but if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject faith.”  Surah No. 3, Verse No. 32.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: O ye who believe!  Obey Allah and His Messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak).”  Surah No. 8, Verse No. 20.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah…  Surah No. 4, Verse No. 80.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Say (O Muhammad): “if ye do love Allah, follow me:  Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most merciful.  Surah No. 3, Verse No. 31.

Take note that he who hears of Muhammad the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and neither believes in him nor follows him is a disbeliever in Allah, rejecting faith in Him and consequently worthy to be tortured on the Day of Judgement.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “We know indeed the grief which their words do cause thee:  It is not thee they reject:  It is the Signs of Allah, which the wicked deny.  Surah No. 6, Verse No. 33.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: On that day those who reject Faith and disobey the Messenger will wish that the earth were made one with them: but never will they hide a single fact from Allah!”  Surah No. 4, Verse No. 42.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after Guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, we shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,- What an evil refuge!  Surah No. 4, Verse No. 115.

The Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah Be Upon Him) says: “By the One in whose hands Muhammad’s soul is, if anyone, anywhere in the world, whether a Jew or Christian hears of me and dies without believing in my Message will definitely be amongst those in Hell-Fire.”  (Muslim)

Take note that the Religion approved by Allah is Islam and it is the religion of all  Prophets and Messengers.  No religion is accepted of anyone but Islam.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: And Abraham enjoined upon his sons and so did Jacob;” Oh my sons!  Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the state of submission (to Me).  Surah No. 2, Verse No.132.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “The (recognized) Religion in the sight of Allah is Islam..” Surah No. 3, Verse No. 19. 

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost.  Surah No. 3, Verse No.85.

Be informed that resurrection after death is coming and absolutely true; the Hour is coming and absolutely true and the accountability on doomsday is absolutely true.    

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Lost indeed are they who treat it as a falsehood that they must meet Allah, – until on a sudden the Hour is on them, and they say: “Ah! Woe unto us that we neglected; for they bear their burdens on their backs, and evil indeed are the burdens that they bear?  Surah No. 6 Verse No. 31.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Verily the Hour is coming- I have almost kept it hidden- for every soul to receive its reward by the measure of its Endeavour.” Surah No. 20, Verse No. 15.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: And verily the Hour will come: there can be no doubt about it, or about (the fact) that Allah will raise up all who are in the graves.  Surah No. 22, Verse No. 7.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: The Unbelievers say, “Never to us will come the Hour”: say (O Muhammad), “Nay!  But most surely, by my Lord, it will come upon you;…  Surah No 34, Verse No. 3.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: The Hour will certainly come: therein is no doubt: yet most men believe not.  Surah No. 40, Verse No. No. 59.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Again, on the Day of Judgement, will ye be raised up.  Surah No. 23, Verse No. 16.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Allah is never unjust in the least degree: if there is any good (done), He doubleth it, and giveth from His Own self a great reward.  Surah No. 4, Verse No. 40.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Then shall anyone who has done an atom’s weight of good, see it!  And anyone who has done an atom’s weight of evil, shall see it.  Surah No. 99, Verses Nos. 7-8.

Learn that Paradise and its bounties are absolutely true, therein everlasting goodness and bounties of which no ear has ever heard of, or an eye has ever seen or a mind has ever been able to imagine.  All this has been prepared Allah’s righteous believers.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: The parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised! – beneath it flow rivers; perpetual is the fruits therof and the shade therein: such is the End of the Righteous and the End of the Unbelievers is the Fire.  Surah No. 13, Verse No. 35.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: But give glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that their portion is Gardens, beneath which rivers flow, every time they are fed with fruits there from, they say: “Why, this what we were fed with before,” for that are given things in similitude; and they have therein spouses purified; and they abide therein (forever).”  Surah No. 2, Verse No. 25.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness- to them shall We give a Home in Heaven, – lofty mansions beneath which flow rivers, -to dwell therein for aye; an excellent reward for those who do (good)!  Surah No. 29, Verse No. 58.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Verily the Companions of the Garden shall that Day have joy in all that they do.  Surah No. 36, Verse No. 55.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: (Here is) the description of the Garden which the righteous are promised: in it are rivers of water unstaling; rivers of Milk of which the taste never changes; rivers of wine, a joy to those who drink; and rivers of honey pure and clear.  In it there are for them all kinds of fruits; and Forgiveness from their Lord, (can those in such Bliss) be compared to such as shall dwell fro ever in the Fire and be given to drink, boiling water, so that it cuts up their bowels (to pieces)?  Surah No.47, Verse No. 15.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous.  Surah No.3 Verse No 133.

Allah says: “Be ye foremost (in seeking) forgiveness from your Lord, and a Garden (of Bliss), the width whereof is as the width of heaven and earth prepared for those who believe in Allah and His messengers: that is the Grace of Allah, which He bestows on whom He pleases: and Allah is the Lord of Grace abounding.  Surah No. 57, Verse No. 21.

Learn that the Hell fire is absolutely true; its torture in is true; and fierce.  It has a torture that is extremely fierce, harsh, and perpetual. Its torture is something that no ear has ever heard of, or an eye has ever seen or a mind has ever been able to imagine.  All this has been prepared for those who associate partners with Allah and who made it false to believe in Allah.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Know they not that for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger is the Fire of Hell? – Wherein they shall dwell.  That is the supreme disgrace.”  Surah No.9, Verse No. 63.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: …on the Day of Judgement we shall gather them together, prone on their faces, blind, dumb, and deaf: their abode will be Hell: every time it shows abatement, We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire.   Surah No. 17, Verse No. 97.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “And We shall drive the sinners to hell, (like thirsty cattle driven down to water)   Surah No. 19, Verse No. 86.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Verily he who comes to his Lord as a sinner (at Judgement), -for him is Hell: therein shall he neither die nor live.  Surah No. 20, Verse No. 74.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: But those who reject (Allah) – for them will be the Fire of Hell: not term shall be determined for them, so they should die, nor shall its Chastisement be lightened for them.  Thus do WE reward every ungrateful.  Surah No. 35, Verse No. 36.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “The Unbelievers will be led to Hell in groups:  until, when they arrive there, its gates will be opened.  And its Keepers will say, “Did not messengers come to you from among yourselves, rehearsing to you the Signs of your Lord, and warning you of the Meeting of this Day of yours?”  The answer will be: “True: but the Decree of Chastisement has been proved true against the Unbelievers!   Surah No. 39, Verse No. 71.

Take note that if you die believing in the oneness of God and in Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم), Allah’s last Messenger, you will be amongst those who will be saved and led into Paradise to live in its bounties for ever.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “But such as come to Him as Believers who have worked righteous deeds, for them are ranks exalted.”  Surah No. 20, Verse No. 75.

Whereas, if you die associating partners with Allah, disbelieving in Him and rejecting faith in Him, you will be among those who will be in Hell Fire for ever and ever

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “But whosoever turns away from My Message, verily for him is a life narrowed down, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Judgement.”  Surah No. 20, Verse 124.   

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “And who does more wrong than one to whom are recited the Signs of his Lord, and who then turns way therefrom?  Verily from those who transgress We shall exact (due) retribution.” Surah No. 32, Verse no. 22.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “Verily he who comes to his Lord as a sinner (at Judgement),-for him is Hell: therein shall he neither die nor live.” Surah No. 20, Verse No. 74

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Says: “…and if any of you turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.”  Surah No. 2, Verse No. 217

Be informed that there is no force in religion; the right path is clear and the wrong path is clear.  So after you have read and thought of and contemplated about the above message, you will not be excused by ignorance. As the warnings and message of all messengers have now reached you, you will be brought to account and be accountable on the Day of Judgment when there is no benefit for money or children but only for those who will come with good deeds and clear hearts.

Finally take note that the devils of mankind and Jinn’s and the wicked of the learned among them are scheming day and night to prevent you from listening to this message and to any other message that speaks of the Truth.

We pray to Allah that He helps you find the right path and guide you to what pleases Him. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds  

-Abu Basir at-Tartusi

وآخر دعوانا أنِ الحمد لله ربِّ العالمين


The Meaning of “La-Ilaha-Illallah” From The Book Shurootul-La-Ilaha-Illallah


The testimony of faith (Shahadah) means, “There are no gods or objects of worship which have the right to be worshipped except Allah.” It is built upon two fundamental pillars; the first which encompasses an absolute rejection and negation (nafee) of the presence of others gods which are worthy to be worshipped which is represented by the statement, “There is no god…” The second pillar encompasses the concept of confirmation (ithbaat) that the only one worthy to be worshipped is Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) alone which is represented by the statement, “…except Allah (سبحانه وتعالى).”

We have the following observations to be made regarding the above definition of the Shahadah,

Firstly: Whoever comes solely from the side of negation without confirming is not a true believer. And conversely whoever comes solely from the side of confirmation without negating is also not a true believer. A person can only be a true believer if he has both aspects of negation and confirmation present at the same time in their aqeedah (belief), speech and actions, outward and inner.

As Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) mentions regarding the companions of the cave,

“When you separate from them and the things they worship other than Allah, betake yourselves to the Cave.” [Surah al-Kahf 8:16]

They had both aspects of rejection and confirmation together; to separate from the disbelievers and whatever they worshipped in terms of false gods except Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). They did not reject to worship Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) since He is the only One worthy of being worshipped and to Him is the sole right for obedience and worship.

Similarly Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) said regarding the Prophet Ibraheem (عليه السلام),

“Behold! Abraham said to his father and his people: ‘I indeed free myself of what you worship. (I worship) only Him Who made me, and He will certainly guide me.’” [Surah az-Zukhruf 43:26]

And Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) also mentions that Ibraheem (عليه السلام) said,

“‘Do you see that which you have been worshipping, you and your fathers before you? For they are (all) enemies to me except the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds (Allah).’” [Surah ash-Shua’ra 26:75-77]

In the previous ayaat, we find that the Prophet Ibraheem (عليه السلام) is proclaiming his enmity and separation from all the other false gods which his people worshipped, and then confirming his worship of Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) who is the only One worthy to be worshipped.

These verses of the Qur’an and others beside them show that the previous mushrikeen(idolators) used to worship Allah (سبحانه وتعالى); however they used to associate and take others partners besides Him. Therefore, if Ibraheem (عليه السلام) only declared his complete rejection(bara’a) of all that the mushrikeen had worship without excepting the Creator (سبحانه وتعالى), this would imply that Ibraheem (عليه السلام) also was rejecting Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). However, as we mentioned, Ibraheem (عليه السلام) was clear in his assertion that he is free from all that they took as objects of worship besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى).

Secondly: In the definition we made mention, ‘…have the right…’ The purpose of this statement is to exclude all those false gods which are worshipped instead of Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) without having any attributes which grant them the right to be worshipped. They neither have the ability nor the functions to be included as gods encompassing the essence ofulouhiyyah (divinity) which would afford them the right to be worshipped instead of, or along side Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). Some one may state that we do find other gods and Tawagheet which are worshipped besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى), how do we answer this? We say, you are correct that there are many things which are worshipped besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). However, each and every one of these objects do not have the attributes nor the qualities to be considered as objects of worship. In fact they are being worshipped falsely. Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) has all the attributes and the functions of ulouhiyyah such as Creating, Providing, giving life and taking it etc. which makes Him have the only claim for worship and the only One we must direct all our acts of worship to.

Thirdly: The definition of the Shahadah we stated exposes the falsity of accepting the understanding which unfortunately most of the Muslims have today, that, ‘There is no god but Allah,’ solely means there is no Khaaliq (Creator), no Daar (Harmer), no Naafi (Benefiter), no Raaziq (Provider), no Mumeet (causes death), no Muhyee (cause life) and no Maalik (Sovereign) except Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). This definition, even if it may be correct from the angle that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) is the One and only who is described with all these Names and Attributes, it does not relate to what the essence of Shahadah was meant to be. The evidence for this is that the Mushrikeen of old used to confirm such facts that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) had these attributes and did not disagree with the Prophets (عليهم السلام) in this matter. However, they disagreed with the Prophets regarding who was worthy of worship and therefore would offer worship to their gods and idols besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) in full knowledge that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) was al-Khaaliq (the Creator), and al-Maalik (Sovereign)!

In spite of their belief in Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) they were still considered Mushrikeen (associators) and Kuffar (disbelievers) who were deserving of being fought against by the Prophets and Messengers (عليهم السلام).

As Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says in the Qur’an,

“If you ask them, who is it that created the heavens and the earth. They will certainly say, ‘(Allah)’” [Surah al-Luqman 31:25]

And He (سبحانه وتعالى) also said,

“Say: ‘To whom belong the earth and all things therein if you know?!’ They will say, ‘To Allah.’ Say: ‘Yet will you not receive admonition?’” [Surah al-Mu’minoon 23:84-85]

Subsequently, any person who takes the Shahadah believing that it only carries the above meaning has not understood the Shahadah correctly as ordered by Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) and His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم); and this testimony will not benefit him in the Hereafter and there is no doubt that they are still from the disbelievers.

Fourthly: The testimony of faith also comprises the complete tawheed in all its forms namely, Tawheed al-Ulouhiyyah (the Onesness in Divinity), Tawheed al-Rubobiyyah (Oneness in Lordship) and Tawheed al-Asma was Sifaat (Oneness in Names and Attributes) [1]

Fifthly: What we see nowadays is that many people including the Tawaagheet have memorised the testimony of faith (Shahadah) as we have defined previously, such that if one were to ask them regarding the meaning of such a testimony they would reply swiftly, without hesitation that, ‘there is no one worthy of worship except Allah (سبحانه وتعالى)!!’ They bring forth such a definition without correctly pondering upon what it means nor considering the consequences and duties attached with it. They give you such a response whilst simultaneously worshipping other gods besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). They answer whilst they themselves are objects of worships besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). They respond by words only, devoid of meaning, such that they can deflect and protect themselves from the attacks or accusations of ignorance by others.

The example of such people is like the one who states the Shahadah but does not understand what he is saying or like the one who states it but does not carry out any of its duties or obligations. The mere statement of the Shahadah will be of no benefit for such people, nor for the one who has simply memorised it, nor will it protect them from the accusation of others in this life and the hereafter.

[1] The false claimants to Salafiyyah (who are really the Scholars of Irjaa’) claim that the callers to Tawheed of this age have invented a fourth division of Tawheed which they call Tawheed ul-Haakimiyah (Oneness is Ruling / Judgement). My answer is that this false allegation is full of lies and deceptions for the following reasons: firstly, this type of Tawheed which is known as Tawheed al-Haakimiyah is correct and one’s emaan cannot be complete except by believing in it. It essential means making Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) One in matters relating to ruling and legislation. To Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) belongs the right to ordain the destiny and the right to lain down legislation. Nothing from creation can associate themselves with Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) in these matters. In the way that the creation and managing of all things is for Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) alone, similarly, all matters of judgement and command is for Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) alone.

This definition of Tawheed al-Haakimiyah has numerous evidences backing it; for example when Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says,

“The command is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but He: that is the right religion, but most men do not understand” [Surah Yusuf 12:40],

and He (سبحانه وتعالى) says,

Nor does anybody share with His Command” [Surah Kahf 18:26] 

and He (سبحانه وتعالى) said,

 “(Where) Allah commands, there is none to put back His Command” [Surah ar-Rad 13:41] 

and He (سبحانه وتعالى) said,

“Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah” [Surah al-Maida 5:51] 

and He (سبحانه وتعالى) said,

“For Allah commands as He pleases” [Surah Maida 5:1] 

and He (سبحانه وتعالى) said,

“Whenever you differ in a matter, the final decision is with Allah (سبحانه وتعالى)” [Surah al-Shura 42:10]

and He (سبحانه وتعالى) said,

“No! By your Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make you the judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.” [Surah an-Nisa’ 4:65].

And it is reported in a Saheeh hadith that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) is the Judge and to Him (alone) returns the judgement.” These are but a few of the numerous texts which indicate and provide evidence for Tawheed al-Haakimiyah. Whosoever rejects this type of tawheed rejects Emaan (belief) in its totality and discards the Quranic evidences we have mentioned above.

Secondly, no one who makes mentions of Tawheed al-Haakimiyah necessitates that it is made a compulsory fourth category in addition to the three agreed upon. In fact the concept of al-Haakimiyah transcends all three levels, with aspects of it applying to Ar-Ruboobiyah, Al-Ulouhiyyah and also to al-Asmaa wa-Sifaat. However, we must note that when the shirk of legislating by other than what Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) has revealed and arbitrating to the laws and orders of the Tawaagheet, has become widespread amongst this Ummah it becomes incumbent upon the Muslims to warn and highlight this aspect of al-Haakimiyah to their fellow brethren. One can equate the statement of saying, ‘Tawheed al-Haakimiyah’ to those who call the people to be aware of ‘Tawheed ul-Talab wa Dua’ (Oneness of seeking help from and asking Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) alone), or the ‘Tawheed of Mahaba wa Ta’aah’ (Oneness of loving and obedience to Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) alone) amongst other examples whenever you find the Muslims disregarding these aspects of Tawheed and instead associating with Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) in their actions. This is indeed the correct way as the Ulema have mentioned. However, we have never found one scholar accuse that by stating such types of Tawheed you are bringing an additional fourth or fifth type of Tawheed and innovating in this matter. Rather the one who brings such terms relating to Tawheed does so to give importance of the matter in view of the lack of knowledge of the people and their need to realise these fundamental aspects of the Deen. If this is the real intent and purpose then there is no harm in mentioning it as a separate catergory. Indeed, many of the people in our day and age when you tell them, ‘Do not forget Tawheed al-Ulouhiyah’ do not understand what you mean. However, if you explain it a different way making mention of its details such as saying, ‘Be mindful of Tawheed ud-Dua (petition) wa Talab (asking)’ or ‘Be mindful of Tawheed ul-Mahaba (love) and that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) is the only One we are allowed to love for His own sake’ one finds it easier to understand and appreciate. This is the same reason why people make mention of Tawheed al-Haakimiyah to remind the people that the rule and judgement is for Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) alone and He has no partners in it.

If you understand the matter in this way, then you can realise the grave mistake which befalls the scholars of Irjaa who wish to lessen the importance of this aspect of Tawheed and Emaan. They wish to deceive the people telling them that the crimes that the Tawagheet in charge over our countries in changing the law and order from that of Allah’s (سبحانه وتعالى) Shariah to the law of Kufr (disbelief) is not so great that it affects one’s Tawheed and Emaan, nor does it affect one’s Aqeedah as such an action does not fit into one of the three divisions of Tawheed, nor is there any such thing as Tawheed al-Haakimiyah; consequently, one is not allowed to declare such people disbelievers making takfeer upon them!

Unfortunately, such persons do not do this for the purpose of sincerely seeking the truth but rather do so to fight on behalf of the tyrants in charge over our countries; lessening their crimes and beautifying their situation in the eyes of the people. And if ever you seek such people, you can almost guarantee to find them seated at the gates of the rulers vying for any scraps and morsels which are tossed at them.

At this juncture I would like to mention that on one occasion I was in the company of one of those Ulema of Irjaa and I warned him from what I called, “Ash-Shirk ul-Qusoor” (associating of the palaces as partners besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى)). He did not rest except to reject such a notion asking, ‘Where did you bring this type of Shirk from?… What is your evidence stating it?… We only know about ash-Shirk ul-Quboor! Not a single of our scholars have ever made mention of that type of Shirk!’ So I responded by asking him where does he get his evidence to back up the concept of Shirk ul-Quboor (the associating with Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) which takes place at the graves). He answered, ‘When people begin to worship the graves from the angle of asking assistance, blessings or making dua’a at them then they are committing association (shirk) and therefore we call it Shirk ul-Quboor’. I told him that he spoke the truth and that he should apply the same principal for the Palace. He replied, ‘How do the people worship the Palaces so that we can call it a form of Shirk?’ I replied that the palaces are worshipped besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) because the people refer and arbitrate to the laws and orders which emanate from them and their inhabitants, instead of the Law of Allah (سبحانه وتعالى). And that it is worshipped besides Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) by people making allegiance (Walaa) to it and it’s tyrannical inhabitants and protecting them come what may until they die. It is worshipped from the angle of the people’s fear and dread of both it and it’s inhabitants; some people even fear the palace more than they fear their graves! It is also worshipped by those sick hearted people whose hearts are inclined towards it in the hope that they can get some faulty material benefit.

Just think for a moment about the statements we hear from the general public and the media which talk about, ‘the guards of the palace’, ‘the soldiers of the palace’, ‘the servants of the palace’, ‘that we should offer our allegiance and obedience to the palace’, ‘this is what the palace has passed’, ‘the peace and security of the palace,’ which if we truly investigate their meanings we find the stench of Shirk permeating such words! Everything we have mentioned is from the actions of Shirk when one directs them to or alongside other than Allah (سبحانه وتعالى).


Ten Types Of Kufr


The following information was excerpted from the appendices to the English translation of Tafsir ibn Kathir.The Quran uses the word Kufr to denote people who cover up or hide realities. The Quran uses this word to identify those who denied Allah’s favours by not accepting His Dominion and Authority. Kufr thus is an antonym for Iman or disbelief in Allah and a Kaafir is a non-believer. This type of Kufr is called “al-Kufr ul-Akbar” or Major Kufr. There are many types of al-Kufr ul-Akbar:

  1. Kufrul-’Inaad: Disbelief out of stubbornness. This applies to someone who knows the truth and admits to knowing the truth and admits to knowing it with his tongue, but refuses to accept it and refrains from making a declaration. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “Throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever.”[50:  24]
  2. Kufrul-Inkaar: Disbelief out of denial. This applies to someone who denies with both heart and tongue. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “They recognize the favors of Allah, yet they deny them. Most of them are disbelievers.”[16: 83]
  3. Kufrul-Kibr: Disbelief out of arrogance and pride. The disbelief by the devils (Iblees, Satan) is an example of this type of Kufr.
  4. Kufrul-Juhood: Disbelief out of rejection.This applies to someone who acknowledges the truth in his heart, but rejects it with his tongue. This types of kufr is applicable to those who calls themselves Muslims but who reject any necessary and accepted norms of Islam such as Salaat and Zakaat. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “They denied them (our signs) even though their hearts believed in them , out of spite and arrogance.”[27: 14]
  5. Kufrul-Nifaaq: Disbelief out of hypocrisy.This applies to someone who pretends to be a believer but conceals his disbelief. Such a person is called a Munafiq or hypocrite. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “Verily the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of Hell. You will find no one to help them.”[4: 145]
  6. Kufrul-Istihaal: Disbelief out of trying to make Haram into Halal. This applies to someone who accepts as lawful (Halal) that which Allah has made unlawful (Haram) like alcohol or adultery. Only Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala has the prerogative to make things Halal and Haram and those who seek to interfere with His right are like rivals to Him and therefore fall outside the boundaries of faith.
  7. Kufrul-Kurh: Disbelief out of detesting any of Allah’s Subhanahu Wata’ala commands. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “Perdition (destruction) has been consigned to those who disbelieve and He will render their actions void. This is because they are averse to that which Allaah has revealed so He has made their actions fruitless.”[47: 8-9]
  8. Kufrul-Istihzaha: Disbelief due to mockery and derision. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “Say: Was it at Allaah, His signs and His apostles that you were mocking? Make no excuses. You have disbelieved after you have believed.”[9: 65-66]
  9. Kufrul-I’raadh: Disbelief due to avoidance. This applies to those who turn away and avoid the truth. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “And who is more unjust than he who is reminded of his Lord’s signs but then turns away from them. Then he forgets what he has sent forward (for the Day of Judgement).”[18: 57]
  10. Kufrul-Istibdaal: Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allah’s Laws. This could take the form of:

a. Rejection of Allah’s law (Shari’ah) without denying it

b. Denial of Allah’s law and therefore rejecting it, or

c. Substituting Allah’s laws with man-made laws. Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “Or have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed.” [42: 8] Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala says: “Say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely (that) is lawful and this is forbidden so as to invent a lie against Allah. Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah will never prosper.” [16: 116]


The Meaning of At-Tāghūt


Having presented the evidence indicating how declaring disbelief in the Tāghūt is a fundamental condition for the correctness of one’s Eemān, we must now study what the definition of Tāghūt is so that we know what is included as Tāghūt and what is not. And we also need to study the characteristics of how to declare disbelief in Tāghūt so that we know how to distinguish between a person who truly declares disbelief in Tāghūt amongst those who do not.

The definition of at-Tāghūt is as follows,

‘All things that are worshipped besides Allah (swt) even from a single aspect of worship, and he is accepting of that status is a Tāghūt.’

The specification of, ‘…is accepting…’ is to exclude the Prophets (as), the Angels and the Sāliheen, those who the people may worship besides Allah (swt), them from being described as Tāghūt as they obviously reject being worshipped besides Allah (swt) and prohibited people for doing such.

We can conclude from the above definition that whatever is worshipped from the angle of being prostrated to (sujood) or bowed towards (rukou’) is a Tāghūt. Whoever is worshipped from the angle of Du’a and requesting (talab) besides Allah (swt) is a Tāghūt. Whoever is worshipped from the angle of fear (khouf) and hope (rajā’) besides Allah (swt) is a Tāghūt. Whoever is worshipped from the angle of obedience (ta’ah) and arbitration (tahākum) besides Allah (swt) is a Tāghūt. Whoever is worshipped from the angle of love (mahaba), allegiance (wala’a) and disassociation (bara’a) besides Allah (swt) is a Tāghūt.

Everything that is worshipped for its own sake is Tāghūt and under this definition comes the rulers, the priests and monks, scholars, leaders of political parties amongst others. The one who follows such peoples for their own sake are worshipping Tawagheet besides Allah (swt) knowingly or unknowingly.

Similarly everything that is loved for its own sake instead of Allah (swt) is a Tāghūt. The object which is loved for its own sake will specify who you should make allegiance to and whom you should hate without caring for what Allah (swt) has ordered; nor whether such requests agree with truth or falsehood.

Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah commented,

“If a person who is worshipped besides Allah (swt) does not reject such a status he becomes Tāghūt. And the Prophet (saw) called the idols Tawagheet in a Saheeh hadith when he (saw) said, ‘The one who follows the worshippers of Tawagheet are themselves Tawagheet.’ The one who is obeyed in transgressing Allah’s (swt) order, or the one who is obeyed in a matter which is not based upon the guidance but acceptable to the people, if it contravenes the order of Allah (swt) then he is a Tāghūt. For this reason those people who arbitrate to other than the Qur’an are called Tāghūt. And Allah (swt) called Firaoun and the people of Ā’d Tughāt.” [Ibn Taymiyah, Fatwa Vol 28 Pg 200.]

Ibn Qayyim said,

“The Tāghūt are all things that go beyond their boundaries in terms of being worshipped, followed or obeyed. Therefore, the Tāghūt are everyone that the people go to arbitrate instead of Allah (swt) or His Prophet (saw), or they worship besides Allah (swt), or their follow upon guidance other than from Allah (swt), or they follow them blindly even in matters which are obedience to Allah (swt). These are examples of Tawagheet of the world. If you think about the situation of the people of this time, you would find that most of them have left the worship of Allah (swt) to worship these Tawagheet; and have left the arbitration to Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw) to arbitrate to the Tāghūt; as well as leaving following and obeying the Prophet (saw) to obey the Tawagheet and their followers.”

If this was the situation at the time of Ibn Qayyim what about the current times we live in? The various types and forms of Tawagheet have increased manifest fold. The divine texts from the Sunnah indicate that there is not a generation except that the one following it is worse. We ask Allah (swt) to protect us and give us a good ending!

Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab commented,

“Tāghūt generally is anything that is worshipped besides Allah (swt) and is happy with such worship including the one who is worshipped, followed or obeyed besides Allah (swt); these are all Tāghūt.”

And Sayyid Qutb said in ‘The Shade of the Qur’an’ regarding the verse, ‘some He transformed into apes and swine and those who worshipped Tāghūt’ [5:60],

“The Tāghūt is any authority that contravenes the ruling of Allah (swt); and any judgement that is not based upon the Shari’ah of Allah (swt). Any assault against the Ulouhiyyah (divinity) or Hākimiyyah (right to rule and judge) of Allah (swt) is the worst type of assault and the most evil Tughyān. Such type of action fully enters under Tāghūt by word and meaning. The Jews and Christians (Ahl Kitāb) never physically worshipped their Priests and Monks; however they followed their judgements and laws, instead of the law of Allah (swt) yet Allah (swt) called them Mushrikeen (associators). They are worshippers of Tāghūt meaning that they are following an authority that went beyond its boundaries. They do not worship it by the meaning of making prostration or bowing to it; however they are worshipping them by the meaning of following and obedience. Such type of actions removes one from the worship of Allah (swt) and subsequently even from the Deen of Allah (swt).”

So be careful O servant of Allah from being a worshipper of Tāghūt, or from their helpers, knowingly or unknowingly as it would destroy your deeds and make you loose whatever you have in this life and the hereafter!

Islamic Books on Manhaj

▷ Click on the links below to read/download

Dua The Weapon Of The Believer
Al Hisnul Hasin
Power of Dua
Essential Duas in the life of a Muslim
Islamic Etiquette
Islamic Etiquettes by Zubair Abdul Majeed
Etiquettes of Life In Islam By Mohammad Yusuf Islahi
Jihad in the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Book of Jihad
The Virtues of Jihad
39 Ways To Serve And Participate In Jihad
Thawaabit ‘ala Darb al-Jihad 
Jihad: The Method for Khilafah
The Centrality of the Khilafah in Islam
Accountability in Khilafah
Minhaj e Talibin | Laws of Shariah (Shafi)
Mukhtasar Minhaj Al-Qasideen (Towards the Hereafter)
Man-Made Laws Vs. Shari’ah
Islamic Sharia Law
Purification Of The Soul: Concept, Process And Means
In the Early Hours (Reflections on Spiritual and Self Development))